Malabar Manual by William Logan

Post Reply
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

Malabar Manual by William Logan

Post posted by VED »

Image
Image


1. COMMENTARY
CLICK HERE
2. Malabar Manual

Image

Image

Image

Go back function

In a computer browser:

If you go to any other location or page by clicking on the links given here, you can come back to the previous location by keeping the Alt key on the keyboard pressed down and then pressing the Back arrow on the keyboard.

In a mobile browser:

If you go to any other location or page by clicking on the links given here, you can come back to the previous location by tapping on the Back arrow seen at the bottom of the mobile display screen.
Image
Last edited by VED on Tue Feb 20, 2024 12:59 pm, edited 32 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

Profile

Post posted by VED »

0 #

William Logan's Malabar is popularly known as ‘Malabar Manual’. It is a huge book of more than 500,000 words. It might not be possible for a casual reader to imbibe all the minute bits of information from this book.
Image


However, in this commentary of mine, I have tried to insert a lot of such bits and pieces of information, by directly quoting the lines from ‘Malabar’. On these quoted lines, I have built up a lot of arguments, and also added a lot of explanations and interpretations. I do think that it is much easy to go through my Commentary than to read the whole of William Logan's book 'Malabar'. However, the book, Malabar, contains much more items, than what this Commentary can aspire to contain.

This book, Malabar, will give very detailed information on how a small group of native-Englishmen built up a great nation, by joining up extremely minute bits of barbarian and semi-barbarian geopolitical areas in the South Asian Subcontinent.

This Commentary of mine is of more than 240,000 words. I have changed the erroneous US-English spelling seen in the text, into Englander-English (English-UK). It seemed quite incongruous that an English book should have such an erroneous spelling. Maybe it is part of the doctoring done around 1950.

At the end of each chapter, if there is space, a picture depicting the real looks of the ordinary peoples of this subcontinent is placed. Most of them do not represent the social leaders of the place of those times. Just the oppressed peoples of the land.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:09 pm, edited 5 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

Words

Post posted by VED »

q #


Al-Biruni (Circa: 4 September 973 – 9 December 1048):
We can only say, stupidity is an illness for which there is no cure. They (the peoples of south-Asia) believe that there is no country as great as theirs, no nation like theirs, no kings like theirs, no religion like theirs, no science like theirs.

They are arrogant, foolish and vain, self-conceited, and indifferent. They are by nature miserly in sharing their knowledge, and they take the greatest of efforts to hide it from men of another caste among their own people, and also, of course, from foreigners.

According to their firm belief, there is no other country on earth but theirs, no other race of man but theirs, and no human being besides them have any knowledge or science and such other things.

Their conceit is such that, if you inform them of any science or scholar in Khurasan and Persia, they will define you as an idiot and a liar. If they travel and mix with other people in other nations, they would change their mind fast. ....


Quote from Malabar by William Logan, on the quality of the historical records of the South Asian Subcontinent:

... and even in genuinely ancient deeds it is frequently found that the facts to be gathered from them are unreliable owing to the deeds themselves having been forged at periods long subsequent to the facts which they pretend to state.


Matthew 7:6 Bible - King James Version:

Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you.



Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:08 pm, edited 5 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

CONTENTS

Post posted by VED »

contents #


CLICK HERE
Go to Malabar Manual




Please note that on a computer browser, ALT & Back arrow, will be move the page to previous view / location. On mobile devices, touching the Back arrow found on the bottom of the screen will move the page to the previous view / locatioon.

COMMENTARY CONTENTS

Cover page

Book profile

Ancient quotes relevent to South Asia


1. My aim

2. The information divide

3. The layout of the book

4. My own insertions

5. The first impressions about the contents

6. India and Indians

7. An acute sense of not understanding

8. Entering a terrible social system

9. The doctoring and the manipulations

10. Missed or unmentioned, or fallacious

11. NONSENSE

12. Nairs / Nayars

13. A digression to Thiyyas

14. Designing the background

15. Content of current-day populations

16. Nairs / Nayars

17. The Thiyya quandary

18. The terror that perched upon the Nayars

19. The entry of the Ezhavas

20. Converted Christian Church exertions

21. Ezhava-side interests

22. The takeover of Malabar

23. Keralolpathi

24. About the language Malayalam

25. Superstitions

26. Misconnecting with English

27. Feudal language

28. Claims to great antiquity

29. Piracy

30. Caste system

31. Slavery

32. The Portuguese

33. The Dutch

34. The French

35. The ENGLISH

36. Kottayam

37. Mappillas

38. Mappilla outrages on Nayars & Hindus

39. Mappilla outrage list

40. What is repulsive about the Muslims?

41. Hyder Ali

42. Sultan Tippu

43. Women

44. Laccadive Islands

45. Ali Raja

46. Kolathiri

47. Kadathanad

48. The Zamorin and other apparitions

49. The Jews

50. Social customs

51. Hinduism

52. Christianity

53. Pestilence, famine etc.

54. British Malabar vs. Travancore kingdom

55. Judicial

56. Revenue and administrative changes

57. Rajas

58. Forests

59. Henry Valentine Conolly

60. Miscellaneous notes

61. Culture of the land

62. The English efforts

63. Famines

64. Oft-mentioned objections

65. Photos and picture of the Colonial times

66. Payment for the Colonial deeds

67. Calculating the compensation


Image





Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 4:29 pm, edited 50 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

1. My aim

Post posted by VED »

1 #
First of all, I would like to place on record what my interest in this book is. I do not have any great interest in the minor details of Malabar or Travancore. Nor about the various castes and their aspirations, claims and counterclaims.

My interest is basically connected to my interest in the English colonial rule in the South Asian Subcontinent and elsewhere. I would quite categorically mention that it is ‘English colonialism’ and not British Colonialism (which has a slight connection to Irish, Gaelic and Welsh (Celtic language) populations).

Image

Even though I am not sure about this, I think the book Malabar was made as part of the Madras Presidency government’s endeavour to create a district manual for each of the districts of Madras Presidency. William Logan was a District Collector of the Malabar district of Madras Presidency. The time period of his work in the district is given in this book as:

6th June 1875 to 20th March 1876 (around 9 months) as Ag. Collector. From 9th May 1878 to 21st April 1879 (around 11 months) as Collector. From 23rd November 1880 to 3rd February 1881 (around 2 months) as Collector. Then from 23rd January 1883 to 17th April 1883 (around 3 months) as Collector. After all this, he is again posted as the Collector from 22nd November 1884.

In this book, the termination date of his appointment is not given. Moreover, I have no idea as to why he had a number of breaks within his tenure as the district Collector of Malabar district.

Since this book is seen as published on the 7th of January 1887, it can safely be assumed that he was working on this book during his last appointment as Collector on the 22nd of November 1884.

From this book no personal information about William Logan, Esq. can be found out or arrived at.

It is seen mentioned in a low-quality content website that he is a ‘Scottish officer’ working for the British government. Even though this categorisation of him as being different from British subjects / citizens has its own deficiencies, there are some positive points that can be attached to it also.

He has claimed the authorship of this book. There are locations where other persons are attributed as the authors of those specific locations. Also, there is this statement: QUOTE: The foot-notes to Mr. Græmo’s text are by an experienced Native Revenue Officer, Mr. P. Karunakara Menon. END OF QUOTE.

The tidy fact is that the whole book has been tampered with or doctored by many others who were the natives of this subcontinent. Their mood and mental inclinations are found in various locations of the book. The only exception might be the location where Logan himself has dealt with the history writing. More or less connected to the part where the written records from the English Factory at Tellicherry are dealt with.

His claim, asserted or hinted at, of being the author of the text wherein he is mentioned as the author is in many parts possibly a lie. In that sense, his being a ‘Scottish officer’, and not an ‘English officer’ might have some value.

The book Malabar ostensibly written by William Logan does not seem to have been written by him. It is true that there is a very specific location where it is evident that it is Logan who has written the text. However, in the vast locations of the textual matter, there are locations where it can be felt that he is not the author at all.

There are many other issues with this book. I will come to them presently. Let me first take up my own background with regard to this kind of books and scholarly writings.

I need to mention very categorically that I am not a historian or any other kind of person with any sort of academic scholarship or profundity. My own interest in this theme is basically connected to my interest in the English colonial administration and the various incidences connected to it.

I have made a similar kind of work with regard to a few other famous books. I am giving the list of them here:

1. Travancore State Nanual by V Nagam Aiya

2. Native Life in Travancore by Rev. Samuel Nateer F.L.S

3. Castes & Tribes of Southern India Vol 1 by Edgar Thurston

4. Omens and superstitions of southern India by Edgar Thurston

5. The Native races of South Africa by George W. Stow, F.G.S., F.R.G.S.

6. Oscar Wilde and Myself by Alfred Bruce Douglas

7. Mein Mampf by Adolf Hitler – a demystification!

Of the above books, the first six I have recreated into much readable digital books. After that I added a commentary on the contents of each book.

For the fifth book, I have only written a commentary. No attempt was made to recreate it into a more readable digital book. For, the book is available elsewhere in many formats in very highly readable forms. Both digital as well as print version.

Why I have mentioned this much about the way I work on these books is to convey the idea that when I work on a book to create a readable digital version, I get to read the text, invariably.

Image

In the case of this book, Malabar, I have gone through each line and paragraph. It is possible that I have missed a lot of errors in my edited version. For, I did not get ample time to proofread. For, taking out the text from very faint, scanned versions of the original book was a very time-taking work. The work was tedious. And apart from that, getting to reformat the text is an extremely slow-paced work.

But the word-by-word working on the text gave me the opportunity to go through the text in a manner which no casual reader might do. I could enter in almost every nook and corner of the textual matter. And many minor, and yet significant information have come into my notice.
Since I have done a similar work on Travancore State Manual by V Nagam Aiya and on Native Life in Travancore by Rev. Samuel Mateer, I have had the opportunity to understand the contemporary happenings of those times in the next door native-king ruled kingdom of Travancore.

Apart from all that, I do personally have a lot of information on this landscape and how it experienced and reacted to the English rule. It goes without saying that the current-day formal history assertions about the English colonial rule are totally misleading and more or less absolute lies. Even the geographical frame on which this history has been built upon is wrong and erroneous.

I have been hearing the words to the effect: Logan said this or that in his Malabar Manual, on many things concerning the history and culture of Malabar. However, it was only in this year, that is, 2017, that I got a full page copy of his Two volume book.

Even though this book is named Malabar, it is generally known as the Malabar Manual in common parlance. I think this is due to the fact that this book must have been a part of the District Manuals of Madras (circa 1880), which were written about the various districts, which were part of the Madras Presidency of the English-rule period in the Subcontinent. In fact, this is the understanding one gets from reading a reference to this book in Travancore State Manual written by V Nagam Aiya. In fact, Nagam Aiya says thus about his own book: ‘I was appointed to it with the simple instruction that the book was to be after the model of the District Manuals of Madras’.

I initiated my work on this book without having any idea as to what it contained, other than a general idea that it was a book about the Malabar district of Madras Presidency.

However, as I progressed with the work and the reading, a very ferocious feeling entered into me that this is a very contrived and doctored version of events and social realities. In the various sections of the book, wherein there is no written indication that it is not written by Logan, I have very clearly found inclinations and directions of leanings shifting. In certain areas, they are totally opposite to what had been the direction of leaning in a previous writing area.

It is very easily understood that words do have direction codes not only in their code area, but also in the real world location. A slight change of adjective can shift the direction of loyalty, fidelity and fealty from one entity to another. A hue of a hint or suggestion can shift this direction. With a single word or adjective or usage, placed in an appropriate location with meticulous precision, an individual’s bearing and aspirations can be differently defined. An explanation for an action can be changed from a grand action to a gratuitous deed.

Only a very minor part of this book could be the exact textual input of William Logan. Other parts of the book which are not mentioned as of others can actually be the writings of a few others.

This book has been written for the English administrators. From that perspective, there would be no attempt on the part of William Logan to fool or deceive the English administrators, with regard to the realities of the inputs of English administration. This is the only location in this book, where everything is honest.

In all the other parts, half-truths, partial truths, partial lies, total lies and total suppression of information are very rampant. Moreover, there might even be total misrepresentation of events and populations. The natives of the subcontinent who have very obviously participated in the creation of this book have made use of the opportunity presented to them to insert their own native-land mutual jealousies, repulsions, antipathies etc. in a most subtle manner. This very understated and very fine and slender manner of inserting errors into the textual content has been resorted to, just to be in sync with the general gentleness of all English colonial stances.

That was the first attempt at doctoring the contents of this book.

There was again a second attempt at doctoring the contents of this book. That was in 1951. On reading the text itself I had a terrific feeling that some terrible manipulation and doctoring had been accomplished on this book much after it had been first published in 1887. For, this book was actually an official publication of the British colonial administration in the Madras Presidency. However, the flavour of a British / English colonial book was not there in the digital copy of the book which I had in my hands. This copy had been a re-edited and reprinted work, published in 1951.

Some very fine aura of an English colonial book was seen to have been wiped out. Even though it could be quite intriguing as to why an original book had to be edited and various minor but quite critical changes had been inserted into this book, there are very many reason that why such malicious actions have been done. In fact, after the formation of three nations inside the South Asian Subcontinent, there have been many kinds of manipulations on the recorded history of the location. This has been done to suit the policy aims of the low-class nations that have sprung up in the region.

Image

On checking the beginning part of the book, I found this writing:

QUOTE: In the year 1948, in view of the importance of the book, the Government ordered that it should be reprinted. The work of reprinting was however delayed, to some extent, owing to the pressure of work in the Government Press. While reprinting the spelling of the place names have, in some cases, been modernized.
Egmore, B. S. BALIGA,
17th September 1951 Curator, Madras Record Office
END OF QUOTE

So, that much admission from a government employee is there.

A few decades back, I was staying in a metropolitan city of India. This city had been the headquarters of one of the Presidencies of British-India. I need to explain what a Presidency is. For there might be readers who do not understand this word.

The English colonial rule in the South Asian Subcontinent actually was centred on three major cities. Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. Even though the colonial rule is generally known as British-rule and the location as British-India, there are certain basic truths to be understood. The so-called British-rule was more or less an English-rule, centred on a rule by England. It was not a Celtic language or Celtic population rule.

William Logan, who purports to be the author of this book, is not an Englishman. So to that extent, he is removed from the actual fabulous content of the English-rule in the subcontinent.

The second point to mention is that even though there is a general misunderstanding that the whole of the subcontinent was part of British-India and British-Indian administration, the rough truth is that most of the locations outside the afore-mentioned three Presidencies were not part of British-India or British-Indian administration.

However, due to the extremely fabulous content quality of the British-Indian administration, as well as the quaint refined quality, dignified way of behaviour, honourableness, sense of commitment and dependability of the English administration, all the other native-kingdoms which existed in the near proximity of the Presidencies inside the subcontinent, more or less adhered intimately to British-India without any qualms. For, there are no self-depreciating verbal usages of servitude in English. In the native feudal-languages of the location, such a connection would have affected their stature very adversely in the verbal codes. [Please read the chapter on Feudal Languages in this Commentary)

In the local culture, the exact traditional history is that of backstabbing, treachery, usurping of power, going back on word, double-crossing &c. When a very powerful political entity appeared on the scene, which was seen quite bereft of all these sinister qualities, everyone understood that it was best to connect to this entity.

However, this was to lead these kingdoms to their disaster and doom later on. For, a general feeling spread that all these kingdoms were part of British-India. Even in England this was the general feeling. An extremely disparaging usages such as ‘Princely state’ and ‘Indian Prince’ came to be used in English language to define them, due to this misunderstanding.

Actually the independent kingdoms were not ‘Princely states’. Nor were their kings mere ‘Indian princes’. They were kings. For instance, Travancore was not a Princely State. It was an independent kingdom. It was true that it was in alliance with British-India. To use this term ‘alliance’ to mention Travancore as bereft of its own sovereignty, is utter nonsense.

For, it is like saying that Kuwait is part of USA just because it is under the US protection. Or Japan, and many other similar low-class nations, which have made use of a close contact with the US to bolster up their own nations.

Travancore did mention its own stature as an independent kingdom very forcefully in a legal dispute with the Madras government.

Dewan Madava Row wrote thus to the government of the Madras Presidency in 1867: QUOTE:
(1 The jurisdiction in question is an inherent right of sovereignty
(2 The Travancore State being one ruled by its own Ruler possesses that right
(3 It has not been shown on behalf of the British Government that the Travancore State ever ceded this right because it was never ceded, and
END OF QUOTE

Image

However, for the independent kingdoms in the subcontinent, this close connection with British-India later turned out to be a suicidal stranglehold. For, in the immediate aftermath of World War 2, a total madman and insane criminal became the Prime Minister of Britain. In his totally reckless administration that lasted around five years, he tumbled down the English Empire, all over the world.

In the South Asian subcontinent, the British-Indian army was divided into two and handed over to two politicians who had very good connection to the British Labour Party leaders.

These two leaders used the might of the British-Indian army which had come into their own hands to more or less run roughshod over all the native-kingdoms of the subcontinent. They were all forcefully added to the two newly-created nations, Pakistan and India. This action might need to be discussed from a very variety of perspectives. However, this book does not aim to go into that detail.

However, the dismantling of the English-rule was disastrous to the people. In the northern parts of the subcontinent, which is mainly the Hindi hinterland, a communal confrontation took place between the Muslims and the non-Muslim populations. Around 10 lakh (1 million) people were slaughtered. Burned, and hacked. Towns and villages which had lived in total peace and prosperity under the English-rule became battlegrounds. No house or household was safe. People had the heartbreaking experience of seeing their youngsters broken down physically.

This was how the two nations of Pakistan and India were founded. Compared to the other parts of the subcontinent, the average social-quality of Hindi-speakers is low. This itself is a very fabulous illustrative point. For, on seeing Hindi films one might get a feeling that the Hindi-speakers are of a very resounding quality. Even native-English nations are being befooled by the Bombay (Hindi) film world, with the cunning use of fabulous Hindi films.

However, the truth remains that all over the subcontinent, including Pakistan, India and Bangladesh, the lower-placed sections of the feudal-language speaking sections of the populations do suffer from a mental and social suppression that cannot be seen or understood in English.

Now coming back to the madman who dismantled the English-Empire in the subcontinent and elsewhere, I personally do not know what retribution he received from providence. However, for the terrible suffering he let loose all around the world in general and in the South Asian Subcontinent in particular, he deserves to rot in hell till eternity. Not only him, but all those who support his evil deed also deserve just retribution from Nemesis.

Let me go back to the point I left. I was staying in a Metropolitan city in India which had been a headquarters city of one British-Indian Presidency, a few decades back. I was quite young. I had a casual conversation with an old man who had been a contemporary of the English-rule period in the city.
I asked him about the general quality of the Englishmen who had been officers in the administration. He said, they were all quite nice. But then, they were cut-off from the people. They had around them a coterie of natives of the subcontinent. These persons were generally the Hindus (Brahmins &c.) and other higher castes. There were lower castes also. However, all of them kept the native-English officers inside a social corridor which they controlled. They acted quite nice and coy to the native-English officers. But actually they were very cunning, and self-centred and had very obvious selfish interests.

This much this man told me. However, the vast amplitude of the information is like this:

The gullible native-English officers acted as per the advice of this cunning coterie. These cunning local vested-interest groups literally fed the native-English officials with their own native-land repulsions, caste hatred, antipathies and religious hatred. And also colluded with the native business interests to influence policy decisions in the sphere of economic and fiscal matters.

Even though, it is true that the native-English officers did in many instances see through their cunning intentions, it is not easy to detach completely from its snares. For, the most powerful weapon of luring and snaring an unwary adversary used in all feudal languages nations, is the weapon of hospitality, and effusive and quite overt friendliness.

In many cases, the native-English officials understood that a native of the subcontinent is at his most dangerous stance, when he acts most friendly and helpful. This is actually a part of the code-work inside feudal languages. I will deal with that later.

Now, why did I mention this idea here?

On reading the ‘Malabar’ written by William Logan, the impression that can spring spontaneously to my mind is of a very gullible native-English administration doing its best and giving its best to a population group which they cannot understand. Actually it is not one population group that they are dealing with. They are actually dealing with a series of population groups, each one them having its own aims and ambitions, which are totally different and antagonistic to various other groups. Even though the native-English go on insisting and try to define the native populations as belonging to one nation, there is no such an idea of a Nation-state in the minds of the populace.

In fact, the very idea of a nation-state is a mad insertion by the native-English.

Image

William Logan was authorised to write this book. He had at his command a lot of native-officials up to the level of the Deputy District Collector to help him. He allowed them to write many notes and articles, which even though he must have edited, have all messed-up the quality of the information.

Logan has the feel of having been taken for a ride. But then, it can be understood that a lot of persons have worked on this book. For, there are a lot of tables and lists. All these can be understood to have been done by other persons. The book is quite huge. It has more than five hundred thousand words (more than 5 lakh words).

It contains a number of footnotes. Many of these foot-notes alludes to or point to or quotes from many ancient or scholarly books. Some of these books are the works of other language writers or travellers.

It is practically impossible for William Logan to have taken up these various books for reading and referring. Travelling in those days was quite a cumbersome action. There were many places where one could go only in a bullock cart.

Beyond all this, this book was written in a manuscript form in those days. There were no computers or any other digital gadgets available. Writing with a quill pen in itself is a very tedious work compared to current-day computer typing. Then comes the need to read and edit and correct. These are all huge labours. A few other people are necessary to do all this.

In addition to all this, William Logan was the District Collector in a district which was incessantly disturbed by communal confrontations between the Hindus and their subordinated populations on one side and Mappillas on the other.

Beyond all this, proper roadways, means of communications, waterway and boating services, administrative set-ups, policing, education, healthcare, drinking water facilities, sanitation, railways, postal services, written codes of laws and judiciary and much else were being set up for the first time in the known history of the location and population. It is only natural to bear in mind that Logan’s mind and time would be required to go into all this also.

So, from all this also it can be presumed that William Logan is not the only person who has written into the text which purports to be his writings. There is very ample indication that even the ‘PREFACE TO VOLUME I’ which purports to be his personal writing was actually some other person’s words. This ‘some other person’ is very clearly a native of the subcontinent.

But then, this action of someone else writing a Foreword or Preface is a common occurrence in the world of book publishing. However, what makes this issue mentionable here is that even in this specific Preface, the same sinister insertion of the vested-interest ideas of a particular section of the population has entered as a sort of an eerie apparition. Actually this ghostly apparition is a ubiquitous presence in almost the entirety of the book, with only one particular section alone being secluded from its presence.

Now, let me mention the words I found on the low-quality content website, to which I had alluded to earlier.

QUOTE: He was conversant in Malayalam, Tamil and Telugu. He is remembered for his 1887 guide to the Malabar District, popularly known as the Malabar Manual. Logan had a special liking for Kerala and its people. END OF QUOTE

It is quite possible that he did know Malayalam, Tamil and Telugu. However, there is no indication in this book that does substantiate this, other than a slight mention of a few Malayalam words. (The location where this is written does not seem to be Logan’s writing). That point does not matter. However, the claim that he was conversant in Malayalam has a major issue. I will take it up later.

The next point is: QUOTE: special liking for Kerala and its people END OF QUOTE
There is nothing in this book that can support a claim of his ‘special liking for the Kerala and its people’. Again, the word ‘Kerala’ has a major issue.

In fact, both the words ‘Malayalam’ and ‘Kerala’ are also part of the sinister doctoring I had mentioned earlier.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:15 pm, edited 8 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

2. The information divide

Post posted by VED »

2 #

There is a huge information divide between native-English speakers and feudal-language speakers. It is possible for feudal-language speakers to understand the very simple social logic of native-English speakers. However, the reverse is not true.

Feudal-language social systems are quite complicated. What is seen on the surface has no connection with reality. Why this is so has to be explained in detail.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:16 pm, edited 3 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

3. The layout of the book

Post posted by VED »

3 #

The original book was published in two volumes. Volume One contains the following Chapters: The District, The people, History and This Land.

The first chapter, The District deals with the physical features, rivers, mountains, the Fauna and Flora, Road, passes, railway, Port facilities etc. The Fauna and Flora section has been written by Rhodes Morgan, F.Z.S., Member of the British Ornithologists Union, District Forest Officer, Malabar.

The second chapter is about the people, population, villages, towns, habitation, rural organisation, language, literature and state of awareness of the people, caste issue and occupation, manners and customs, religions, famines, diseases and treatment.

The third chapter is about History of the location. Commencing from the traditions that gives a hint of the antiquity of the place, it moves on to time when Portuguese traders tried to set up a trading centre here. Then came the Dutch and after them the arrival of the English traders.

The fourth chapter is This Land. In this location, the attempts to understand the land tenures and land revenue systems are seen. The focus is on the English Factory at Tellicherry. The writing moves through the various minor historical incidences that slowly lead to the establishment of an English administrative system in Malabar.

With the exception of the Flora and Fauna section, I think that whole book has ostensibly been written by William Logan. That is the impression that comes out.

The contents of Volume Two are different. It is basically a book of Appendices. Most of them are in the form of tables and lists. However, there are a number of detailed writings also, wherein it is seen that some natives-of-the-subcontinent officials have written narratives, under their own names. The tabular lists include information about Statistics, Animals, Fishes, Birds, Butterflies, Timbre trees, Roads, Port rules, Malayalam proverbs, Mahl vocabulary, and a Collection of deeds. Next is a Glossary with notes and etymological headings attributed to Mr. Græme who was one of the English East India Company officials in Malabar.

After this comes a list of names of the Chief Officers, Residents and Principal Collectors and Collectors who served in Malabar.

Next there are a lot of writings and chapters connected to agriculture and governmental income.

After this there is a List of Malikhana Recipients in Malabar. This more or less means that persons or families or religious institutions that received a sort of monthly or annual pension or some similar kind of monetary support from the English administration. The amount given to each entity is also given.

At the far end of all this comes a number of writings on the various Taluks in Malabar district. It includes the details of some of the Laccadive Islands also. These writings are reasonably descriptive enough.

From the perspective of pure statistical and chronological details, this book could be of very good contents. However, when seen from the underlying spirit that moves throughout the book, there are issues.

The book is clearly not the work or viewpoint one single person. As such to quote from this book, saying William Logan said this or that in his Malabar Manual, might not convey an honest information on what was Logan’s own version of understanding on any particular location.

The only location wherein he (or whoever has written this part) has written in a style, pose and gesture which is quite very steady and not much influenced by the native-land vested interests, in the location where he writes about the history by focusing on the dairy or logbook of the English East India Company Factory at Tellicherry.

If this book is taken up for reading, it would be quite candidly seen that the history of modern Malabar that existed as social mood till around 1975, is connected to Tellicherry. And not to Calicut.

As for Trivandrum having any historical or social connections to Malabar is a theme fit for the understanding of the birdbrains.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:19 pm, edited 3 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

4. My own insertions

Post posted by VED »

4 #

I did get to have a very rudimentary reading when I was placing the text on the MS Word document file. After that I went to place around 180 or more images. These images were mostly taken from online sources. Their image usage licence has been given along with them. This time also I got to read the text.

Image

After these two readings the general layout of the book and its contents are in my head now. However, the details have vanished from my head. But then, I am aware of the various and varying mentalities, spirit and urges that have done their work in this book.

So I will have to take the items one by one. It is definitely going to be a long haul. However, I am used to slow-paced work.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:20 pm, edited 4 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

5. The first impressions about the contents

Post posted by VED »

5 #

The contents of this book (Malabar by William Logan) are about a very miniscule geographical location inside the South Asian Subcontinent. The current-day geopolitical location of this place is the northern parts of the State of Kerala in South India. Even though the place was made into a single district by the English East India Company administration, as of now, the location has been divided into a number of small districts.

Image

Beyond that, till around 1957, this location was a part of the Madras Presidency and then later on after the formation of India, a district of the Madras State. This location had only very minimal connection with the southern parts of current-day Kerala. However, on reading this book, one may not feel so. This book seems to have attempted to create a Kerala-feeling right from the middle of the 1800s. How this could come about should remain a mystery. However, on reading the book with some insights, one might be able to smell a rat. Actually there is more than one item in this book that gives a feeling that there is indeed something fishy about this book, and it’s very aspirations.

The digital copy of this book that came into my possession is the government of India printed version of 1951. It does claim to have made changes into place names to make them to be in sync with the modern names of the places. It seems a silly logic to doctor critical elements in a book of historical importance. Names are like the DNA codes in a genetic code string. A change in them can create so many changes in what the names stands for and what they signify. Connections and directions change.

Image

It would be extremely silly to rename ancient cities with their modern names in history books. However, generally there is an attitude among formal academic historians to do as they please to please the modern political leaders of India. In fact, one can find words like India, Indians etc. cropping up in ancient and medieval histories of the subcontinent. Instead of saying the Moguls or the Rajputs had a fight with some other population group, words like: ‘Then the Indians attacked the Europeans’ &c. are frequently seen.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:20 pm, edited 3 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

6, India and Indians

Post posted by VED »

6 #

Since I have mentioned the words ‘India’ and ‘Indians’, I think I will say a few things about these words:

Image

There was indeed a mention of a land which was commonly identified by the maritime traders and others from other locations as Indic, Inder, Indus, Indies etc. May be more.

Even in the works of Herodotus the word Inder (Indus) is seen to come. It was some kind of remote location in the east from where certain merchandise like Pepper, spices, and many other things were bartered by the traders.

There was no historically known nation as 'India' inside the subcontinent. Even the joining up of the various kingdoms (some 2000 of them, small and big) as subordinates of the Hindi-speaking populations took place only in 1947. Pakistan also took a part of the Indus area and captured the various locations to form Pakistan.

In fact, Indus is in Pakistan and has not much to do with the south, east, or north-eastern parts of the subcontinent.

I do not know if the word 'India' is used in the Puranas, or epics such as Mahabharatha or Ramayana, or if either Sri Rama or Yudhishtar have claimed to be Indian kings. Also, whether such kings as Marthanda Varma, Akbar, Krishna Deva Raya, Karikala or Ashoka have claimed to the Indian kings.

The word 'India' and the location 'India' could be a creation mainly of Continental Europeans. May be the Arab traders, and the Phoenicians also must have used it to denote a trade location.

I feel that Continental Europeans did create four ‘Indias’.

But actually it is Indies; not Indias.

QUOTE: India, however, in those days and long afterwards meant a very large portion of the globe, and which of the Indies it was that Pantænus visited it is impossible to say with certainty ; for, about the fourth century, there were two Indias, Major and Minor. India Minor adjoined Persia. Sometime later there were three Indies — Major, Minor and Tertia. The first, India Major extended from Malabar indefinitely eastward. The second, India Minor embraced the Western Coast of India as far as, but not including, Malabar, and probably Sind, and possibly the Mekran Coast, India Tertia was Zanzibar in Africa. END OF QUOTE.

I think the author is actually talking about ‘Indies’ and not about ‘India’.

‘Major’, ‘Minor’ and ‘Tertia’ Indies had some connection to the subcontinent in parts. As to the fourth one they created, it was in the American continent. In the US, till around 1990, the word 'Indian' was found to connected to the native Red Indians.

The word ‘India’ I feel is like the Jana Gana Mana. Not pointing or focusing on to native-subcontinent origin. [Jana Gana Mana actually points to the Monarch of England in the sense that it had been first used to felicitate the King and Queen of England by none other than the Congress party, when it had been a party of England lovers.]

However, the historical nation connected to the word India is 'British-India' (not any of the ‘Indias’ mentioned above), and is a creation of England and not of Continental Europeans.

However, it did not contain the whole subcontinent. At best only the three Presidencies (Madras, Bombay and Calcutta) and a few other locations were inside it. The rest of the locations which are currently inside India, such as Kashmir, Travancore &c. were taken over under military intimidation or occupation.

Image

As to the word Bharat, Hindustan &c. I am not aware of it being mentioned in world history. Even if they are, well, they are what others use. The pertinent point is, did anyone inside the subcontinent, which includes current-day Pakistan, India and Bangladesh claim that they are Indians, Bharatiyans or Hindustanis in historic days?

I do not have any quarrel with anyone using such words.

However, the joining of the immense kingdoms into a quality nation was the deed of the English East India Company. Before that, there was no India, Pakistan or Bangladesh.

QUOTE: Rufinus, who went to Syria in 371 A.D. and lived at Edessa for 25 years, attested that St. Thomas’ body was brought from India to Edessa and there interred ; but from which of the “Indies” was the body brought, presuming that the relics were still in existence ? END OF QUOTE.
So here there is an admission that word used was actually ‘Indies’ and not ‘India’.

QUOTE: It seems doubtful whether he himself ever visited “Hind” which, among Arabs, was the name applied to Southern India exclusively END OF QUOTE.

Oh, this seems to make a mess of the contention that the word ‘Hind’ was connected to River Indus which was called Sindhu and is currently in Pakistan. It does really look odd that the etymological origin of ‘Hind’ is ‘Sindhu’. But then, scholars know more, and should not be disputed.

QUOTE: About 600 B.C. Scylax, a Greek sent by Darius, had voyaged home by sea from the mouth of the Indus END OF QUOTE.
There would have been others.

QUOTE: Herodotus mentions that the Red Sea trade in frankincense and myrrh, and cinnamon and cassia (the two latter being Malabar products), was in the hands of the Egyptians and Phoenicians, but these traders do not appear to have proceeded beyond the port in Arabia Felix (Aden probably) where these goods were procurable. END OF QUOTE.

The problem in these kinds of understandings is the visualisation of maritime and other trade as one would visualise the English East India Company trade. In most cases, the traders who took goods from Malabar coast would be small traders who did the trader without maintaining any records. It is like the fact that the forest products of Wynad were available in far-off markets, many years ago. The forest dwellers collect them and come down the mountains and sell their wares in crowed oriental market places in Palghat and such other places. These presence of Malabar products in far-off locations should not used to make an understanding that Malabar was a place of high class living standards.

QUOTE: Of India proper Herodotus’ information is scanty, END OF QUOTE.

It should not be acceptable to the Indian academic history. For, there is resounding information in the sterile academic textbooks of ‘India’ being one of the greatest civilisations the world has ever seen. In fact, the students in the Indian schools know that when the people of England were monkeys, there were great cities in ‘India’!

QUOTE: In the end of the fourth century B.C. the Greek writer Ktesias probably alluded to cinnamon, a common product of Malabar, as karpion, a name which seems to have been derived from the Tam. Mai. karuppu or karppu END OF QUOTE.

Image

Image

Actually, this should not prove anything other than that some people did collect these things from their own forest dwelling areas and sell them to maritime traders. And they traders need not have the looks of the characters in the English movie ‘Pirates of the Caribbean’. They can even have the looks of the local fishermen of South Asia. However, if the looks of the local fishermen are promoted, as the traditional looks of the ‘great’ maritime traders of ‘India’, the jingoist of India will not like it.

They have even changed the very looks of Ramanujam, the mathematical genius to something more comparable with the native-Englishman.

QUOTE: It was not till about 120 B.C. that an attempt was made to go direct from Egypt to India. A Hindu said to have been, wrecked in the Red Sea volunteered to take a ship to India. END OF QUOTE.

The above is a highly cantankerous writing. A Hindu? That means a ‘Brahmin’? But then, it is said that the Brahmins did not venture out into the sea, probably being afraid of having to converse with a lower caste person.

The non-Muslim and non-Christian fishermen of the coastal areas of the subcontinent are categorised as Hindus as of now. However, they were actually not Hindus, if Brahmins are ‘Hindus’. Then who could it be?

The errors commence from a jingoistic error. The subcontinent is a huge place with a lot of different populations. A very accurate way of mentioning the event would be as a Tamilians, a Malabari, a Gujarati, or any other word of more substance. I am not sure what the populations were, then living in the subcontinent. And much more precise record would be the name of the specific population, which currently is mentioned as ‘caste’. The name of hundreds of castes in the southern parts of the subcontinent are mentioned in Castes and Tribes of Southern India by Edgar Thurston.

QUOTE: Aden was probably the port in which the Arabian and Indian merchants met the Greeks and exchanged their goods END OF QUOTE.

There are so many statements of the same kind. It is like mentioning a Mayan ship as an American Ship, or a South American ship. There was no ‘India’ in the mentioned period. And the term ‘Indian merchant’ definitely has to be rephrased into something more meaningful.

There are a lot of passages in the book aiming to prove that there was indeed a Malabar or ‘Kerala’ and ‘India’ by mentioning the proof seen in the various trades.

Image

Image

I can only say that the existence of even the remote forest areas of Wynad can be thus proved by mentioning that a lot of trade in the forest commodities of Wynad were in vogue in an old time. However, the fact still remains that despite the huge trade, the place still remained a forest region with a huge percent of the population dwelling as forest people, more or less the slaves of the landlords.

This was also the state of Malabar as well as in Travancore, and also in the whole of the subcontinent, till the advent of the English colonialisms.

QUOTE: the first Hindu embassy from King Porus, or, as others say, from the King of Pandya, proceeded to Europe and followed the Roman Emperor Augustus to Spain END OF QUOTE.

This is another nonsensical statement. King Porus was not the king ruling the subcontinent at any time in history. He was a king of some kingdom in the north-western parts of the subcontinent. What is his relevance in a book on Malabar might be a moot point. The populations were different, the languages were different and everything was different.

As to naming the embassy as a Hindu embassy, well this also seems some kind of cheap writing. Any man from the subcontinent going out can be defined as a Hindu (Brahmin) traveller. It might be true or may be not true. However, that is not the way to define a traveller.

QUOTE: As regards Muhammadan progress in Malabar, writing in the middle of the ninth century A.D., a Muhammadan has left on record “I know not that there is any one of either nation” (Chinese and Indian) “that has embraced Muhammadanism or speaks Arabic.” (Renaudot’s “Ancient Accounts of India, etc” London, 1733). END OF QUOTE.

The point here is that one might be able to find quotes from other travellers of yore, who give a different assertion. It is all at best the individual impressions of travellers. The subcontinent was too huge a place for solitary travellers to give an all-encompassing description.

See this description by Mis’ar bin Muhalhil about ‘Kulam’ or Quilon:

QUOTE: When their king dies the people of the place choose another from China. There is no physician in India except in this city. The buildings are curious, for the pillars are (covered with) shells from the backs of fishes. The inhabitants do not eat fish, nor do they slaughter animals, but they eat carrion”, END OF QUOTE.

These types of traveller’s impressions are limited by time and space to very narrow perspectives.

See Ibn Bututa description of the location:

QUOTE: No one travels in these parts upon beasts of burden ; nor is there any horse found, except with the king, who is therefore the only person who rides. END OF QUOTE.

Image

This could give the impression of a very poor locality.

However, it might be quite unwise to gather a lot interpretations from unconnected information. The most fundamental thing to understanding a population is information on the codes in their language.

QUOTE: The true ancient history of Southern India, almost unrecorded by its own people in anything worthy of the name of history, appears as yet only as a faint outline on canvas. END OF QUOTE.

Well, everything has a history. Even ants will have a history. It is like the Chinese. China has a history. But outside world did not know. It was a very primitive nation till around 1990. Then the fools in England gave up Hong Kong to China, more or less giving the society there a platform to converse as equal to the English nations. Then the Chinese government used cunning and shrewd and organised a Tiananmen Square shooting. This event was used by the Chinese government to send Chinese students directly into the world of US technological secrets.

As of now, the varied components of Chinese history are emerging out. Likewise, a time will come when the ants and many other animals will get to learn English and to use modern gadgetry. Then their histories will come out.

Image

QUOTE: In 500-504 A.D. it is recorded by Chinese writers that a king of India sent an ambassador as far as China, taking with him presents consisting of pepper, ginger, sugar, sandalwood, tortoise-shell, etc., and it was said that this Indian nation traded to the West with the Romans and Parthians, and to the east as far as Siam and Tonquin. END OF QUOTE.

The wording has an error. It is not a king of ‘India’. It should have been a ‘king from India’. The former is like saying ‘King of Britain’. There was no ‘king of India’. And no ‘India’. As to the record, there would be rulers inside the Wynad forests who might have sent ‘ambassadors’ to the various kingdoms with presents.

What is the contention trying to prove? That this subcontinent was in existence? That is not a point that require a historical proof. But then interjecting the words ‘India’, ‘king of India’, ‘ambassador’ etc. might need more scrutiny.

QUOTE: The produce sent as presents, the trade to East and West, and the manner of wearing the hair, are all so essentially Malayali, that it is difficult to resist the conclusion that the ambassador must have been sent from some place on the Malabar Coast. END OF QUOTE.

Image

The word ‘Malayali’ is a problem, for it is an insertion that might have an aim to mislead. Then comes the issue of having to depend upon the certification of others to prove one’s own worth. It is a terrible way to prove one’s worth. As to persons going to China, where only the English traders refused to do the kowtow, the fact of the matter would be that the ‘ambassador’ would be acting like a mere servant to the Chinese king. The modern dignity of stature assigned to persons holding diplomatic assignments is something that came from English systems. It cannot be envisaged in the case of any Malabari or Chinese.

Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:22 pm, edited 4 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

7. An acute sense of not understanding

Post posted by VED »

7 #

The very first item that comes to notice is that the native-English side does not understand the peoples of Malabar or of the south-Asia. They see a lot of social and personal behaviours. They see people and individuals acting bizarrely, reacting to un-understandable triggers, and oscillating between totally opposite character features. Persons, who can be defined as gentlemen and quite refined and well-mannered, suddenly turning into brutes of the highest order.

A lot of similar behaviour attributes can be mentioned and listed here. However, I hope to mention them contextually in this writing.

Now, what is this un-see-able and non-tangible item that seems to be infecting everything and everyone here?

What is the real logic behind the so-called caste-based repulsions that literally makes a very good quality person cringe from the presence of individuals who are defined as of the base standards?

There are a huge number of English-colonial writings about the various facets of the subcontinent and its peoples. However, none of them seems to have even focused on this issue with the importance it deserves. Even though I would like to say that no native-Englishman or native-Brit of those times have detected the real cause of this social negativity, I cannot do so.

For, I have seen Lord Macaulay, in his Minutes on Indian Education, make a very solitary word allusion to this issue. He has detected the visible features of this issue. But did not go deeper.

In this book, Malabar, there is a very significant mention of William Logan also detecting the issue, but more or less leaving it at that point. And not taking any effort to go beyond and find the inner contents of this information.

Image


The hidden issue is a simple item. The languages of the sub-continent are feudal languages. The term ‘feudal language’ I have used over the years since around 1990, to define languages which do not have planar codes. However this verbal usage (feudal language) can be outdated. For, I have as of now, come to have a deeper information on this item.

Pristine-English is a planar language. I stress the word ‘pristine’.

Image

In pristine-English, in common communication, there is only one You, Your, Yours. Only one He, His, Him, She, Her, Hers &c.

In languages which I mention as ‘feudal languages’, there are an array of words for these basic words of addressing and referring. These array of words are not synonyms as understood in English. The array of words stands in a vertical hierarchy. Each level connects to a lot of other words and hierarchies, routes and direction of command, and also to levels of positional or social honour or nondescript-ness.

Each form of word is terrifically important. For, language is the software that designs a social system. An individual can get terrifically pulled and pushed apart when word forms are changed.

In fact, the whole content of acrimonious behaviour inside feudal language nations is due to the terrific competition to acquire a comfortable word-code in the social sphere.

This is an information that native-English nations do not have. In fact, when immigrants from other social systems arrive, the event should actually be treated more seriously than when an astronaut returns from a space journey. The astronauts used to be kept in a quarantine for a few days to check if they had come back infected by any extraterrestrial disease.

In the same manner, the immigrants to native-English nations have to be studied for dangerous language codes inside their mind. For, mind is a very powerful machine. And if the brain-software runs on a feudal language software, then it would infect the native-English nation. The native-English can go berserk and become homicidal.

I have personally tried to inform the terrors connected to feudal languages both inside India as well as in the native-English nations. However in both locations, there have been terrific efforts to block my efforts.

Inside India, the effort has been to block all attempts at anyone discussing this issue. As to native-English nations, since the IT world is literally filled up by persons from the feudal language social systems, they simply delete my words or block me from writing. If at all I do make a comment, it is deleted in such a manner that I get to see my comment, but it is invisible to others.

Moreover, my writings have been generally defined as ‘hate-speech’ in my online locations inside the US, GB and Australia. For it seems to bring out an information that is least liked by the population groups who claim to be the victims of native-English racism. I have had incidences wherein even the Continental Europeans do not want to have this item mentioned.

Image

A couple of days back, I made the following comment from another UserName of mine in a Youtube comment.



It was about a lady film makeup artist mentioning that she had been abused verbally in a resort in a hill-station in the local state. The exact trigger point was not abusive words as understood in English. It was words such as Nee, Edi, Ninthe, Aval, Avalude etc. Nee is the lowest level of You. Using that word to a customer who is residing in the resort by the resort staff can be of the highest order of abuse. But then, in an English translation of the dialogue, the astronomically dangerous levels of abuse will not get translated.

My comment was this:

ഇവിടെ പ്രത്യേകമായി കാണുന്ന കാര്യം തരംതാഴ്ന്ന വാക്ക് പ്രയോഗങ്ങളാണ്.

നീ, എടീ, അവൾ, അവൻ തുടങ്ങിയ വാക്കുകൾ.

ഈ വിധ കാര്യങ്ങൾ ഫ്യൂഡൽ ഭാഷകളുടെ സവിശേഷതകളാണ് എന്ന് വായിച്ച് കാണുന്നു. വളരെ പ്രകോപനം നൽകുന്ന വാക്കുകളാണ് ഇവ. പറഞ്ഞ് തുടങ്ങിയാൽ പിന്നെ എന്തും പറയാം.

archive dot orgൽ ഫ്യൂഡൽ ഭാഷയെപ്പറ്റി ഉള്ള ഒരു മലയാളം എഴുത്ത് ശ്രദ്ധയിൽ പെട്ടിരുന്നു.

മാത്രവുമല്ല, പോലീസുകാരെ വിളിക്കേണം എന്നെല്ലാം പറയുന്നത് തനി വഡ്ഢിത്തമാണ്. പോലീസുകാരുടെ പെരുമാറ്റവും വാക്കുകളും തറനിലവാലത്തിലുള്ളതായിരിക്കും.

വനിതാ പോലീസുകാർ നീ, എടീ എന്നൊക്കെ വിളിച്ചാൽ യാതോരു രീതിയിലും പ്രതികരിക്കാൻ ആവില്ല. പ്രതികരിച്ചാൽ, മഖത്ത് അടിവീഴും.
Translation:

Here what is very clearly seen is the use of lower grade word-forms: Nee, Edi, Aval, Avan etc.

These kinds of words are seen mentioned as the special features of the language. These are words which can create terrific provocations. Once these words are assigned to an individual, then literally any abusive words can be used about the individual.

A specific writing in Malayalam about this issue is seen on archive dot org.

Beyond that the lady is seen here as mentioning that she had asked to call the police. This can be a totally stupid and dangerous action. The verbal codes used by the police can be more terrible and abusive.

If the female constables come, they would most naturally use the words 'Nee', 'Edi' etc.

There would be no scope to react to this in a decent manner. If she tries to react or retort to this abusive words from the Indian police, she will be given solid slaps. End of translation

Image

The comment section of the Youtube video was literally littered with totally abusive words in Malayalam. Some commenters addressed her as Nee and Edi. There are persons referring to her as Aval and some do even mention her as some kind of loose and wanton woman.

Some persons focus on the black colour of her skin and mention abusive words. The issue here is that she understands Malayalam. If the black-skinned former president of the US’ daughters can understand Malayalam, there is no doubt that they will also be defined in similar mean words and definitions. Literally calling her a monster because of her black skin colour.
There are comments that have posted links to other videos and sites. All these things are there.

However, my comment was seen deleted almost immediately that I had posted it. These kinds of experiences are there in plenty in India.

Now before moving ahead I would like to mention a small part of the huge verbal machinery that actually has worked.

Since it is a huge framework, I cannot go into the very beginning of the machine work.

This woman artist has been abused verbally, that is lower-grade You, She etc. used upon her, because her film world seniors would have given the go-ahead to the hotel staff in most subtle manner. They would not have to go and tell them to be disrespectful to her. All that they have to do is to mention her and refer to her as Aval (lowest grade She/Her/Hers), along with a body-language and facial expression to emphasis her lower stature, to the hotel staff. They will pick up from there.

Now, why should her film world staff want her to be snubbed? That is the exact crucial focal point that has to be understood. For, on this stands a huge understanding on why the local native kings and other rulers of this subcontinent loved to be under the English rule, and not under any other native-rulers. I will explain that point later in a more clear manner.

In the context of this female mentioned above, there would be always tugs of war between others in the verbal codes in Malayalam. As to who is ‘Nee’ and who is ‘Ningal’ and who is ‘Maadam’. These are the various levels of You in Malayalam for a female. In almost all communication, one side can get snubbed. However, many persons take this in their stride if it is from an acknowledged senior or someone who can help.

In the case of others, they carry a grudge. They moment they get a chance to snub or degrade the other, they will use it. The social system is literally strewn with such boiling grudges.

I had experienced a lot of acrimonious and quite sly blocks when my writings mention ‘feudal languages’ in British, US and Australian media websites. Many have blocked me forever.

In the last thirty years or so, the entry of feudal-language speakers from Continental Europe, South America, Asia and Africa into native-English nations have become a sort of torrent. People who experience native-English social systems find their own social systems quite abhorrent. However, their entry into native-English social systems has brought in the problems inherent in feudal languages.

However no one mentions what this is. Instead these cunning immigrants who speak feudal languages write huge articles on what is wrong with their new nations of domicile and mention so many corrective measures. However, the fact remains that it they themselves who are problem inside the native-English nation.

A couple of weeks or so back, I found one such article. There were so many ravishing comments literally applauding the contents, which gave so many corrective measures.

I simply posted this comment:

QUOTE: The nation is dealing with an unknown and un-understood item.

And that is the entry and spread of feudal languages, in the soft planar language (English) social system.

Even though inside feudal language nations, there are well-understood social and mental barriers and corridors to protect oneself from the sharp poking effects of feudal language word codes, inside GB, USA, Australia etc. there are practically no such protective shields. People, especially the younger aged and the persons who are defined as doing lower jobs, will be terribly affected.

People can go berserk or mentally ill.

Actually this issue had been observed by Edgar Thurston way back in the 1800s. However, he did not understand the machinery that created the inclination to insanity.
END OF QUOTE

After some time, when I checked, I found that the comment was visible to me, when I log into the website. However, when I enter the website from any other location, my comment is invisible.

This much for the great inputs of these immigrant folks into native-English nations. They, who cannot bear to live in their own nations as a ordinary citizen, are giving great ideas to improve native-English nations, which by their very presence and speech, they are atrophying.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:23 pm, edited 5 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

8. Entering a terrible social system

Post posted by VED »

8 #

The social system in South Asia, as in all other feudal language locations, was and is a most cantankerous one. Into this terrible feudal language social system, the English East India Company entered. For the sake of merely buying pepper and other locally available goods, and selling them in Europe. There was enough profit in it. I will have to mention the various events.

However, before moving to the events, let me first list out the fabulous sinister capacities of feudal languages. I cannot explain each of the items mentioned in the list here. For it is a long route to that. However, persons who are interested in knowing them can open this digital book titled: An impressionistic history of the South Asian Subcontinent. Part 1 & 2. This is in Malayalam. The English translation is also given for the Part 1. The English translation of Part 2 and the rest can be had from VICTORIA INSTITUTIONS’ Website, when it is ready.

Since I have been mentioning the term ‘feudal languages’, it is befitting that I give a brief enumeration of its varied features.

I have been writing a daily text broadcast in Whatsapp under the heading: An impressionistic history of the South Asian Subcontinent.

The below given points are from around the 200th post in that broadcast. So it may be understood that there has been a huge built up to reach this point.

I am trying to give an insight on the interiors of many non-English social systems, which have a specific coding inside their languages. This might not be true for all feudal languages or for all non-English languages.

Pristine-English is a planar language, in that there are only one You, Your, Yours, He, His, Him, She, Her, Hers &c. If human languages can be understood as some kind of software application with varied features, it would be quite easy to understand that a change in the coding can bring about very many changes in so many items.

I do not really think that many of the readers would get to understand the points given below much. And I must admit that there is indeed a real Code-View as well as Design-view background to the features given below. For knowing more about this concept, the reader may need to check: PRISTINE-English; What is different about it?

It goes without saying that modern mental sciences such as psychiatry as well as psychology might not have any understanding of these things.

Languages do contain the design structure of human relationships, communication and even that of the design features of the society.

The main feature of a feudal language is the dichotomy or trichotomy that it has for words mentioned above. That is, two or three or more word forms for You, Your, Yours, He, His, Him, She, Her, Hers &c. Each form connecting to a series of word forms that define a lot of things about a particular person. His rights, abilities, and much else are defined in these word codes.

They connect to hundreds of other words, and bring about huge variations, and pull and push in all kinds of communication links.

Now, see the enumerated things that feudal language can do without seeming to be doing anything specifically malicious.

Image

Feudal languages can:

1. act like a wedge between human beings.

2. can literally throw human beings apart in different angles and directions, from their planar position that is there in English.

3. can view and position different persons with various kinds of discriminations.

4. can sort of bite human beings in a manner akin to how carnivorous animals do. Not in a physical manner, but in a way that can be felt emotionally. People get frightened and are wary of others who might bite verbally.

5. can hold individuals in a manner akin to how carnivorous animals hold their prey with their claws. The prey is stuck immobile socially and position-wise, and totally inarticulate with regard to his or her pain.

6. can pierce and deliver pain deep inside a human being as if with sharp needles.

7. can very easily bring in mutual antipathy and hatred between persons who had been quite united and affectionate. Verbal codes can be disruptive.

8. can create a very evil phenomenon of when one persons goes up, the other man has to necessarily go down. That is, it can act like a See-saw.

9. can create a mental experience of being on a carousal or merry-go-round placed on a pivot, and made to revolve in an up and down spin. That is, verbal codes can act like a pivot.

10. can flip a person on top to the bottom and the person in the bottom to the top, with a single word. That is verbal codes can flip vertically.

11. by allowing a person to be ‘respected’ by some persons, and made bereft of ‘respect’ by others in words of addressing or referring, in the same location, the person can be made to feel as if he is being twisted and squeezed.

12. by continually or intermittingly changing the verbal levels of ‘respect’, a feeling of vibrating or bouncing, or of going up and down can be induced in an individual.

13. can create a feeling of slanting, relocating, being pulled or pushed, inside a human relationship by the mere using of verbal codes. Verbal codes have a vector (direction) component. So, it can create a shift in the focus of many things by a mere change of verbal codes.

14. When feudal languages spread into the interiors of planar-language nations, social disruption will spread throughout the society, many kinds of individual relationships will get damaged, deeply held social conventions will go into atrophy, and an invisible and non-tangible evilness would be felt to be slowly spreading throughout the nation / society. [for God’s sake, Check the Adam Purinton shooting incident]

15. In the case of human relationships which are understood as Guru-shikya (teacher-disciple in feudal languages), leader-follower &c., verbal codes can be used as one would use the two different poles of a magnet. One position leading to sticking together, and the other positioning leading to repulsion.

16. Verbal codes can replicate or slash the same physical scene into two or three from a mental perspective.

17. Verbal codes can act like a prism on a group of human beings, in that they can be splintered as one would see white light getting splintered into varying colours.

18. Beyond all this, the persons who speak feudal languages can use verbal codes as a sort of Concave or Convex lens or mirrors. That is bringing in the concept of magnification. They can use verbal codes as many other kinds of visual items like Prism etc.

19. Feudal languages can deliver hammer blows to a person’s individuality. The power of the impact increases dramatically as his social goes relatively lower.

20. Compared to English ambiance, the work area becomes repulsive to the lower positioned persons, and attractive to the higher positioned persons. So that the more wages are given to the lower-positioned persons, the more lazy and less dependable they become. Native-English individuals working in jobs defined as ‘lower’ in feudal languages would find the work area sort of stifling.

There are other features also. The above is just a bare-frame enumeration. The descriptive explanation would require a lot of words. For that, the reader needs to check the An Impressionistic History of the South Asian Subcontinent.

Trying to understand feudal language nations, understanding such things as ‘slavery’, immigrants’ reasons for running out of their home nations, etc. without any information on the above can be a futile effort. Moreover, entering into warfare between such nations can be a dangerous item. For, there is no way for a native-Englishman to really understand what the exact provocations are or were.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:24 pm, edited 4 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

9. The doctoring and the manipulations

Post posted by VED »

9 #

It is quite evident that this book, Malabar, does represent the thoughts, ideas and knowledge of William Logon only to a very specific percent, which is definitely less than 50 percent.

At the time this book was first written, three very powerful groups did exert their influence, access and power to make this book, a book that suits their future aims and purposes.

Before mentioning who these three entities are, I need to place on record here that I do not personally have any kind of affiliation or partiality or inclination to any caste or religion or political philosophy. My total inclination and affection slants towards the English East India Company rule and to the pristine-England that existed till the end of the 2nd World War.

However, I do understand things which the native-English cannot understand or imagine existing in this world. This is because they do not have any idea about the existence of feudal-languages and of the incredible force and power feudal language codes can exert on the physical world and on the human and animal thought processes. I personally find the native-English of yore to be extremely soft, refined, fair, naive and gullible.

These are all extremely power-erasing personality features. They could reduce any human population to positions of extreme vulnerability, when facing the onslaught of barbarian populations. However, instead of caving in, the native-English created a most formidable global nation. There is indeed a secret as to why historical events look quite paradoxical. I will explain this very clearly in this book.

Since I have placed on record my affiliation and affection, I need to mention that I do not have any rancour or malice towards any caste or religion of this subcontinent. So when I take up each item for meticulous examination, even if it seems that I am being inimical towards that entity that is not really the case. I am merely looking at the reaction of the local populations towards each other. How each one of them strove to manipulate each other in their desperation to come on top, or to establish a detachment or to claim an association.

Image

All these mental reflexes are the handiwork of the sinister codes inside feudal languages. I will need to explain this point in great detail. Let me see how much I can do this.

Now, I am going to mention the three entities that had very specific interest in adding manipulations in the general layout and inputs in this book.

The very first entity is the Nair caste population. Their efforts in this regard are quite obvious, if one can understand that that has done this.

The second is the Christian Church representing the converted into Christianity from lower castes, who arrived into Malabar from the Travancore kingdom area. The individual known as Gundert could also be a participant on their side, either knowingly or even inadvertently.

The direct power-exertion of these two groups is more or less quite overt in this book, and detectable without much effort, if one does look for them.

The third entity is the leadership of the Ezhava caste of Travancore kingdom. They had their fifth columnists inside Malabar; particularly north Malabar, who acted like some kind of fools to arrange a platform for a population group which was desperately on the lookout for a place to raise their socially submerged heads.

From this perspective, both the above-mentioned Christian church as well as the Ezhava leadership had more or less concurrent aims.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:25 pm, edited 4 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

10. What was missed or unmentioned, or even fallaciously defined

Post posted by VED »

10 #

There are very many population groups who came below the Nair caste which were more or less given a go-by. As per this book, the human populations of any significance or worth are from the Brahmins to the Nairs. Below the Nairs, all others are mere nonentities.

There might be some level of correctness in this. Especially if a Travancore kingdom perspective is made to be borne upon the Malabar location. For in Travancore, almost all castes below the Nairs were maintained at varying subhuman levels. Even the Ezhavas were terribly subordinated.

It is true that there is mention of the Ezhavas having their own deities such as Madan, Marutha &c. in the Native Life in Travancore written by Rev. Samuel Mateers. I do not personally have much information about this caste which is actually native to the Travancore kingdom. I do not know if they had a spiritual religion of their own in their own antiquity.

Beyond that I am not sure as to whether the Ezhavas did affix their loyalty to their traditional gods. Or whether they, in their desperation to get connected to the Brahmanical spiritual religions, ditched their traditional gods, and deities; and jumped the fence.

The actual fact that get diluted when reading this book, the Malabar, is that there was not much of a traditional connection between Malabar and Travancore, before the conjoining of the locations after the formation of India. The political connection that the English rule in Madras established with the Travancore kingdom also helped. But then, north of Cochin, socially there was not much of a connection or intermingling with Travancore. This much had been my personal observation from about 1975, when I first moved to Alleppy from Malabar.

I will speak more about the disconnection later.

Before moving ahead, let me make one more quite categorical statement. It is about the languages of Malabar and Travancore. Both were different. The language of Malabar was more different from the language of Travancore that current-day Malayalam is from Tamil.

This is also a theme that would have to be taken up for inspection in close proximity with the discussion on at least the latter two entities. That is, the Christian Church representing the lower castes from Travancore and the Ezhava leadership, also from Travancore.

The language issue could be quite confusing. The term ‘Malayalam’ has some issues. It is about which language this usage represented earlier, and what it represents now. Also there are items to be mentioned about the real traditional language of Travancore.

Image

There is one specific item that has been oft taken up for substantiating very many curious assertion. That is the book, Keralolpathi. This book is suspect in many ways, in what it aims to assert. Who wrote it is not clearly known, I think. But then the reason why such a book has been written might be taken up for inspection, in close connection with the other items being discussed.

I will now take up each of the issues. Before commencing, I need to remind the reader that the social system functioned in terrible feudal languages. Every man was quite terrorised of being associated with an individual or institution, who or which, was a lower entity. Generally the whole idea is casually mentioned in a most wayward manner as ‘Caste system’. This is a very shallow way to see the issue. In fact, this wanton verbal usage, ‘caste system’ does not explain anything. It literally skims over the real tumultuous depth of the whirling social twirls.

Caste system is not actually based on social or mental indoctrination. There is indeed real positive and negative, non-tangible forces at work that creates the forces of repulsion and attraction. Attachment, association and proximity to lower-positioned man can induce powerful negative forces inside a human being. These forces can exert their power not only at an emotional level, but even at a physical level.

At the same time, the opposite is also true. Attachment, association and proximity to a higher positioned person or entity can induce positive forces.

Image

In this book, I will try to explain this quite cantankerous issue which literally can move the discussion beyond the very periphery of the realm of physical sciences. However, readers can also read the earlier mentioned book, An Impressionistic History of the South Asian Subcontinent. Quite candid information on this issue has been delineated in that book.

It is this terror of the pull and push of an all encompassing and overpowering negativity that has literally defined the history and historical events of this location, which is positioned at the south-western edge of the South Asian Subcontinent; north of Travancore.

The English East India Company’s aims and urges and attitude were of the sublime levels. However, they did not really understand the society into which they were inducing powerful corrections. In fact, they were correcting errors without understanding what actually created the errors in the first place. They had literally no idea about feudal languages. In fact, way back in England, there was a feeling that all nations and populations were innately similar to English populations in human emotions. It was an understanding bereft of a very powerful knowledge. That of the existence of feudal languages.

There is another general idea which I would like place here. It is about the general quality of formal history on India. Most of the various inputs about the quality of the populations, peoples and social system which existed in this subcontinent are more or less half-truth, or carefully cherry-picked items. The total aim is to give an impression of very resoundingly high-quality population groups who were allegedly pushed into destitution by the English rulers. This idea is not only half-truth or half-lie, but total lies and fabricated information.

What is usually compared in these kinds of comparisons is imageries of fabulous looking native-Englishmen and women living in good quality houses in the midst of totally destitute lower-castes. The immediate impression that springs into the minds of easily deluded persons is that it is the Englishmen who have brought in this destitution and desultory looks in the lower castes of the subcontinent.

Image

The actual fact would be the exact opposite. The lower castes and subordinated classes of the subcontinent were held in tight hold by their own upper classes and castes. It was the English rulers who brought in the light of liberty to these desolate human beings who had lived for centuries in miserable surroundings.

Image

However, it is not easy to save or improve or pull out the lower classes from their subordinated stature. For, the situation is like a multi-storey building that has collapsed in an earthquake. The human beings are alive in the lowest floor. But how to pull them out? Above them is the mountainous weight of several floors of the building, crushing down on their collapsed floor.

This was the exact issue in pulling up the lower castes and classes. They were tied to their upper classes in very tights knots of subordination in verbal and dress codes. Even their body postures cannot be changed into an English body posture. For, if they do such a thing, it would amount to the greatest of impertinence. Their upper classes would quite casually impale them with iron nails or do something worse.

In formal history writing of this subcontinent, carefully filtered items are arranged to give a very false impression of this subcontinent.

South Asia, which is currently occupied by Pakistan, India and Bangladesh, was never a single nation or a single population. It was never a nation. There was actually no sense of a nation even inside a miniscule kingdom here. Even inside a miniscule kingdom, it was a feverish struggle between competing populations to subdue others. And among the hundreds of kingdoms, it was a messy time of continual fights and overrunning and molesting and raiding into each other’s locality.

The major issue that I find in formal history writing currently going on in India is that it is being done with a very specific aim. The aim is not write a correct version of history, but to write a contrived version which proposes the antiquity of a nation here which was astoundingly rich, technologically high, with high levels of scientific knowledge etc.

The writers of these kinds of silly history most probably do not know what the actualities were just fifty years back. In spite of this terrific shallowness of information, they propose to know what the state of the subcontinent was some 2000 to 7000 years back. The continuously mention an ‘India’ which most probably did not exist inside the subcontinent, but literally was a purposefully distorted version of a ‘Inder’, ‘Indus’, ‘Indies’, ‘Hind’ etc. words, which were known in the global maritime commercial centres. However, how much these words can be connected to the current-day India is a confusing point. River Indus itself is not in current-day India.

Such historians take quotes from ancient travellers who give brief descriptions about isolated locations and incidences with some kind of superlative exclamations and adjectives. But then they also give more detailed descriptions about other realities, which are more mundane and terrible. These items are quite cunningly avoided. The other superlative expressions of taken up as authentic descriptions of the state of the land.

Travellers make great comparisons and mention great things about cities and kings and certain isolated issues. However, the great fact that most of the people were enslaved and they were a generally not given much importance. They express great appreciation for the great hospitality they received from the rich merchants and the royal personages. Some of the writers do also mention the other reality of the tragic conditions of the people. However, formal Indian historian would not be eager to focus on them.

They focus on quite ridiculous sentences such as ‘this city had the most famous harbour in the world’. ‘Merchants from all over the world came here’. ‘This was a great commercial centre’ etc.

Merchants come to all locations where they understand that there is some commodity that can be sold elsewhere for a profit. However, that does not transpire that that particular location is fabulous. For instance, some decades back I used to frequent a literally forest-like district in south India, for buying agricultural produces, fruits and bananas and plantains. Actually so many other merchants did frequent that locality for similar purposes. Lorries used to come even from north Indian locations.

To the kingdom under the sway of Keprobotras, Tundis is subject, a village of great note situate near the sea. Mouziris, which pertains to the same realm, is a city at the height of prosperity frequented as it is by ships from Ariake and Greek ships from Egypt.


Image

However all this cannot be mentioned to convey an understanding that the people in the location were socially high-class. In fact, the reality was that most the people were crude and lower class, in the forest location I had frequented. There were a few higher class financially rich persons and families. They were generally soft and well-mannered to visitors like me. However, to their own subordinated populations, they were nice but quite suppressing. But then, the lower classes were quite well-mannered to their superior classes, who they understood to have some kind of social power over them. However to visitors and other nonentities in the location, they had no qualms in being rude and ill-mannered, if they measure them to be of not of high financial stature.

These are the issues that need to be understood when cherry-picking from the writings of ancient travellers. Traveller writings can rarely be correct unless that particular writer knows what to look for.

For everybody has here a garden and his house is placed in the middle of it ; and round the whole of this them is a fence of wood, up to which the ground of each inhabitant comes.


The above is a quote from Shaikh Ibn Batuta’s travelogue. However, that is only from a very slender perspective of a solitary traveller.

See these QUOTEs from this book, Malabar:

1.
The walls are generally of latorite to bricks set in mud, for lime is expensive and scarce, and till recent years the roof was invariably of thatch.


2.
and it was not till after the Honourable East India Company had had settlements on the coast for nearly a century that they were at last permitted, as a special favour, in 1759 fill to put tiles on their factory at Calicut. Palaces and temples alone were tiled in former days.

3.
The house itself is called by different names according to the occupant’s caste. The house of a Pariah is a cheri, while the agrestic slave—the Cheraman— lives in a chala. The blacksmith, the goldsmith, the carpenter, the weaver, etc., and the toddy-drawer (Tiyan) inhabit houses styled pura or kudi ; the temple servant resides in a variyan or pisharam or pumatham, the ordinary Nayar in a vidu or bhavanam, while the man in authority of this caste dwells in an idam ; the Raja lives in a kovilakam or kottaram, the indigenous Brahman (Nambutiri) in an illam, while his fellow of higher rank calls his house a mana or manakhal.


4.
The Nambutiri’s character for Hospitality stands high, but only among those of his own caste.


This is the reality as different from the miniscule impression of solitary travellers.

Social communication is very powerfully designed by the language codes. Without this knowledge, no traveller or sociologist can claim to understand a people or population or society or nation.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:26 pm, edited 4 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

11. NONSENSE

Post posted by VED »

11 #

It must be admitted that the book does have a lot of nonsensical claims which are very evidently not the ideas or writings of William Logan. These insertion are the writing of the various native-officials who worked under William Logan, or of some other native scholars who collaborated and helped him in this work.

The nonsensical claims are basically spurred by some kind of inferiority complex in the writers in that they can understand that they have much more information about the social system than the native-Englishman has. Many of them are quite well-read. And almost all of them would posses much more leadership qualities than the average native-Englishman, when the various sections of populations who arrange themselves under them are counted. For the native languages are feudal. If properly enforced, they offer a leadership to the native-official, over the subordinated human beings, which the native-Englishman cannot dream of or even contemplate.

Yet, in spite of all this, the native-English side is to be more refined and attractive. It is basically not an individual deposition. For, as mentioned just now, the local native higher caste official might be able to compete with an Englishman at an individual level. However, when the native-Englishman is connected to his own native-Englishmen group, and the native of the subcontinent higher caste man is connected to his own native group, a very powerful difference will emerge. This is basically connected to the feudal content in the languages of the subcontinent.

Even though the skin-colour is different, that is not really the issue here. For if a single native-English white-skin colour man is born and bred in the subcontinent in the subordinate section of the local feudal language, he would not have any superior mien at all. At the same time, a native of the subcontinent born and bred in England would very definitely have personality and physical features shifting towards the native-English. However, it might take time and generations to display the huge difference that are in the offing in both cases.

See this quote from my own Commentary to the Travancore State Manual:

The tragedy that befell the life of the next king Rama Varma otherwise known as Swati Tirunal is there in these lines written by Col. Welsh who made it a point to observe the educational development of the young prince, who was being tutored by a Maharashtra Brahmin:

He then took up a book of mathematics, and selecting the 47th proposition of Euclid, sketched the figure on a country slate but what astonished me most, was his telling us in English, that Geometry was derived from the Sanscrit, which was Ja** ***ter to measure the earth, and that many of our mathematical terms, were also derived from the same source, such as hexagon, heptagon, octagon, decagon, duo-decagon, &c.


It is possible that there are so many knowledge and information in the ancient cultures, including that of Egypt, Mayan, Inca, Hellenistic &c.
However, even the Vedic culture has not much to do with the subcontinent, other than that some of the books have been found in certain households in the land. I am not sure if any evidence of any direct route to the ancient scripture is there in the populations here. Most of them come from various locations in the world.

The afore-mentioned Swathi Tirunal’s personal life seems to have been a failure due to some kind of personal inferiority complex. The Maharshtran Brahman teacher must have induced the idea in him that every knowledge in the world came from ‘India’. The basic information that there was no such ‘India’ as a nation or even as an interconnected geographical area was not mentioned to him. And that the Travancore kingdom had not much to do with these ancient information was also not much mentioned. This statement can be true with regard to all the castes including the Nayars, the Ezhavas, the Shanars, the Pulayas, the Pariahs &c.

Image

As has been mentioned by certain travellers who came to the subcontinent, the ‘scholars’ of the land seems to have had the habit of forging old books to present totally fabricated idea. Even now such things are going on.

and even in genuinely ancient deeds it is frequently found that the facts to be gathered from them are unreliable owing to the deeds themselves having been forged at periods long subsequent to the facts which they pretend to state.


For instance, it is known in current-day India that the British rule was literally driven out by Gandhi & co. However, the fact is that Gandhi had nothing to with this. It was just a foolish policy implementation of the British Labour Party.

There are claims that the Indian Navy is a continuation of the ancient Navies of old time kingdoms of the subcontinent, such as the Chola, Shivaji etc. These are all total lies. The Indian Navy is just a continuation of the Royal Indian Navy of British-India.

Image

It is certain that Indian ideas and practices contributed largely to the form which orthodox Christianity in the West finally adopted.


The above quote is certainly not the writing of William Logan. For, in the locations where it is certain that he has written the text there is no such emotion evident. Western Orthodox Christianity would have been affected and designed by the language of each nation where it spread. In England, the planar codes of the English language would have created a Christianity which is starkly different from that in Continental Europe. Even though the blame or the praise for disconnecting the English Christian Church from the Continental controls would be placed on King Henry the VIII, the underlying factor which led to it would be there in the English language itself.

Even the Kerala Christianity is totally against the system of human interactions as could be visualised in an English Christian area. However, that is a different area of discussion and cannot be taken up here. Readers who are interested in pursuing that logic can read the An Impressionistic History of the South Asian Subcontinent.

The above-quote seems to claim of a well-developed ‘India’ from where all kinds of information and culture, diffused to other nations or geographical locations. These kinds of claims are mere imaginations without any basis. Very few of the social, familial or public cultures of the subcontinent are worthy of being emulated by anyone. Culture is not what one read about in books. It is how people interact with each other and maintain quality relationships. There is no evidence in this book itself of any such thing in the subcontinent.

Even many of the family systems mentioned in this book, Malabar, are totally devoid of supporting a good family life. The relationships are more or less controlled by the feudal language of the place. Many things are quite contrary to what might appear through low-class logic.

For instance, the claim that the Marumakkathaya women had more liberty and social rights. This is not true. Most of them of the higher castes could not come out of their houses unless they had someone with them to display or disseminate their higher caste attributes. The profane glances and the profane words of the lower castes males and females would literally have the effect of a carnivorous animal bite.

And in return, the West seems to have given to the East arts and sciences, architecture, the art of coining money, and in particular the high ideal of religion contained in Christianity, as St. Chrysostom (who died A.D. 407) wrote: “The Syrians too, and Egyptians, and Indians, and Persians, and Ethiopians, and innumerable other nations, translating into their own tongues the doctrines derived from this man, barbarians though they were, learnt to philosophise.


The use of the word ‘Indian’ in the above quote is a misuse. There was no such a thing as an ‘Indian’. I am not sure if any other ancient books such as the Ramayana or Mahabharatha does mention that they are ‘Indians’. However, the probability that someone might insert this word in newly printed books is quite strong.

The word West also has many problems. If it is meant to mean Continental Europe, it might be good to say that it does not include England. For, the most powerful human designing tool, that is the language, in England was planar.

As to anyone giving anything to anyone is also a very much debatable point. None of the things mentioned, ‘sciences, architecture, the art of coining money’ seems to have come to the possession of the huge content of lower castes in the subcontinent. As to the others having all that, well, these things get diffused from various locations to various locations.

For instance, if one were go to the Amazon forests, one might see the forest-dwelling populations using bow and arrow. It would be quite a ludicrous claim that they got the art of archery from ‘Indians’ of the South Asian Subcontinent.

Another instance is the fact of people all over the world using dairy products, such as milk, buttermilk, curd, butter, yogurt, cheese &c. In a terrific fit of jingoistic fervour a current-day Indian can claim that these ideas all came from India. However, the fact remains that to the majority populations of the subcontinent, such things as yogurt, cheese etc. came into their purview only in very recent times.

Image

There is a general tendency to be absolutely astounded by anything that is seen in the antiquity of the subcontinent. For instance, there is the martial arts known as Kalari which was part of the antiquity of north Malabar. I think that Travancore did not have the tradition of this very same martial arts, even though there was something known as Thekkan Kalari (southern Kalari) there.

In the neighbouring Tamilnadu, there are another martial arts known as Adithada and Silambam. Adithada was seen mentioned in Travancore area some thirty to forty years back. However, the Kalaripayattu of north Malabar was not generally known to the local people in Travancore.

Now, the northern Kalaripayattu is generally mentioned as the martial arts of Kerala, which itself is very cunning distortion of tradition.

Here what can be mentioned is that the northern Kalaripayattu is a very sophisticated martial arts form. However, this art form is in the stranglehold of the local feudal vernacular. This is its main defect. If this art form can be plucked out from the possession of the local feudal vernacular and relocated into English, it will be a very sophisticated martial arts form.

The problem when dealing with this martial arts from a historical perspective is that the moment anything is mentioned about this arts, the local people including its own exponents would start making tall claims. The very first claim would be that this martial arts originated here in Malabar. This is a very curious claim.

Being an expert in the arts and being the founder of the arts are entirely two different propositions. It is not known who brought this art into Malabar. This information is lost to antiquity in the same manner the arrival of Nayars and the two different castes of Thiyyas have been lost. If the locations from where the various different populations came to Malabar can be traced out, the location from where it came here might also come out. However, that alone would not reveal who founded this art system.

However, the general tendency in the subcontinent, as elsewhere in all feudal language social systems is to lay claims upon anything and everything that can add to one’s verbal code value.

In Keralolpathi, there is a mention, I understand, that Parasurama brought Kalari system to this geo-location. Keralolpathi can be a fake history book, written with some malicious interests. However, it might have picked up the tradition of Kalaripayattu from some place. If Parasurama had brought it, he must have come from some location where it was practised. It is not clear if it would be right to claim that he came and founded the martial arts system on his own.

QUOTE: 1. These quarrels arose from private feuds and were meant to wipe off stains cast upon an individual's honour.
2. Women were the chief origin of the quarrels which occasioned these combats. They were confined to the Nayars.
END OF QUOTE
The true working area of the Kalari exponents. They remained the henchmen of the local landlords. They would not be the great ‘maharajas’, but merely the Inhi -ഇഞ്ഞി (lowest grade you) and oan ഓൻ (lowest grade he/him).

The subdivision and re-subdivision of the authority of government were perfectly marvellous and probably unparalleled in the history of any country in the world. The great families—the Zamorin, Kolattiri, Walluvanad, Palghat, Kottayam, Kadattanad, Kurumbranad, etc.—were petty suzerains, each with numbers of vassals, more or less independent, and more or less fluctuating in numbers, who again were suzerains to still pettier chiefs, also more or less independent and more or less fluctuating in numbers. The subdivisions of authority did not cease till the lowest stratum of agricultural society was reached


The above-statement is some kind of extreme jingoism gone berserk. The utter nonsensical claims of a super low-quality land. The whole content of oppressive regimentation can be explained as the handiwork of the local feudal languages. If the reader has any doubt about the oppressiveness of the subcontinent, check the book: Slavery in the South Asian subcontinent.

The society thus constituted was on a thoroughly sound basis, for the strongest men had opportunities of coming to the front (so to speak)
.

And the mention is about the Nayars. However in the actual factual history part in this book, Malabar, there is no evidence that substantiate the Nayars as the strongest, bravest or intellectually the best. The best thing about them was they were subservient to their overlords and oppressive to the subordinate populations.

The above quote can be nonsense in Malabar

Image

In this way numberless petty chieftains arose, and the great families waxed or waned


It is the shallow claims of a very minute landscape with practically nothing great to offer other than a history of various shackled populations. What ‘great families’ are being mentioned, other than the higher castes? Their greatness should be evident in their action of improving the other populations. There is no such evidence. Other than their right to use rude and outright impolite verbal usages such as Inhi / Nee, Ane, Ale, Eda, Edi etc. It is the English rule that saved the lower populations from the hammering of these verbal codes.

But with these material objects it will be observed were conveyed such things as “authority in the Desam,” “Battle wager” and “Rank” and “Customs” which are clearly outside the idea of dominium as understood by Roman lawyers.


A very vain attempt to connect to Rome, in the mistaken belief that it was Rome that brought in greatness to human populations. It is a very wrong notion. The greatness in human beings was brought out by the native-English nation, and not by the Romans. Even animals got the relatively best deal in native-English systems.

Actually the very use of English words like Admiral, Commander, General, Officer, Soldier, King, Queen, County, Baron, Customs duties and such other words used with regard to seemingly corresponding items in the subcontinent stand on the very periphery of nonsense. None of these things in the feudal-language speaking subcontinent comes near to what is visualised or imagined in English. It is the like the fake Gandhi movie made by one irresponsible British film director. The Gandhi in that movie has English body features of those times, and English body-language. However, Gandhi really was a feudal language speaker, who was not liked inside the Congress.

Take the word ‘officer’ for instance. An officer is a Gentleman. However, in the feudal language ambience, what is translated as an ‘officer’ is literally a brute who uses terrible degrading lower indicant words to many others, with a solid feeling of right.

The chief things conveyed were the different kinds of authority attaching to a Desam, a Temple and a Tara, and not merely the lands and slaves


It is just because English is a planar language this concept was not clearly understood. All authority is connected to verbal codes that encode honour and ‘respect’ on the person who has authority. All those who have to bear the thraldom of the persons in authority are necessarily assigned degrading verbal code definitions. This is the core issue. It cannot be understood in English, for there is such a concept of ‘indicant words’ in English.

The system was admirably conceived for binding the two classes together in harmonious interdependence. This excellent arrangement necessarily fell to pieces at once when the Civil Courts began to recognise the force of contract—the Western or European law— as superior to the force of custom—the Eastern or Indian law.


This is a theme I have oft heard in my childhood from those who saw the breaking down of age-old dominating-class – subordinate-class relationship. It is true that if this relationship is not replaced by quality English social relationship, the society does not have the exact feel of a culturally developed society. Yet, from the perspective of the traditionally lower classes, they have come out of their subordination.

These themes are highly complicated. For instance, I have seen students who have studied in reasonably good quality English schools moving into the government vernacular schools / colleges after completing their tenth class. The first feeling they get is that they are along with a more liberated students. For, they generally get to experience boisterous shouting, moving around in clusters, roaming around etc.

However, it takes time to understand that they are literally like a cattle-class gone under a more subordinating teacher-class. However, the oppressiveness will not be felt, even when they are addressed in the pejorative forms of You, and referred to in the pejorative forms of He, Him, His, She, Her, Hers etc. For, this is an experience that is commonly felt by all students.

It is like this: A common man in England goes to the police station on his own and sits down and narratives his problems to the concerned police official without any demur or subservience.

At the same time, a common in India goes to the police station along with some of his relatives or even with the support of his local political leaders, stands in a pose of subservience and gets addressed and referred in the pejorative. He has on complaints, for that is how every common man he knows are dealt with by the police.

However, to a person who has seen both the English systems as well as the Indian system, the latter would be seen as quite satanic and degrading.

This system—another necessary result of the Hindu social organisation— was evidently conceived in much wisdom for protecting the interests of the cultivating castes. Here again however ideas borrowed from the European law of property in the soil have come in to upset the well-conceived customary law of Malabar.


The above statement is very obviously not the words of Logan. And the words ‘Hindu social organisation’ is highly mischievous. There is no such thing as a ‘Hindu social organisation’ if the Hindu religion is the context. The Hindu religion is actually the Brahmin religion. As to the social set-up in which the Brahmins are on top in a state of perpetual dominance, then there is nothing to praise in it. It is not like saying that the Lords of the England are perpetually on top. The difference is that the English language is planar, while the languages of the subcontinent are more or less terribly feudal. Without understanding what that is, it is more or less a waste of time to discuss this point.

Again, the words ‘European law of property in the soil’ is also a very foolish statement. The native-English administration was not trying to bring in the property system of England, let alone that of Continental Europe. There is indeed difference between the feudal systems of Continental Europe and that of England. Why such a difference is there can be understood only by understanding the basic coding difference between that of the Continental European languages and that of pristine-English.

For instance, the French feudal system was quite a tragic item, while the feudal system of England was not tragic for the social system, if that feudalism is compared with that of Asian, African and Continental European feudal systems.

The feudal systems of South Asia might not have any corresponding items with that of English or Continental European feudal systems.

Image

Image

As to the local customary laws going into disarray, well it was a good thing. However, what was bad was that English administration suddenly dropped everything and vanished, before a perfectly egalitarian social and communication systems had been enforced. That was due to the handiwork of the satan Clement Alee.

I can only say that each member of the British Labour Party who endeavoured to destroy the English Empire should suffer till eternity for the great sufferings they brought all around the world. In the subcontinent alone, in the northern parts, around 1million persons were killed in the immediate aftermath of the stopping of the English rule, and handing over the location to stark selfish low-class politicians.

The insecurity to the ryots thus occasioned has resulted in fanatical outrages by Mappillas and in a great increase of crime


The writer of the above statement is trying to place the blame of the Mappilla outrages on the higher castes, on the English administration. All this fool has to do is to check the communication codes between the traditional higher castes and the newly socially improved Mappillas to find out the root cause of these outrages. Even in the US, at times native-Englishmen have gone berserk when these kinds of Satanic verbal codes are inflicted on them. Check what Adam Purinton did!

thinking that the idea hitherto generally received that in ancient times there was no such thing as a land assessment in Malabar is, after all, a mistaken one. Knowledge on this subject is at present extremely limited, and it is now doubtful whether the point, if it is eventually cleared up, will hereafter be of any other than antiquarian interest


This is part of the tall claims that every modern items conceived and brought into the subcontinent was already there in the subcontinent. Even the current-day Indian navy is now being taught as being the development of the ancient naives of Cholas and other small-time kingdoms of South Asia. If this be so, what will Pakistan and Bangladesh teach in their schools could be a item for pondering.

It is possible that in some remote historical period, there might have been some kind of land assessment in the location currently mentioned as Malabar at some time or other. History does date backwards to millions of year. However, that kind of historical events do not have any connection with what was seen in Malabar by the English Company officials.

It will be seen from the paper on Tenures that custom - and not, as in these modern days, competition—ruled everything


This is a very cunning complicated statement. There is no competition possible in a feudal-language based feudal social system. That is true. For, the slave cannot compete with his next higher caste. He will be crushed down, and even hacked into pieces, if he were to do something like that. And his demeanour will be terrible, due to the fact that he exists in a lower code area. His words will be of terrible degrading quality, if he is allowed any leeway to address the higher castes without ‘respect’.

However, when we look upon native-English systems, there is a totally different ambience that cannot be compared with the native systems of the subcontinent. The basic difference is that English entrepreneurship does not have any satanic aim of arriving at a higher verbal code location above the workers or labourers. This very concept is unknown in English. So, there is no way to compare an English entrepreneurship with that of an entrepreneurship of India, Pakistan or Bangladesh.

Because this factor is there in the subcontinent, everything has a satanic quality in them. When I say Satanic, I mean it. The people arrive at various levels of human degradation or ennoblement, just by the work they do. There is no such thing in English. The native-Englishman cannot understand how by doing any work, a human being can get differently defined as a dirty or gold, in every communication code.

From that date forward the land disputes and troubles began, and the views above described of the Joint Commissioners were not the only causes contributing to the anarchy which ensued.


Image

The rascality of the above statement is that this is being mentioned about a land in which almost all throughout history there was incessant fighting, killing, hacking and demonization of human beings. Just before the period in context here, Muslim raider came from Mysore and all the higher castes ran off for their lives. If the English administration was not there in Tellicherry, all the higher castes would have been made the lowest of the castes and made the servants of the lowest castes. The higher castes females would have been taken up by the lowest castes as their concubines or literally shared by the lowest caste males.

The anarchy that the fool has mentioned above was felt because of the relative serenity that had arrived in the social scene. Otherwise, there would be no time to think of these things. Every week there would be plans for attacking others, or for resisting the attacks of the others.

Image

See this QUOTE from Travancore State Manual:

The Sivarathri was not good day for a Hindu to die in and the Maharajah, it is said, told his doctor and attendants on his death-bed: “Yes I know that to-day is Chuturdasi, but it is unavoidable considering the sins of war I have committed with Rama Iyan when we both conquered and annexed several petty States to Travancore. Going to hell is unavoidable under the circumstances. I can never forget the horrors to which we have been parties during those wars. How then do you expect me to die on a better day than Chaturdasi? May God forgive me all my sins”


This quote is from a book which was an official document of the Travancore kingdom’s government. Just imagine what happened in all the small kingdoms around Travancore. Changacherry, Chengannur, Kayamkulam, Ambalapuzha, Attingal, Quilon, Kottayam and many more minute kingdoms?

But the Civil Courts, acting on the idea that the janmi was a dominus and as such entitled to take what he could get out of the land, viewed his pledges as pledges of the soil itself, and in this way they have almost completely upset the native system of customary sharing of the produce.


This again is the words of some higher caste writer. That the bringing in of written codes of law in civil and property disputes was retrograde step! In a land where there was no conventions or systems worth mentioning, other than that of ‘might is right’, actually the coming in of the written laws were a great step forward. However, the whole thing was still in a mess due to the fact that all these things had to be filled into a feudal language ambience. Where every communication and human relationship was in varying routes and strings.
Nothing was straight forward.

This excellent arrangement necessarily fell to pieces at once when the Civil Courts began to recognise the force of contract—the Western or European law— as superior to the force of custom—the Eastern or Indian law.


These are all very malicious lies. For, at hand is not a confrontation between Western or European and ‘Indian’ systems. It was a confrontation between what the native-English (not Western or European as is mentioned here) officials try to bring in and the attitude of the higher castes (Hindus and Nayars) to resist it. The force of custom in the subcontinent (not ‘India’. India was not yet born) was that of hierarchy in all relationship, which, if everyone in the hierarchy concedes to it, becomes a regimentation that accepts what the higher castes said or demanded.
With the coming of the native-English rule, this oppressive hold on everyone was broken. However, it would take time to build up an egalitarian social system based on English. However, this route was stopped in 1947 by the crooks in the British Labour Party.

Under the native customary law the cultivator could not be ousted except by a decree of the tara, for the janmi was powerless unless be acted in strict accordance with the Nayar guild whose function was “to prevent the rights from being curtailed or suffered to fall into disuse” as the Keralolpatti expressly says.


What a foolish writing! Nayar guilds are there to protect Hindu and Nayar interests from the competition of the lower castes. As to quoting from Keralolpathi, it is another foolish idea. It has been more or less proved in this very book, Malabar, that Keralolpathi is a forged document written with some sinister interests.

Mr. Graeme's proposals in regard to wet lands and diverted his attention away from points in regard to the position of subtenants, to which the Court of Directors had turned their earnest attention, but precipitated the collision between the parties interested in the land, and indirectly led to the Mappilla fanatical outrages and other evils


It is true that the English administration was misled many times by their own native-officialdom, which was dominated by the Hindus (Brahmins) and Nayars. However to place the blame of the Mappilla outrages on the English administration is a deed of the devil. The Mappilla outrages were caused by various factors, and the land reforms of the English could be the least of the causes.

Check this QUOTE:
There is no doubt whatever that Oodhut Roy, a Mysorean Mahratta Revenue officer, misled the Joint Commissioners


This is one thing that the native-English could not understand. That people will look into the face and tell lies with total nonchalance.

Egypt then became not only the centre of literary cultivation and learning for the Hellenic world, but an emporium of trade and the centre of great commercial enterprises


The above is just the kind of nonsense that was written by some native of the subcontinent scholar. He must be totally blind to the reality of what was happening all around him. The social system was changing for the better. But then, the higher castes did have much to grieve about it.

For in Tellicherry area, it was the lower caste Marumakkathaya Thiyyas who improved much due to English education. It had its tragic sides.

Now, with all this great changes in knowledge, dressing standards, social mobility, education, human rights etc. happening right in front of him, the writer is extolling some nonsense connecting to the Hellenic world and Egypt. The very profound mistake in these kinds of scholarly writings is the sterile understanding about trade and commerce. Trade and commerce are actually very dangerous things. In fact, they can bring in various problems to the people.

As a person who has had enough and more varied experiences in business, I can categorically mention that in a commercial location in a feudal language social ambience, only the bosses and their companions enjoy all the benefits. The others literally suffer.

Even for England and the US, unbridled entry of outsider businessmen can do damage to their own native citizens. Only in the case of English colonialism, did the entry of outsiders bring in goodness to the social environment. And again this was not due to trade, but due to the entry of various other social goodness. Including the egalitarian English language.

The positive benefits of English colonialisms cannot be replicated by any feudal language systems.




Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:27 pm, edited 5 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

12. Nairs / Nayars

Post posted by VED »

12 #

Now, that I have created the framework on which to work on, let me first start with the population group mentioned in the book as Nairs or Nayars.

I will be mentioning items about this population which might seem quite mean. However there is no antipathy that I bear upon this population. In fact, I can understand their urges and their terrors and claims and their aspirations. And also their desperation to create a corridor of distance, when a new entity called the English East India Company was slowly diffusing into the social system and literally erasing a lot of carefully placed social-fences. Beyond all this I am aware of a very resounding quality-feature expression from their side. Something not many other populations groups in this irascible nation would dare to do. What that is, I will mention later.

However as of now, I will go through items which definitely will sound dreary to the Nairs. But before commencing on this, I will make another quite drastic mention.

In a feudal language social ambience, the lower placed persons and populations naturally acquire a demeaning quality. Their very presence, touch, stare, seeing, commenting, association etc. convey a most debasing emotion. Why this is so, can be made clear only by explaining the whereabouts and the ways and manners of feudal language verbal codes. I cannot go into them here.

First let me give a description of the Nair caste as understood locally and from the various books such as the Travancore State Manual, Native Life in Travancore, Castes and Tribes of Southern India etc.

Nair caste in its pristine form was the Sudra caste. The word Sudra connects to the Aryan four Caste (Chaturvarnya system of division). It is the lower-most caste in that system. In which case, they should be of Sanskrit ancestry and antiquity. It is quite doubtful if they have any known Sanskrit ancestry of antiquity.

Image

I have found this quote in Travancore State Manual:

These Nagas became the Kiriathu Nayars of later Malabar claiming superiority in rank and status over the rest of the Malayali Sudras of the west coast.


I do not know how to understand this statement. It is presumably taken from Keralolpathi, which is a book with a lot unmentioned issues.

In the Malabar region, the dominating religious group was the Brahmin religion. This is what actually can be mentioned as the local version of the Hindu religion. But then, how much content of the Sanskrit antiquity and ancestry is there in the Brahmins of Malabar is not known to me. I presume it to be quite feeble. But then, they do have a religious heritage which is different from that of the others.

Then there are populations known as the Ambalavasis. They are an array of population groups who can be defined as those allowed entry into Brahmin places of worship, like the temples. They, by vocation, are those who can do the various kinds of work inside a temple. Such as sweeping, gathering flowers, cleaning, cooking etc. How much they belong to the Brahmin religion is not known to me. However, Brahmin religion is the religion of the Brahmins. This is what should be known as Hinduism.

Then comes the population group known as the Nairs or Sudras. Looking at the words Nairs and Sudras, it should be felt that there is some dichotomy in the sense they convey. For ‘Nair’ is a word that is understood to mean the ‘higher caste’, by the population groups who identify themselves as lower to them.

At the same time, the word ‘Sudra’ can mean that they themselves are the lowest population group among another set of population. Now, this is a point that has to be very clearly and delicately discussed with a razor sharp precision.

If the old caste-hierarchy of Malabar region is compared with the modern police hierarchy in Kerala, the corresponding layers are thus:

The various layers inside the Brahmin group can be compared to the IPS officers’ cadre (Indian Police Service cadre). This is the royalty of the police administration in India.

Below them come the Ambalavasi (Temple worker) population groups. They can be compared to the below-IPS officer cadre. This would include the DySp., Circle Inspectors and Sub Inspectors.

Below them would come the Nairs / Nayars. They would correspond with the Head Constables and the Constables.

This is one point for more inspection with regard to claims in the book.

It is quite easily understandable that the Nairs were quite comfortable with the extremely low-level populations of the social order. That is the lower castes such as the Pulaya, Pariah, Malayan, Kurichiyan, Kurumban, Cherumar etc. For, they were so lowly in every aspect that they would not pose any kind of immediate threat to the Nair layer.

However, the Thiyya group of population was a different proposition altogether. They came just below the Nair layer. They had to display a verbal and body posture subordination to the Nairs and above. However, they themselves acted superior and touch-me-not to the various population groups below them.

In a feudal-language social set-up, having some layers of people below is a great personality-enhancing experience. This was one querulous plus-point that the Thiyyas experienced in north Malabar.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:28 pm, edited 5 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

13. A digression to Thiyyas

Post posted by VED »

13 #

Before going ahead with the information on Thiyyas, there is something more to be mentioned about them. When the English administration set up its legal and judicial process in Malabar, they were confronted with one confusing issue. The word Thiyyas was seen to define two entirely different population groups.

One was the Thiyyas of north Malabar. That is north of Korapuzha. Then there was the Thiyyas of south Malabar. These two population groups were mutually different and distant. The former was following Matriarchal family system. That is, the family property moved to the heirs through the female children. The children of the male members did not inherit the family property. These children received their ancestral property from their mother’s family.

The Thiyyas of south Malabar followed the Patriarchal family system. That is, the children of the male members inherited the family property.

Between these two castes with the same name, there existed some kind of caste-based repulsion. The north Malabar Thiyyas, especially the socially higher class Thiyyas of Malabar, did not allow any matriarchal relationship with the Thiyyas of south Malabar.

Why this was so, is not known to me. However, it is possible that this might point to two different origins for these two different population groups.

Generally there was a tendency among non-Thiyya castes, especially the Ezhavas, when they reside in Malabar to identify themselves as Thiyyas.

Moreover, it has been observed by such writers as Rev. Samuel Mateers and I think by Thurston also, that there was a tendency to jump into a higher caste when any family relocate to a different location. This automatically places them at a greater social advantage.

It is like head constable in one state in India, when he moves to another state for a temporary residence, informing others that he is a police Circle Inspector in his own state. Off course, nowadays this is not much possible, due to technology making all such distances quite near. However, in a situation wherein there is no means to check the antecedents of a person, it is quite easy to jump up.

However, Rev. Samuel Mateers does mention the following:

Pretences are sometimes made by individuals to higher than their real caste. During a festival at Trivandrum, several goldsmiths putting on the dress and ornaments of a superior caste, walked boldly into the temple. We have known one or two apostates from Christianity, well-educated in English, who assumed Sudra names, and passed in distant parts of the country as such.

But impostors are detected by very simple means. A Shanar youth who took the high-caste seat at a public cook-shop was discovered by his mode of eating rice, picking it up with the fingers, while a Brahman scoops it up gently with the side of the hand lest he should tear with his nails the leaves which they are accustomed to use as plates.

Strangers at feasts are therefore closely scrutinised and watched. Still, changes in caste do, in odd instances, succeed.


In the local areas, traditionally there were two different ethnic origins mentioned about the ethnicity of the Thiyyas. One was that they were from ancient Greece. The other was that they were from the Tian-Sang Mountain-range regions of north-central Asia. I personally feel that north Malabar Thiyya antiquity could have been connected to Greece. South Malabar Thiyyas could be from north-central Asia. This is a just a gut feeling based on some information found in certain 1800s’ writings.

As of now, Thiyya bloodline in many households seems to have become mixed with the Ezhava bloodline from Travancore.

However, it is possible that the Marumakkathaya Thiyya arrived on the Malabar shore in some century in the distant past. Since they did not know the hidden treachery in the language codes, some of them took up the extremely terrifying and daring occupation of coconut-tree climbing. The physical capacity to do this is an accomplishment, which few people have.

Image

In the feudal-language codes of the local language, this action acts like a switch. The person, his associates, his family members and even his complete group can get placed very forcefully in a degraded verbal slot. Once placed inside this slot, the doors shut and the population literally gets subordinated to the level assigned for them. This subordination is not something that can be understood in English. Everything that can give any sense of dignity and self-confidence is erased out.

This becomes so powerful an emotion that the affected person/s would not even sit in the presence of their superior.

They will be addressed and referred to in the most degrading forms of the word-forms for You ഇഞ്ഞി, ഇനക്ക്, Your ഇൻ്റെ, Yours ഇന്‍റേത്, He ഓൻ, His ഓന്‍റെ, Him ഓൻ, She ഓള്, Her ഓടെ, Hers ഓൾടേത്, They ഐറ്റിങ്ങൾ, Their ഐറ്റിങ്ങടെ, Theirs ഐറ്റിങ്ങടത്, Them ഐറ്റിങ്ങക്ക് etc.

The working of the social machine is a bit complicated. Nairs are also addressed by similar verbal usages by the Brahmins. However, they do not feel the terrorising degradation. Instead they feel the placing of them into their supervisor slot, when thus addressed and referred to by the Brahmins.

However, in the case of the Thiyyas who went in for the degrading physical labour, the cunning technique used to place them down powerfully is to use similar level and also lower-level populations groups to address them by these degrading words. Then it is a powerful pushing-down and pulling-down effect.

Incidentally, I may mention here that this is now an ongoing social phenomenon in England. The native-English speaking population of England are slowly being placed in a like-manner into a hideous slot by the immigrant crowds who speak feudal-languages. Once a sizable number of native-English speakers are thus defined and confined in the slots, all that the immigrant groups need to do is to forcefully shift the spoken-language to their native language. The trap-door shuts and then there is no escape. At that point the native-English future generations will become the repulsive lower-castes.

Not all of the north Malabar Thiyyas who arrived on the north Malabar coast went in for these coconut-tree connected professions. That much is evident from the population’s social demeanour. Many must have remained as land owners and some as land lessees. However there is a total blackout on them inside this book, Malabar, purported to have been written by William Logan.

Then there are certain families who are by hereditary, practitioners of a local herbal medical system. This is in some ways connected to the herbal treatment systems found all over India, and also in the other geographical locations including Continental Europe. So, it does seem that the original immigrants in all nations did include various kinds of professionals. In the South Asian peninsular region, they might have rearranged themselves as per the designs in the language codes.

Among the north Malabar Thiyyas, there is indeed a group who calls themselves as Vaishyar, more or less connecting to Vaidyas (professional herbalists). They are the practitioners of the herbal treatment system. As of now, this is locally known as Ayurvaidyam. I do not know what the root source of this treatment is. It does seem to have global connections in the ancient world. These Vaishyars in the interior location of north Malabar did try to mention a distance from the local labour class Thiyyan/Thiyyathi. That they are from a different and higher population group.

However, it is true that among the land-owning rich Thiyyas, there is an innate tendency to declare a distance from the labour class Thiyyas. This again is powerfully connected to the feudal codes in the local language.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:29 pm, edited 7 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

14. Designing the background

Post posted by VED »

14 #

Now coming back to the Nairs, if the Nairs are accepted to be from the Sudra caste antiquity, then there comes the issue of how they acquired a higher-caste physical-demeanour and social status.

Here again the feudal language-codes act in a very peculiar manner in the social machinery, in more than one way. The Brahmins are in social command. How they acquired it is not known. There are some quotes from the Keralolpathi, given in this book (Malabar), whereby it seems to promote the idea that the Brahmins were handed over the social power by Parasurama. However, Keralolpathi is a book with serious credibility problems, apart from certain other more terrific issues. I will deal with those items later.

From whatever is quoted from Keralolpathi, there is nothing to suggest how the Brahmins continued to hold on to the social heights. However, if one does know the codes inside the local feudal languages, one can very easily identify the codes that assign divine aura to certain groups of people. Along with this, certain other codes deny dignity to other sections of the population. This can also be known.

In a feudal-language social ambience, it is not the higher-calibre persons who are assigned positions of responsibility and power by those on the heights. Instead, they give the power and position to persons who cringe and obey and exhibit obeisance and servitude. Those who are ready to offer almost anything that is asked for by the higher-placed persons, get the posts. Those who stand out in a pose of dignity are very cunningly denied any social status. They slowly go down in the social set up.

Look at the stature of the Indian police constables, both male and female. It may be seen that in India, where extremely high-quality persons are available, those who get posted as police constables are quite obviously the totally low-quality persons. In feudal languages, the officers would find most it most convenient to have extremely low-class subordinates. If the police constables are generally of a very high intellectual and personal quality, the officers would find it quite difficult to have them as handymen and women.

It is seen mentioned that the Sudra households of the distant past, set up a tradition of allowing entry into their houses for certain higher-class Brahmins. They could have temporary alliance with the women-folk therein. From a planar social set-up, if this procedure is viewed, it might seem quite an irregular and immoral system. However, from a feudal-language social ambience, wherein verbal codes are strictly enforced, no one would find any fault in this. For, a close contact with a Brahmin would only convey a divine aura to the household and to the female.

However, if the same female were to be viewed or mentioned or addressed in a profane manner or even called by name by a lower-caste male or female, that woman would feel the degradation. These are things that cannot be understood in English.

There is a huge difference in associating with a lower individual from that with a higher individual. The whole verbal codes change. This is a phenomenon that cannot be understood in English.

From a low-population perspective, the whole affair would be described as despicable. However, that is very much connected to the envy and hatred to populations who act superior. The lower castes see a breach in the cloak of superiority of the Nayars which they take up for sneering comments.

Image

See this QUOTE from Sultan Tipu’s when he had over-run Malabar command:

: and since it is a practice with you for one woman to associate with ten men, and you leave your mothers and sisters unconstrained in their obscene practices, and are thence all born in adultery, and are more shameless in your connexions than the beasts of the field : I hereby inquire you to forsake those sinful practices, and live like the rest of mankind.


Females with social stature, offering themselves to the Brahmin, was a very wonderful experience for the Brahmins. Such a level of devotedness and servitude would naturally be rewarded. This could be one of the main items which promoted the Brahmins to uphold the Sudras up.

It is like a low-class man being appointed as a police constable. There would be other population groups who are of higher quality than this constable. But then what is the use? They all have to cringe and bow and exhibit servitude to the constable. Otherwise, they would get to feel the terrible wrath and fury of the whole police force.

Now, this is slightly what could have happened to the Thiyyas. Their first mistake was in doing a work which in the feudal languages would very powerfully assign them a lower slot in the social order. The second item that could have made them go down is the issue of body language which might not be that of obeisance. An English-type of body-language is seen to be the body-language of impertinence. In current-day India, when the police force is slowly changing into that of total feudal language communication, a pose of dignity would get the person end-up first in an hospital and then in the jail.

However, in the case of the Thiyyas of north Malabar, they were slowly swindled into a social location wherein they were dirt. However, the more intransigent castes and populations were totally degraded into subhuman levels. They remained as the Paraiah, Pulaya, Vedan, Malayan etc. in the varying locations at the bottom dirt levels.

However, Edgar Thurston does mention that the Thiyyas of north Malabar, especially those of Tellicherry and nearby places were quite fair in skin-complexion to the extent that some of them could quite easily pass off as Europeans. This was also true. I have personally seen such persons in my own childhood in Tellicherry area. However, I have also seen that in the case of many of them, their next generation went into total loss of this feature. Why this happened also can be very easily explained. However, I am leaving that issue.

I had found the following quote in Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume I, written by Edgar Thurston.

: Concerning the Dikshitars, Mr. W. Francis writes as follows* :—"...............is the property of a class of Brahmans peculiar to the town, who are held in far more respect than the generality of the temple-priest Brahmans, are called Dikshitars (those who make oblations), marry only among themselves, and in appearance somewhat resemble the Nayars or Tiyans of Malabar, bringing their top-knot round to the front of their foreheads.


I mentioned the above quote to pick out a very casual observation by a disinterested third party. That, there is some kind of physical resemblance between the Nayars and Thiyyas of Malabar in physical stature. And the words ‘of Malabar’ may also be noted.

However, the disinterested party, that is a native-Brit made an observation based on some isolated social scene he had seen. Nayar and Thiyyas did not have the same physical stature in many locations of north Malabar. However, in certain locations where the Thiyyas were not totally suppressed into a physical labour class, some of the Thiyya families did have looks which was as mentioned by Edgar Thurston. Quite fair and tall.

At the same time, it might be mentionable that there are Nayars who do not have the same physical features mentioned above.

The reader may notice the specific mention of ‘north’ Malabar in my words. It is because ‘south’ Malabar was different with a different population group. The higher classes of the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas of north Malabar exhibited a disdain for the south Malabar Makkathaya Thiyyas. However, this is not the end of the issue. The Nairs of north Malabar also had a similar kind of repulsion for the Nairs of South Malabar.

See this quote from this book, Malabar:
: but this is rendered doubtful by the fact that down to the present day Nayar women from North Malabar may not pass to the south of the Ellattur river


I do not have much information about south Malabar. If I am to refer to some book and write, it would take a lot of time to filter out a lot of false information in this. For, almost all current-day writings in India on these kinds of things are full of lies and slanted versions of events. Almost everyone suppresses information that is not supportive of their side. And glorifies their population side. Or anything or anyone who does the same thing. Words like ‘greatest in the world’ is a very commonly found adjective.

The social repulsion exhibited by both the Nayars as well as the Thiyyas of north Malabar to the corresponding castes in south Malabar, seems to be too much to be casually mentioned off as a coincidence. There was indeed something specifically in the history of the various populations that encoded these kinds of things. However, the book Malabar, does not mention these things. In fact, many of the information given in the book, which most probably is the inputs of the native-officials, are barren in this regard. Almost all these writings purposefully aim at glorifying their own caste populations; and degrading the others. All other finer details are simply wiped off.

Image

This attitude is in sync with what Rev. Samuel Mateer has mentioned in his book Native Life in Travancore:

:— the amount of research bestowed by each to discover local traditions, verbal derivations, analogies in ceremonies or usages, or anything whatever that might enable them to out-vie rival castes — the contempt felt for the boasting of others — and the age-long memories of reported or imagined honours once enjoyed by them.


There is this quite curious bit of information that came to my notice in this book:

1. “I cannot offer even a plausible conjecture how, or at what time, a connection existed between Nepal and Tibet, and Canara, but I cannot doubt that such was the case.”

2. Mr. Forgusson has the following suggestive remarks in his work on the “History of Indian and Eastern Architecture” : ‘that it is remarkable enough that the Newar women, like those among the Nayars, may, in fact, have as many husbands as they please, being at liberty to divorce them continually on the slightest pretence.’

3. In fact, there are no two tribes in India, except the Nayars and Newars, who are known to have the same strange notions as to female chastity, and that coupled with the architecture and other peculiarities, seems to point to a similarity of race which is both curious and interesting.

The point here seems to indicate that Nayars have some ancestral connection with some population known as Newars in the Nepal area. How farfetched this idea is not known to me.

One possibility might be that one or the other Nairs (north or south Malabar) and the north Malabar Thiyyas might be of the same origin. They separated after becoming connected to the native feudal languages, which have the capacity to splinter up human populations into one-sided repulsion and one-sided attraction population groups. There are two points of correspondence between the Nayars and north Malabar Thiyyas. That is, both are following Marumakkathaya family traditions.

Yet, still it is also plausible that the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas are from the north-central Asian region as mentioned earlier.

As to there being any kind of cultural commonness between the Nayars and the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas, well, this is actually designed over the years by the level in the feudal languages. Persons and populations assigned a lower grade in the verbal codes are different from those assigned a higher stature. Genetic designs can be over-written by language codes. That is a fact.

It is the same level of stature in the language codes that actually creates a common population group. Caste is only a solidification of this levelling. Once this verbal levelling is changed, the caste-based grouping would also change over the years.

For instance, if one brother becomes a small-time coolie and the other brother becomes an IAS / IPS officer, in such a way that both of them do not have any connection with each other, the language codes would change their physical and mental demeanour very much. Within a generation or two, there would be little visible signs to show that there was some kind of commonness, other than some facial feature similarity.

Now, if the two brothers knew each other, there would be a certain amount of repulsion towards the coolie brother for the IPS brother. He would in most probability not even like to mention his coolie brother. However, the Coolie brother, in spite of feeling bad that his IPS brother is giving him a wide berth, would be quite attracted to his IPS brother, and would most probably mention his relationship to him.

It is possible that the Nayar and Thiyyas of north Malabar could be one population group that got separated by the language codes. However, this contention cannot hold much water. For, the Nayars do have a Sudra ancestry, which the Thiyyas do not have. So, it is more probable that the Nayars emerged to higher stature through a Brahmin link, while the Thiyyas went down through a verbal degrading route.

What is the situation between the Nayars of South Malabar and Makkathaya Thiyyas of South Malabar is not known to me.

However, there is a lot of purported information mentioned as from Keralolpathi. That book seems to promote the idea of a single Kerala in the days of antiquity, and that the whole of the geography was under one single dynasty. This may or may not be true. Most probably, if true, only for a very brief period. History of the world does not commence from the period mentioned in Keralolpathi.

If there is such a population-repulsion between those in North Malabar and South Malabar, how could a single kingdom be there which is supposed to encompass even the Travancore region? Keralolpathi is a useless book of historical records, possibly. Since I have not read it, I cannot say anything for sure.

The common points among the common people of north Malabar of yesteryears is the general fair complexion of their skin. This has slightly gone down in recent years, I feel. Second is the Matriarchal family system seen among both the Nayars as well as the Thiyyas there. Some Muslims groups also did have this, I think.

Third is the general repulsion for the populations of South Malabar. Travancore did not actually come into the picture at all, maybe till Gundert and party appeared on the Malabar scene and came out with a Keralolpathi.

It is curious that there is no reasonable information on why this population-repulsion came about.

There is another fanciful commonness found among the Nairs and the Thiyyas of North Malabar. Both of them have their own hereditary deities which are more or less Shamanistic in form. They may not have any real antique connection with the Brahmanical religion of the Vedic culture. However, the Shamanistic deities of the Nairs seems to be different from the Shamanistic deities of the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas.

The most mentioned deity of the Thiyyas is the Muthappan. There are others also. As for the Nairs, one deity named Mavan is seen mentioned in the footnotes, in the book Malabar, as a deity of the Nairs. There are others such as: Kuttichathan, Paradevatha, Asuraputhran, Gulikan, Chamundi &c. However, I am not sure if these deities are solely Nayar deities, or deities common with other lower castes such as Marumakkathaya Thiyyas, Makkathaya Thiyyas, Malayans &c.

There is some sameness. And yet, in the earlier days at least, the Nair common folks used to keep a distance from the Thiyya deities and worship systems. For the Thiyya deities were the gods of the populations they saw as low-grade.

Now, this idea would more or less disconnect to the Sudra ancestry of the Nayars. However, there is a lot of confusion. It is only to be understood that in a single generation of people, with an average life-span of around 45 to 60 years, so many things happen. So many mixings happen. So many warfare, fights, relocation etc.

Image

The people of Travancore are mentioned to have a Tamil heritage. While the north Malabar region has had a language which had not much content of either Sanskrit or Tamil. Now, how do one go about with this information?

With regard to the Travancore history this is seen mentioned:
: were in turn brought under subjection by an irruption of the Tamil race (Nayars) under Kshatriya leaders from the East Coast.


Here it seems that the Nayars of Travancore were Tamilians. Then how come there is a single Nayar caste? Well, that is not a error-free question. For there is a hierarchy of castes inside the Nayars itself.

Image

But then, are the Nayars all the same in some way? The only sameness must be similar to the sameness one would see in the immigrants to England from various nations. After all of them live under the English systems for a few generations, there would not be any difference left in them, other than skin-colour, and certain traces of facial features.

Image

Like that those populations who were placed in the rank of the Nayars, as supervisors by the Brahmin populations would slowly seem to be one population. The population groups who placed their women-folks at the beck and call of the Brahman folks are those who come to the fore.

What is the reason for allowing such terrific rights to the Brahmins? It needs to be understood that to arrive at a higher language-code level above the so-many terrible populations who would want to crush them down, the general attitude would be to concede to this. For, it is much better to go up above the lower-placed populations, who would be more crude, rough, ill-mannered and totally uncouth. Their very eye-language would be Inhi / Nee /Thoo to those who they have no ‘respect’.

Image

Over the centuries, all the different population groups who got placed in the Nayar level would slowly evolve out of their own ancestral bloodline and would reflect both the Brahmanical bloodline as well as the higher-position they have in the language codes.

South Asia is a land in which in many locations, a fair skin-complexion is seen as quite attractive and of a superior social mien. This is a point to be noted. For, it does give an impetus to dark-skinned populations groups to get connected to fair-skinned population groups.

Now, speaking about the Thiyyas, there is something more to be mentioned. It is that among the Thiyyas themselves, there is severe grading depending on the stature of the household and also connected to the occupation. Many Thiyyas were by ancestry connected to the job of plucking coconuts. This naturally connects them to the other allied profession. That is of Toddy-tapping on the coconut trees.

From an English perspective, there is nothing wrong in these professions. However, in the local feudal vernacular, this profession has been assigned the low-grade stature words. Words for He, Him, His, and You, Your and Yours would be that of the dirt level, from their own caste higher persons. This dirt-level-ing of words is in itself a complicated social machine process. I cannot explain it here. Interested readers can peruse the book I mentioned earlier.

The association to this low-graded professional did give a pull and tug towards the bottom levels of the social order. It affects the communication codes to a disadvantage. Especially when viewed from the perspective of the higher classes.

So among the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas themselves, there came into being a sort of caste-divide inside their own caste. There were the Thiyyan and Thiyyathi, who were literally treated as dirt in the verbal codes. They were the labour class of people. Devoid of all rights to dignified verbal codes from the higher castes and from their own caste land-owners. The other more prominent Thiyyas owned lands and also had administration over their own centres of worship. This information I am more or less writing from an impressionistic understanding of history.

This higher-level Thiyyas were the Thiyyars. Not the Thiyyan or Thiyyathi. This difference in verbal designation is what is derived from the feudal codes of the local language. The Thiyyar individuals would address the Thiyyan and Thiyyathi as Inhi ഇഞ്ഞി, and refer to them as Oan ഓൻ and Oal ഓള്. They in reverse would address and refer to the Thiyyars as Ingal ഇങ്ങള് and Oar ഓര്.

In effect the local feudal language has created very powerful disintegration and split inside the same population group. The higher-class Thiyyars would quite frankly show their distance and repulsion to the Thiyyans and Thiyyathi. This information I am adding from my own observations. It may not be possible to find any written records or evidence for this.

In between I should mention that this kind of terrific splintering in the social fabric is happening right now in England, as the feudal-language speakers slowly spread out inside the soft belly of the native-English society over there.

The newly-arrived-in-Malabar native-English administrators were more or less impervious to these issues. This was the first danger that the Nairs noted. That they can be quite easily dislodged by the Thiyyas. For, in English, there is not much of a premium value in displaying extreme servitude and obeisance. In fact, if they tried to offer or exhibit any of the kind of obeisance they practised towards the native-English officials, at best they would go down in stature.

The larger issue can be seen in the fact that many Englishmen who went in for long-stay here took Thiyya lower-class females as their woman / wife here. This is something no native higher-class man would dare to do. It would simply pull his stature down into the gutters. It would reflect in everyone’s verbal codes, even in his own wife’s family members’. However, the English to a long extent remain aloof from all this, even though it might be true that a slight quality degradation would set in, the moment they get defined by their local family connections, in the native languages. This highly explosive information never seems to have entered into the heads of the native-English. Even now, they do not know anything about this.

The commencement of an Anglo-Thiyya blood population groups in Tellicherry and surrounding areas must have created terrific dins of dissonance in the higher caste social web. It would be most keenly felt by the Nairs. For they stood on the location which shared its boundary with the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas.

Being on the lower-grade of the language-codes does bring in terrific quality deficiency. Not only does the intellectual quality in ordinary conversation go down, but even their words of referring can be terrible demeaning for others. Entry of one single Thiyya into the officer cadre of the English administration would go a long way to spray the codes of degradation on to all other higher castes in the work area of the same officer.

This degradation is caused by the bridge that this single individual has created to all his lower-social grade companions and relatives to converse about the higher caste individuals with the least of ‘respect’ and ‘reverence’. In fact, all Nairs in the officer cadre can easily do down to the levels of the labour class Thiyya relatives of the officer Thiyya. They would very easily get converted into Oan ഓൻ and Oal ഓള്, in the conversations of the low-grade populations. Their rightful position is actually that of Oar ഓര്.

Before going ahead with the book commentary, I would like to insert this much here. Allowing the lower-grade people to address a higher standard population with such words as Inhi/ Nee ഇഞ്ഞി/നീ, Oan/Avan ഓൻ/അവൻ, Oal/Aval ഓള്/അവൾ etc. (all lowest grade verbal codes for You, he, she etc.) is a very demeaning work. The person or the persons who get addressed, if they are of higher personality quality will get degraded into a level of stinking excrement. Others of quality will try to keep away from their proximity.

Affected persons may go into mental agony, paranoia and even epileptic seizures. I mention this much to denote that they are all very powerful language codes.

Now, this is a common experience in India. The lower-grade police constables are allowed the freedom to use these words on any individual who are accosted by them, and appear to them as socially vulnerable. This idea may be understood in a further manner. That, in the newly-formed nation of India, a small percentage of the population is of golden standards. They possess the right to higher grade verbal codes. The main group who have come to hold this right in a sort of hereditary manner is the Indian government officials.

Image

That does not mean that all the other Indians are stinking excrement. Most of the higher social classes are also in the higher bracket. But a huge section of the population are stinking dirt, who can be addressed in the most meanest of verbal usages by the police constables. From this information, the reason why the people who live in India are generally defined as some kind of dirt by the Indians who have relocated to the English west and to Continental Europe, can be understood.

There is some truth in their assertion. The degraded populations of India cannot even address a government office worker as an equal or subordinate. If the requisite ‘respect’ is not given to the government office worker, he or she is done for.

This is the real fact about the so-called independent nation of India. When the English administration ditched the people of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh and handed them over to the government employees, the people quality went into decay.

However, the real training of the people into a excrement mentality is done in the vernacular schools of the nation. The teachers, most of them totally of the very low intellectual class, use the lower indicant word form of You, Your, Yours, He, His, Him, She, Her, Hers etc. to the students. And also differentiate the parents into Adhehams അദ്ദേഹം (gold) and Avans അവൻ (dirt). The former consists of the government officials, doctor, and big business owners etc. The latter consists of ordinary workers and such.

This is a huge topic. I do not want to go into that. Interested readers are again requested to read the ‘An Impressionistic History of South Asian Subcontinent’.

It is quite curious that two individuals from the subcontinent got Noble Prize for supporting ‘education’. One escaped to England. The tragedy of England! I will leave that topic here.

Now, I am going to take up the ‘Nair’ mention in this book, Malabar purported to have been written by William Logan. The reader must bear in mind that I am giving frank impressions. If the Nairs or Thiyyars or any other population group feels insulted, it had not been my aim to do so. Moreover, people react to the language codes. When they feel that any association with anyone else can degrade their defining verbal codes, they will make all desperate attempts to negate it. If they feel that another person or groups of persons are going to outwit them or to go above them, they will get terrorised. Because all such events can create cataclysmic changes in the language codes.

In a feudal language system, language codes are everything. Just like codes are very powerful inside a software.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:37 pm, edited 5 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

15. Content of current-day populations

Post posted by VED »

15 #

Each individual has two parents. Father and mother. Each of these individuals have their own parents. If we go backward like this, it is easily seen that each person currently living would be connected to 1024 individuals some ten generations back. And to 32,768 individuals some 15 generations back. And to 1,048,576 individuals living some 20 generations back.

From this point backwards, the numbers simply expand exponentially astronomically. For instance, at the time of the 21st generation back, a man currently alive would be would be connected to around 21 lakhs individuals (i.e. around 2,097,152).

So it is easily seen that any individual of any caste currently alive would more or less have a bloodline connecting him to almost all castes and populations groups that had come to the South Asian subcontinent at anytime in the past.

So there is no need for any individual to feel elated or disgraced when any particular detail is mentioned about any caste or population group of yore. And a twenty-generation back is not such a far-off time. There are individuals alive now who have seen their ancestors to around four to five generations back.

The book, Malabar, is about people and population groups some 100 to 400 years back.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:38 pm, edited 5 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

16. Nairs / Nayars

Post posted by VED »

16 #

It was the establishment of the English rule that brought in peace in the subcontinent. Even inside this miniscule Malabar region, there were many small-time and relatively bigger kingdoms. Each and every one of them was incessantly in a state of perpetual warfare. And inside each of the ruling families, individual members staked their claims based on various connections, to the kingship. No one experienced any length of time of peace.

Nagam Aiya has mentioned this point very frankly in his Travancore State Manual.

“It is the power of the British sword, “as has been well observed,” which secures to the people of India the great blessings of peace and order which were unknown through many weary centuries of turmoil, bloodshed and pillage before the advent of the Briton in India”.


About the Malabar location and nearby areas he mentions this much also:

It is quite possible that in the never-ending wars of those days between neighbouring powers, Chera, Chola and Pandya Kings might have by turns appointed Viceroys of their own to rule over the different divisions of Chera, one of whom might have stuck to the southernmost portion, called differently at different times, by the names of Mushika- Khandom, Kupa-Khandom, Venad, Tiruppapur, Tiru-adi-desam or Tiruvitancode, at first as an ally or tributary of the senior Cheraman Perumal — titular emperor of the whole of Chera — but subsequently as an independent ruler himself. This is the history of the whole of India during the time of the early Hindu kings or under the Moghul Empire. The history of every district in Southern India bears testimony to a similar state of affairs.

The Nawab of Tinnevelly was nominally the agent of the Nawab of Arcot, who was himself ruling the Carnatic in the name of the Delhi Padisha; but beyond a mere name there was nothing in the relationship showing real obedience to a graded or central Imperial authority.

The Nawab of Tinnevelly himself co-existed with scores of independent Poligai’s all over the District, collecting their own taxes, building their own forts, levying and drilling their own troops of war, their chief recreation consisting in the plundering of innocent ryots all over the country or molesting their neighbouring Poligars.

The same story was repeated throughout all the States under the Great Moghul. In fact never before in the history of India has there been one dominion for the whole of the Indian continent from the Himalayas to the Cape, guided by one policy, owing allegiance to one sovereign-power and animated by one feeling of patriotism to a common country, as has been seen since the consolidation of the British power in India a hundred years ago.



Image

This was a fact of life in the subcontinent since times immemorial. Beyond all this was the fact that people were simply caught and taken as slaves or sold off as slaves. There were many problems with the life of women.

Then, English rule came. There was peace. However, in the settled social life, another danger started poking its head. It was the imminent rise of the lower castes and classes. For the Nairs, the most dangerous content was the Thiyyas.

It is like a team of police constables in a police station. The local taxi-drivers are their subordinate lower-castes. They can address them as any kind of dirt. They are the Nee / Inhi and Avan / Oan.

Suddenly all of a sudden, there comes a change of scene. On the social front, there emerges a small group of taxi-drivers who come with a higher demeanour than the others. They do not accept the lower-grading assigned to them by the constables and the government. Due to the fact that these taxi-drivers are of a superior mien, the constables somehow bear the terribleness of an equality and dignity in the taxi-drivers.

Now, comes the next issue. Seeing the higher demeanour and rights of these superior class taxi-drivers, the other taxi-drivers also start acting in a pose beyond their traditional stance of inferiority. This is too much for the constables. For, they are used to seeing the taxi-drivers as a cringing lot. (In fact, I have seen commercial lorry drivers being made to beg holding on the legs of peon-level officials of the sales tax in a border check-post in a middle-Indian state).

But then what can the constables do? In the new system, they can’t beat or slap the taxi-drivers into submission. So what do they do? The go around writing their superior stance wherever they get a chance. They see to it that the taxi-drivers are not mentioned at all. Or if at all mentioned, connect them to some other taxi-drivers in another state where the taxi-drivers are treated as dirt.

Whenever a mention of the local village taxi-drivers is made, simply add a reference to the taxi-drivers of the other state where they still are treated as obnoxious objects.

Beyond that in places where they would not be disputed they would claim to be officers. The bare fact the Indian policemen were traditionally termed as ‘shipai’ would be given the go-by. Why? Because it is nowadays heard by them that in the US, the police constable is called an ‘officer’. So by going that roundabout route, they arrive at the officer grade.

However, it might also be mentioned that this issue will crop up only when the taxi-drivers get a feeling that the constables are their equals. Other-wise they do not think about these things and are perfectly happy with what they have, if they are otherwise happy.

Now, let us look into what has been the claims of the Nair folks in this book. Even though these things are ostensibly written by William Logan, they are not.

One of the very evident points is that in the location where William Logan has directly written, that is the location of history writing, especially where the records of the English Factory in Tellicherry is taken up, the Nairs are quite differently defined and mentioned. There is not anything spectacular or courageous in the Nair quality. In fact, even the word ‘peon’ is mentioned about them. The word ‘Kolkar’ is also mentioned as a peon.

In the Travancore areas, which is far south of Malabar, I had noticed a very frantic desperation on the part of the Nairs there to mention and define themselves as Kshatriyas. Various kinds of logic and historical incidences are mentioned by them to define themselves as Kshatriyas, far removed from the Ezhavas who exist just below them; and who try their level best to equate them downwards. The Nairs used to assign verbal comparisons on Ezhavas, which the latter find derogatory.

The Ezhavas take pain to mention them as Sudras. Thereby giving a hint that the Nairs are actually low-castes. However, the truth remains that the Nairs are not low-caste, if one were to go by the route of bloodline. And by mental demeanour also, they refuse to be low-caste. I will leave that there. My interest here is to illuminate the terrors that the feudal language codes have inspired in the people.

It is not easy to very categorically mention which all parts of the book are the direct writings of William Logan, which are more or less the inputs of the natives of the subcontinent. Some of the names of the native individuals who have made writing contributions are given in the book. Two names are mentioned by him in the Preface to Volume 1. They are: Messrs. O. Cannan, ex-Deputy Collector and Kunju Menon, Subordinate Judge.

The reader may note that in the 1800, these officials were not native-Brits, but more or less the natives of the subcontinent. Even though this might seem a very powerful plus point, in actual fact, the quality of the native-English administration goes down at the locations where the relatively senior officials are from the cantankerous native-population groups. However, that is another point, not of context here.

The descriptive notes on the various Taluks are seen to have been done by Messrs. Chappu Menon, B.A., C. Kunhi Kannan and P. Karunakara Menon. Of these three, both the Menons are obviously from the Nayar caste. As to the previously mentioned O. Cannan, ex-Deputy Collector and C Kunhi Kannan, there is nothing to denote their caste. Both the names are seen to be used by both the Nayars as well as by the Thiyyas, in the 1900s.

Why this pointed seeking of caste is done is that in a feudal language social ambience, persons are not actually individual entities. They are simply part and parcel of huge strings and webs of associations and hierarchies. It is quite difficult to be a free-thinker in the way an Englishman can be. Most or many words in the native feudal-language have a direction code of affiliation, loyalty, hierarchical position, command and obedience. More detailed examination of this point has been done in the afore-mentioned An Impressionistic History of the South Asian Subcontinent.

I think this might be the right occasion to mention a few words about individual names in the Malabar region (especially the north Malabar region, for south Malabar antiquity is relatively more obscure for me). Thiyya individual names traditionally are like this: Pokkan, Nanu, Koman, Chathu, Kittan &c. for males. For females, it is Chirutha, Chirutheyi, Pokki, Pirukku, Cheeru, Mathu etc.

Image

It is possible that some of these names were used by the Nairs also. What that is supposed to hint at is not known to me. However, speaking about names, there is this bit to be mentioned. On a very casual reading of the various Deeds given in this book, a lot of individual names of the Nairs and the castes above them were seen. It was quite obvious that very few of them had any deep connection with the Sanskrit or Brahmanical names, that are currently used in great abundance by everyone.

I am giving a few of the names* I found in the various deeds. Quite obviously none of them are of the castes below the Nairs:

Achatt അച്ചത്ത്, Appunni അപ്പുണ്ണി, Candan കണ്ടൻ, Chadayan ചടയൻ, Chakkan ചക്കൻ, Chandu ചന്തു, Chattan ചട്ടൻ, Chatta Raman ചട്ട രാമൻ, Chattu ചാത്തു, Chekkunni ചേക്കുണ്ണി, Chennan ചേനൻ, Cherunni ചെറുണ്ണി, Chingan ചിങ്കൻ, Chiraman ചിരമൻ, Chokkanathan ചൊക്കനാധൻ, Chumaran ചുമരൻ, Cotei കോട്ടായി, Ellappa ഇള്ളപ്പ, Iluvan ഇലുവൻ, Iravi Corttan ഇരവികോർട്ടൻ, Itti ഇട്ടി, Ittikombi ഇട്ടിക്കൊമ്പി, Kammal കമ്മൾ, Kammaran കമ്മരൻ, Kanakkam കനക്കം, Kannan കണ്ണൻ, Kandan കണ്ടൻ, Kandu കണ്ടു, Karunnukki കരുനുക്കി, Kelan കേളൻ, Kelappa കേളപ്പ, Kelu കേളു, Kittanan കിട്ടണൻ, Kokka കൊക്ക, Kondu കൊണ്ടു, Kora കോര, Koran കൊരൻ, Korappen കോരപ്പൻ, Korissan കൊരിസൻ, Kunchiamma കുഞ്ചിയമ്മ, Kunhan കുഞ്ഞൻ, Kunka കുങ്ക, Manichan മണിച്ചൻ, Makkachar മക്കച്ചാർ, Murkhan മൂർഖൻ, Mutta മുട്ട / മൂത്ത, Muttatu മൂത്തത്, Nakan നകൻ, Nambi** നമ്പി, Nanganeli നങ്കനല്ലി, Nangayya നങ്കയ്യ, Nangeli നങ്കേലി, Nantiyarvalli നാട്ടിയാർവള്ളി, Okki ഒക്കി, Pachchi പച്ചി, Paman പമൻ, Panku പങ്കു, Pangi പങ്കി, Pappu പപ്പു, Patteri പട്ടേരി (ഭട്ടതിരി), Raru രാരു, Rayaran രയരൻ, Rayiru രയിരു, Teyyan തെയ്യൻ, Thoppu തൊപ്പു, Valli വള്ളി, Velu വേലു, Viyatan വിതയൻ, Yamma യമ്മ.

* In the Malayalam transliteration given of the names, there can be errors.
** Nambi is a caste title also, commonly seen in Travancore. However, in Malabar, it seems to have been used as a name also.

Some of these names are seen suffixed with such names as Nair, Menon, Kurup, Nambiyar etc. in the case of the Nayar-level people. Some of the higher castes above them were seen to have family names and other titles added either as suffixes or prefixes. Some the Nair level individuals also might have them.

Inside the historical section also, the names of the Nairs are found to be of similar content. For instance, there is the name one Yemen Nair mentioned in the history of the minute Kottayam kingdom. Yemen literally means the God of Death. I do not know if there is any error in the name’s meaning given, that entered through a erroneous transliteration of the word ‘Yemen’.

Now, it may be mentioned here that Nairs / Nayars are not actually one single caste. There is a hierarchy among them also. It is more or less a hierarchy of population groups holding on to a solid frame, that holds them all above the swirling waters in which the lower castes are submerged. They have to hold tightly to the frame, in such a way the each layers does not kick the lower down into the water. For this, they should not try to fight for a higher step among the various Nair layers. For, if they lose their grip, the lower castes would immediately pull them down among them or even push them down below them.

This action of pulling down is a physical action. It simply consists of changing the words of addressing and referring to a lower indicant word. Simply put, if the lower caste man or woman or child changes the higher He/Him (i.e. Oar ഓര്) to a lower level he / him (i.e. Oan ഓൻ), the person would come crashing down into the lower caste swirling waters.

Since I have mentioned the various Deeds, there is one thing that comes to my mind now. It is that Deeds can actually be a rich source of social communication and feudal language hierarchy information. However William Logan does not seem to be very keenly interested in pursuing this idea, even though there are hints in this book that he did feel its presence, without understanding what it is.

It is like this: To around the 1970s, in Malabar land registration documents, there was a very specific communication direction found to be enforced. It is that in sale deed between a Nair and a Thiyya man, for instance, the Thiyya man is invariably addressed as a Nee (lowest You) while the Nair man is addressed as a Ningal / Ingal (Ingal ഇങ്ങൾ is the highest You in Malabari – not in Malayalam).

It goes without saying that the words for He and Him and also for She and Her would also be likewise arranged as per caste hierarchy. This topic is quite a huge one and I do not propose to pursue it here. However, even though in this book a lot of Deeds of yore have been placed for inspection, the book writers do seem to have only a very shallow information on what all things need to be looked for. In fact, they are totally unaware of the deeper content that designs the social structure and human relationships.

From this perspective, this book has a lot of shallowness. However, it must also be said that there is a lot of very good information also in this book. The only thing is that the reader needs to know what to look for; and to be aware of what all things might be totally missed, or laid bare without explanations.

A lot of information is lying in a scattered manner all around the book. If possible, I will try to assemble the information in very logical groupings.

It is quite possible that the main persons who interfered and influenced the writings in this book were from the Nair caste. It is only natural that they would be quite apprehensive about what inputs are there about the Nairs. In this book, almost everywhere, the Nairs are described in the superlative. Only in the specific areas where Logan himself more or less wrote the text, they are differently described. In fact, in this particular location, the descriptions about the Nairs are of the negative kind.

One thing that might be noticed in this book is that there are certain very specific ideas or information that is tried to be emphasised as true. To this end, almost all historical information are filtered out. Moreover many words from antiquity are mentioned as having changed to certain other words, which then seems to help prove the contentions. I can mention a few. However, let me focus on the word ‘Nair’ here.

See these quotes:
1. The Nayars (so styled from a Sanskrit word signifying leader, in the honorific plural lord, and in ordinary sense soldier) were the “protectors” of the country, and, as such, crystallised readily into the existing caste of Nayars, with numerous branches.

2. Aryans ................... had perforce to acknowledge as “protectors” the aboriginal ruling race,- the Nayars — whom they designated as “Sudras” but in reality treated as Kshatriyas. [/quote]S

There is the word ‘Chera’, which is mentioned many times in connection with a ruling family of this land. This word has been mentioned in many ways. One is that it is another pronunciation of Kera. Which more or less, then authenticates the name Kerala. This is the way the argument goes.

However, the very elemental idea that could be picked up from this word is that Chera in the native languages of the area, means the Rat Snake. Why this very first impression is avoided is not known. In Kannada, the word Kere means Rat snake. That is also there.

However, there is the mention of this land being full of serpents. See these quotes from Malabar State Manual written by Nagam Aiya.

It is actually based on the Keralolpathi, I think:

.....the land newly reclaimed from the sea was a most inhospitable region to live in, being already occupied by fearful Nagas, a race of hill-tribes who drove the Brahmins back to their own lands. Parasurama persevered again and again bringing hosts of Brahmins more from every part of India to settle in and colonise his new land; the Nagas were propitiated under his orders by a portion of the land being given to them and thus his own Brahmin colonists and the Nagas lived side by side without molesting each other.

And by way of conciliation and concession to the old settlers (Nagas who were serpent-worshippers), Parasurama ordered his own colonists to adopt their form of worship, and thus serpent-worship on this coast early received Parasurama’s sanction. These Nagas became the Kiriathu Nayars of later Malabar claiming superiority in rank and status over the rest of the Malayali Sudras of the west coast.

Parasurama also brought other Sudras, to whom he assigned the duty of cultivating the land and otherwise serving the Brahmin colonists. These Sudras were in addition to the Nayars, the early settlers, who had been conciliated and won over as servants and tenants as shown above. He also brought cattle and other animals for agricultural purposes.


This is one point. So for the sake of an intellectual point, it might be mentioned that the word Nayar actually originates from Naganmar. That is, the Naga people. The word Naga means Serpents, which actually is connected to Cobra. The word ‘nayar’ then might not have the celestial standard meaning of social leadership and control and patrolling and protection of the people that is simply mentioned all over the book, Malabar, purportedly written by William Logan.

Beyond that, there is also the mention of them being Sudras and also not Sudras. For they were Nagas. However, they were the serving classes of the Brahmins. Similar to the police shipais of Kerala police. This was the designation of the police constables in the state. Shipai means peon. However, as of now, they have been redefined as the ‘officers’. Then, who are the ‘officers’ of the police department might become a debatable point in the near future.

Not many persons would dare to stake up such a point. For, mentioning such a think about the police constables can be very, very dangerous.

Image

There is this information which I saw in Native Life in Travancore:
The last-named place (Nagpore) is said by Sir W. Elliott to be called after the Nags, a race of Scythian lineage, who invaded India about 600 B.C., and had the figure of a snake as their national emblem and standard.


Whether the Nagas of Malabar had anything to do with the above people, also is not debated here.

Connecting back to the Nayars, there is enough and more mention that they are the Barons of the land! That is another nonsensical claim. The nonsense is in the idea that the entities in the subcontinent can be compared to anything in a native-English land.

There is again this quote from Travancore State Manual:

The serpent figures are most common in Travancore and the ‘Kavu’ or abode of serpents, where images of serpents are set up and worshipped, is to be invariably seen in the garden of every Nayar house.
.

Now, going ahead on the Serpent worship route, there is this quote again from the Travancore State Manual:


But these Dravidians themselves had already come under the influence of the serpent-worshippers of the north.


There is some discrepancy in this statement. First of all the Serpent worship is earlier mentioned as native to this land. Then why an influence from the northern parts of the subcontinent?

Then this statement does seem to hint that the Hindu religion, the Brahmanical religion or the Vedic religion does have an antiquity of Serpent worship. I am not sure if this claim, if it is there, is true. Or could it be mentioning the Naga worshippers who are not really from the Brahmanical religion?

Lord Siva is seen to have a Serpent or a Cobra on his head. But then, I think Lord Siva is not a major God of the Vedic religion. The major gods of the Vedic religion seems to be Indra, Varuna, Agni &c. I am not an expert in these things. It does however, seem to delineate an idea that Vedic Hinduism is different from popular Hinduism, in which the divine Trinity consists of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. I will leave it at this point.

It is true that in the Nair / Nayar households, serpent worship or rather Cobra worship was quite rampant. In fact, it is seen mentioned in such book as Native-life in Travancore that the various land or house-sale deeds do include the mention of the cobra family living inside the household or in the compound or Sarpakkavu (Serpent shrine) in the transfer.

In some of the Deeds copies given in this book, there is mention of Cobras being transferred.

QUOTE from Deed no.13 in this book, Malabar:

In this way (ഇന്മാർക്കമെ) the good and bad stones (കല്ലും കരടു), stump of nux vomica (കാഞ്ഞിരകുറ്റി) the front side and back side (മുമ്പുംപിമ്പും) ? thorns (മുള്ളു), cobras (മൂർക്കൻപാമ്പു്), hidden treasure and the vessel in which it is secured (വെപ്പും ചെപ്പു), and water included in the four boundaries of the said house (വീടു്) are granted as Attipper and water by settling the price.


Beyond that Rev. Samuel Mateer mentions that the Cobras are quite tame in the households and do not attack anyone other than when trodden upon.
It may be noted that in the traditional names of Nayars, there is a name Murkhan. I find it in the first Deed given in this book. The Deed is connected to the assigning of many liberties to the Jews, by Bhaskara Ravi Varman, (wielding the sceptre and ruling for many 100,000 years). The name is Murkhan Chattan. The line is thus: Thus do I know Murkhan Chattan, commanding the Eastern Army.

It is quite inconceivable that anyone would assume the name of Murkhan (Cobra) nowadays, other than as some fancy tile. However, there is indeed a great tradition of reverence to the Cobras in the Nayar family antiquity.

Moving on the name issue route, I just remembered a curious film in Malayalam. It is a story on the prisoners kept in Andaman & Nicobar Island’s Cellular jail. The main character of the film is a doctor by name Govardhan Menon. It is a Malayalam Superstar who acts as this protagonist. The people in the film including the hero do not have the real looks and personality of the people of Malabar or Travancore of those times.

The name of the hero itself is terrific. Dr. Govardan Menon. Not any of the names I have placed above. The film depicts the British as terrible rulers. Every terrible torture methods that are used by the Indian police and other uniformed forces nowadays are placed on the British.

The next point is the Cellular Jail’s terrible administer is an Irishman. Not an Englishman. The problem in this is that when speaking about the British cruelty all over the world, one of the most invariable contentions is about the British cruelty to the Irish. The shooting done by the British army commander in Amritsar, the Jallianwalabagh shooting was the handiwork of an Irish officer. Not an Englishman. However, it must be admitted that he saved the lives of at least one million people by his pre-emptive shooting. For more on this, check Shrouded Satanism in feudal languages – Chapter Seventy Four.

Then there is the issue of the doctor being from the Menon caste. There was actually a huge rebellion going on in Travancore against the Nairs and higher castes. Actually the lower castes and the Nairs literally took to streetfighting which had to be brought into control by the Travancore police by crushing down the lower castes. Menons come under the Nair caste.

QUOTE from Travancore State Manual: During the administration of Col. Munro, a Circular order was issued permitting the women referred to, to cover their bodies with jackets (kuppayam) like the women of Syrian Christians, Moplas, and such others, but the Native (lower-caste converted) Christian females would not have anything less than the apparel of the highest castes. So they took the liberty of appearing in public not only with the kuppayam already sanctioned, but with an additional cloth or scarf over the shoulders as worn by the women of the higher castes. These pretensions of the Shanar convert women were resented by the high-caste Nayars and other Sudras who took the law into their own hands and used violence to those who infringed long-standing custom and caste distinctions. [/quote]

Actually around 1820, something quite similar to the Mappilla revolt against the Hindus (Brahmins) and the Nayars in South Malabar, took place in Travancore. It is generally called the Channar Lahala or Channar revolt. The lower castes including their women took to the streets demanding more freedom. This sense of freedom was due to the entry of the English Missionaries in the kingdom.

Image

Image

This mood for demanding more rights continued in a forked manner. The converted-to-Christian lower-castes more or less had the Christian Church to lead them to a more placid living condition. The non-converted lower castes remained under the Hindus, who were not very keen that their slave castes and semi-slave castes should improve. Their fury ultimately boiled over at Punnapra and Vayalar villages, where they beat to death a Travancore kingdom police Inspector who had gone to mediate with them. The feudal language codes literally triggered the homicidal mania. This killing more or less created a mood for vengeance among the policemen and they went berserk. They came and shot dead whoever they could find in those areas, who was a lower caste.

The next point that comes into my mind is a terrific scene in the film. One local slave-man of the native feudal lords being commanded by the local landlord to bend and show his back for an English official to step on. I am yet know about this kind of customs among the Englishmen.

The last point is the doctor’s assertion that an ‘Indian’s back is not for an English / British man to step on. Giving the ample hint that the slaves of the subcontinent, since times immemorial, are for the local feudal classes to manhandle and kick.

Persons with some understanding of what really took place during the English rule will not believe such nonsense stories brought out in Indian films.

However, a few hours back one of my readers sent me a Whatsapp message with a quote from someone in some online chat:

... don't u see the movie, Kala pani ,about the life of people who lived at the time of British India. Please see and do react.it has a fantastic story line and has been made amazingly which reveals the atrocities being faced during the reign of british
.

No attempt has been made to correct the erroneous spelling and grammar in the English text in the comment.

Image

I am placing an pixelated image of the Doctor and his companions in that movie. For, it might not be good to use the original picture of the film stars in a book that mention their story as false.

Now, look at the lower castes who were escaping hundreds of years of terror under these higher castes. The Doctor? Who gave him the infrastructure to become a doctor? In Travancore, a Ezhava man was given the opportunity to learn Medicine by the London Missionary Society members. He even lived in England. However, when he came back and tried to get a government job as a doctor, he was hounded out. He had to get a job in British-India as a doctor.

Then what nonsense was this fake ‘Dr. Govardan Menon’ whining about? That he could no longer use pejoratives on his slaves?

Now coming back to the stream of the writing:

There is another thing to be mentioned about the Nair / Nayar connection. The caste is generally connected to the word Malayali in this book. Actually the word Malayali has a number of problems. For, there are actually three different locations in the subcontinent that has been mixed up to mean this word Malayali. I will have to take up that later.

Look at this QUOTE:

The Hindu Malayali is not a lover of towns and villages. His austere habits of caste purity and impurity made him in former days flee from places where pollution in the shape of men and women of low caste met him at every corner ; and even now the feeling is strong upon him and he loves not to dwell in cities.
.

By context, the word ‘Malayali’ is used here in this book, Malabar, in the sense of Nayar. The deeper intent is to promote the idea that they are a very superior caste. However, that is true of the police constables also. They derive a lot of terror and fear and ‘respect’ from the people. They constables do not like the common people to be on a terms of equality with them. However, the constables are sill low-down in the police hierarchy.

There is over-statement in the various texts in the book that the Nayars were a sort of political (tara) organisation, with some kind of democratic features. Moreover, that they were the sort of guardians of the various freedoms of the people which they protected from being encroached by the rulers.

QUOTES:
1.
And probably the frantic fanatical rush of the Mappillas on British bayonets, which is not even yet a thing of the past, is the latest development of this ancient custom of the Nayars The influence of the tara organisation cannot be overrated in a political system tending always to despotism.


[My notes: Here the Mappilla daring is being connected to a purported valorous attitude of the Nayars in the Mahamakkam festival at Tirunavaya. The problem with this comparison is that the Nayar behaviour in that festival more or less display a lack of individuality. In that, the persons are prodded on to suicide as part of a senseless push of social codes. In the case of the Mappillas, it is something more personal. The triggers are switched on by some personal animosity. Beyond all that, the very mention of the British bayonets is a very cunning misleading statement. It would give an impression that the Mappilla anger was towards the English administration. It was not. It was directed towards the Nayars and the higher castes above them. The English administration was the scene as mere law and order enforcers.

The claim that the fanatical courage generally seen displayed by Islamic fighters in an attempt to achieve ‘martydom’ has been learned from Nayar ‘antiquity of valour’, is a foolish one.

2. when necessity existed, set at naught the authority of the Raja and punished his ministers when they did “unwarrantable acts.”

3. Each amsam or parish has now besides the Adhikari or man of authority, headman, an accountant or writer styled a Menon (literally, superior man), and two or more Kolkars (club men or peons), who between them manage the public affairs of the parish and are the local representatives of the Government.

[My notes: The quote no. 3 will look fine in English. However, when the essential content of the local feudal languages is understood, the above quote could very easily be seen as of some kind of terrific Satanic content. There is a huge number of suppressed populations who literarily are confined to the levels of cattle under these ‘administrators’.]

4. The Jews and Syrians were by other deeds incorporated in the Malayali nation, and in the second of the Syrians’ deeds it is clear that the position assigned to them was that of equality with the Six Hundred” of the nad (that is, of the county).

[My notes: This is obviously another cunning statement of a different sort. The constable class has a very lot of power over the ‘cattle-class’ people under them. The Jews being a population from another location in Asia, were quite well aware about the dangers inherent in the local languages. They took very pre-emptive steps to see that they were not subordinated to the various lower placed populations here. Jews, I presume were quite cunning and intelligent everywhere)

I personally feel that both the Thiyyas immigrants to north Malabar and also the native-English officials from England who arrived in the subcontinent did not have any information about this very dangerous item. The Thiyyas simply tried to assimilate into a social system, which very cunningly assigned them the lower positions. The higher castes alerted the other population groups, especially the lower-positions groups about this. This did them (the Thiyyas) in.

As to the native-English, they had no information on this. They went around trying to ‘improve’ the populations without any information that in the local languages, there is no slot of equal dignity. When the lower-placed man goes up, the higher-placed man goes down. This terror is slowly getting enacted in England as of now. The gullible native-English are surely done for, unless all the feudal language speakers are send out.

5. They had no sufficient body of "protectors” of their own race to fall back upon, so they had perforce to acknowledge as “protectors” the aboriginal ruling race,- the Nayars — whom they designated as “Sudras” but in reality treated as Kshatriyas.

[My notes: This is in lieu with the constant anguish of the Nayars’ that they are Kshatriyas. Actually, this ‘Kshatriyas’ designation might not really mean much. If it is royal blood, they are alluding to, it might be a false hope. For, there cannot be a lot of ‘kings’ and royalty. In this book there are many locations where the Nair / Nayar numbers are mentioned in thousands and tens of thousands.

Image

See these quotes:

1. A force of fifty thousand Nayars, joined by many Cochin malcontents, marched to Repelim (Eddapalli in Cochin State) on the 31st March

2. The evidence of the Honourable East India Company’s linguist (interpreter, agent) at Calicut, which appears in the Diary of the Tellicherry Factory under date 28th May 1746, and which has already boon quoted (ante p. 80), deserves to be here reproduced. He wrote as follows :

“These Nayars, being heads of the Calicut people, resemble the parliament, and do not obey the king’s dictates in all things, but chastise his ministers when they do unwarrantable acts.”

In so far as Malabar itself was concerned the system seems to have remained in an efficient state down to the time of the British occupation, and the power of the Rajas was strictly limited.


[My notes: The above-words have too many problems. The first issue is that the English East India Company did face a numbers of problems, due to their linguist (interpreter, agent) not giving them the real or intended translation what the natives of Malabar said. Much of the translation would contain a lot of personal interests and that of the so-many local vested interests. This issue actually became a very big problem for the English East India Company. And it may even be mentioned that some of the bitter feelings that some of the native small-time ruler had for the Company was due to this deliberate mistranslations.

This was actually a huge issue. I will deal with that later.

Image

The second issue is that the claim that Nayars are the head of the Calicut people. The Nayars were a caste of people, in the levels comparable with the modern-day constables. However, even the various kings of Malabar, even though they claim to be Kshatriya, seem to have been from the Nair / Nayar caste with some ancestral difference.

The kings of Malabar seem to have a lot of connection with the Tamil country as per the various quotes from the history section. Moreover, when Vasco da Gama came to Calicut, the king of Calicut was seen thus: he was a very dark man, half-naked, and clothed with white cloths from the middle to the knees. From a general viewpoint, the people of Malabar, are fair in complexion. So, it might be true that this king had a Tamil land ancestry to some extent. The average Tamilian is dark. And seeing that the king of Calicut was quite close to the seafaring people, could it be possible that his family had some ancestral connection with the fishermen folks? They are also generally seen as dark in complexion.

Then about the Nayars not obeying their king, well, to some extent this would be true. For, the king had to depend upon them for various things. He had no department of his own. In fact, he had no social welfare aim in his kingdom, like providing for the education of the children, hospitals for the public, arranging for proper policing, or judiciary or anything. His soul duty was to act in concert with the various higher castes to see that the lower castes were strictly kept in their subordinated position.

Beyond that the king of Calicut was very much dependent on the Mappilla maritime businessmen. Some of the Mappilla maritime households were literally the agents and supporters of Arabian trade interests. To a great extent they provided for his security. That is the impression that one gets when one comes to read that part of the history which deals with the Muslim / Arab traders.]

3. From the earliest times therefore down to the end of the eighteenth century the Nayar tara and nad organisation kept the country from oppression and tyranny on the part of the rulers, and to this fact more than to any other is due the comparative prosperity which the Malayali country so long enjoyed, and which made of Calicut at one time the great emporium of trade between the East and the West.

[My notes: The above quote is total nonsense. For, nowhere in the book can one find the Malabar area in a state of peace and prosperity at any time. The history of the place is constant backstabbing, treachery and warfare between the higher castes. As to the lower castes, they had to bear the periodic molesting that happen when huge number of people move around with arms for the fight. They will molest the lower castes on any side of the fight. The men, they will catch for adding to their slaves. The women would be caught for fornication and for various menial work.

As to the Calicut being a great trade emporium of the East and West, it is just pipe-dream talk. International maritime traders would assemble in various locations in the world, Asia and Africa to take goods to Europe. It does not mean that the places where the traders came to are great centres of human living.

For instance, I used to frequent a very under-developed forest-like area in the local state. This was for collecting various kinds of fruits and vegetables in bulk quantity. Many other traders from various vegetable and fruits wholesale markets from the neighbouring states also would come there. There was one big-time trader in the locality itself who monopolised the ginger trade. His lorries would collect the raw ginger from the farmers and take it to far-off vegetable markets in the far north, some three thousand kilometres away. However, all this activity could not be translated to mean that the people or the place was highly sophisticated or that the common people were rich or that there existed a high quality civilised social living. Everything over there was then in the exact opposite.

Image

See this QUOTE from Abdu-r-Razzak: —

“Although the Samuri (king of Calicut) is not under his (Raja of Vijayanagar) authority, nevertheless he is in great alarm and apprehension from him, for it is said that the king of Bijanagar has 300 sea-ports, every one of which is equal to Kalikot, and that inland his cities and provinces extend over a journey of three months.”


There is bluff and counterbluff of the lowly rulers. However, the modern readers need not fall for them.]

4. Parasu Raman (so the tradition preserved in the Keralolpatti runs) “separated the Nayars into Taras and ordered that to them belonged the duty of supervision (lit. kan = the eye), the executive power (lit. kei = the hand, as the emblem of power), and the giving of orders (lit. kalpana — order, command) so as to prevent the rights from being curtailed or suffered to fall into disuse.”

[My notes: Here the Keralolpathi seems to be a book trying to promote Nair interests. However, Keralolpathi had much more cunning aim. I will try to hint what it was later.]

5. Menon or Menavan (mel — above, and avan — third personal pronoun ; superior N., generally writers, accountants).
Ore (for plural third personal pronoun avar, honorific title of N.).


[My notes: There is very obvious aim to assert a Superior mien for the Menons. However, the fact remains that in Travancore, the word Menon was designated as a Sudra when it came for appointing a Menon man for the post of a Dewan. And it was not allowed. So again that superiority is relative. The constable’s superiority is only at the local village or street corner level or above the menial workers. There are higher beings in the social setup who have a wider ambit and a higher stature.

See this QUOTE from Travancore State Manual:

There was Raman Menon, the Senior Dewan Peishcar, a man of considerable revenue experience and energy, and there was T. Madava Row, a young officer of character and ability and possessed of high educational qualifications,........................................ but the Senior one Raman Menoven was in the north of Travancore and being a Soodra could not have conducted the great religious festival then celebrating at Trivandrum ................. . His Highness has since proposed to me that Madava Row should for the present be placed in chair of the administration as Acting Dewan


6. by custom the Nayar women go uncovered from the waist; upper garments indicate lower caste, or sometimes, by a strange reversal of western notions, immodesty.

[My notes: This is another stark nonsense, written in the general free-for-all freedom to write anything that can be used to mention one more point of Nair superiority. Lower castes are identified by their nude upper part. Nairs also had this issue when they moved in front of the higher castes, the Brahmins. However, every point is simply used and misused to promote the idea that the Nairs are a superior caste. There is desperation in all these attempts. The Nairs were about to face a terrible calamity. ]

7. Both men and women are extremely neat, and scrupulously particular as to their cleanliness and personal appearance. The women in particular enjoy a large measure of liberty, and mix freely in public assemblies.

[My notes: The words on cleanliness might be true only in the case of a few well-placed higher stature females in a joint household. Others would literally have many problems of their own stature in the feudal languages.

Image


As to the issue of these females having a lot of social freedom and right to mix in public assemblies, there are hidden parameters to this. Only the females who get to be addressed with a suffix of ‘respect’ and words of ‘respect’ denoting the words She, Her, Hers &c. will find the freedom to move around. Others would not find any physical shackles. That is true. But, the word-codes would hold them in terrific terror. In fact, the Ola kuda, the palm-leave umbrella is a very necessity item for them to have with them when they go out. For, otherwise the lower castes both male and females would use profane glances and lower-indicant words about them. They will shrivel away.

It is like one particular IPS lady officer going around where the male constables can see her. This particular lady has nothing in her dress to denote that she is an IPS officer (very senior police officer). The police constables would use only the most profane and lower-indicant words about her. If she chances to hear them, it would give her a terrific emotional shock.

It may be mentioned that all these kinds of issues are slowly spreading around England. It is tragic.

There is a Proverbs section in this book. Among the proverbs given there, there is one that states:
A god will be recognised only if clad accordingly.


There is a book in Malayalam purported to have been written by Gundert. The proverbs mentioned in Malabar, might have been taken from that book. The above quote is stated thus in that book: അണിയലംകെട്ടിയെ ദൈവമാവു. (Corrected translation: A divinity can be identified only if attired in the right stature costume.) The unyielding power of the word-codes is very amply seen here. The attire can decide the word-codes.

Even though some persons might say that these things are there in English also, the truth is that they are not there in English. Only in certain locations like the armed forced &c. the insignia of an officer is an essential item to identify his rank. However, the verbal codes for You, He, She &c. will not change, even if the rank is not clear or misidentified.

Incidentally it may be mentioned here that many of the proverbs in the book are in total sync with the verbal code of the location. That of each individual having a stature in the language-code. That there is no gain in giving a wrong status to any person.

അട്ടക്ക് പൊട്ടക്കുളം.


The translation given in this book is: A miry pit suits a leech. However a better translation would be: A dirty pond for the leech. These kinds of proverbs are actually used to categorise human being. The animals very rarely come into the picture.

Look at this one: അട്ടയെപിടിച്ച് മെത്തയിൽ കിടത്തിയാലോ. The translation given in the book is: Would you catch a leech and put it abed? A more apt translation would be: What if the leech/bug is allowed to sleep on a bed?

Now, this is what actually the English administration did. They picked up the population groups which had been placed in the dirt, and had been made to stink over the centuries, and they improved them beyond recognition. It was a glorious deed. Never before seen anywhere in recorded history. Yet, it is very difficult to hear one word of appreciation from even the population groups who benefitted. There are specific reasons for this stark ingratitude.]

8. He said that each woman had two or four men who cohabited with her, and the men, he said “seldom” quarrelled, the woman distributing her time among her husbands just as a Muhammadan distributes his time among his women.

[My notes: Even though this statement might seem that the Nair women were having freedom of a kind not even seen in the most modern societies, there are hidden truths behind all these kinds of nonsensical dialogue.

The reader may note that nowhere in the history section are women seen to be coming out into the open for policymaking or discussions, anything like that. There is ample mention of a Beebi of Cannanore. In fact, a number of females would have been in this position over the years mentioned in the history section. Yet, it is also seen that her name is only of namesake status. Actually there are men who decide. Even there seems to be some fancy in mentioning the Beebi among small population around a miniscule part of Cannanore.

It is seen from other writings wherein this issue of Nair females having a lot of sexual rights, the fact is that they have literally no say in these matters. A Nair woman’s ‘husband’ remain as ‘husband’ only on the pleasure of her bothers’ wish. If they have any issue with her ‘husband’, he is very frankly informed that she has another husband now, and that his services are no longer required.

Image

See this quote from Native Life in Travancore. Even though the Nairs of Travancore might be different from the Nairs of Malabar in some ways, including language, they both have the same matriarchal family system:

Rev. J. Abbs, in his “Twenty-two Years in Travancore,” gives the following narrative, related to him by a Sudran, which well illustrates the subject in hand : —

“Being a tall, handsome man of respectable family, although poor, I was engaged several years ago by two rich men of my own caste to be the husband of their sister. As they did not wish to give me a dowry, or to let their sister leave them, it was agreed that I should have a monthly allowance, go whenever I pleased to see my wife, and when at the house of her brothers, eat in common with the males of the family. This I expected would be permanent. But a few days ago, when I went to the house, I was told by the elder brother that I could not be admitted, as another husband had been chosen for his sister. Her brothers have taken the two children to train them up as the heirs of the family property.”


9. In Johnston’s “Relations of the most famous Kingdom in the world” (1611 Edition) there occurs the following quaintly written account of this protector guild : “It is strange to see how ready the Souldiour of this Country is at his Weapons : they are all gentile men, and tearmed Naires. At seven Years of Age they are put to School to learn the Use of their Weapons, where, to make them nimble and active, their Sinnewes and Joints are stretched by skilful Fellows, and annointed with the Oyle Sesamus : By this annointing they become so light and nimble that they will winde and turn their Bodies as if they had no Bones, casting them forward, backward, high and low, even to the Astonishment of the Beholders. Their continual Delight is in their Weapon, persuading themselves that no Nation goeth beyond them in Skill and Dexterity.”

[My notes: The problem with these kinds of quotes is that the reality behind this quote would be limited to some specific location, in a specific time. The mention of the martial activity is more or less that of the local martial arts, Kalari. A lot of people being exponents in Kalari is not a necessary proof of the high quality content in the population. It just shows that they are incessantly in a mood for fight. Words like: 'put to School' do not mean much in a location where public education is more or less zero.

There is this quote from Native Life in Travancore: QUOTE “To-day, when passing by your schoolroom, I heard the children sing their sweet and instructive lyrics with great delight. We Sudras, regarded as of high caste, are now becoming comparatively lower; while you, who were once so low, are being exalted through Christianity. I fear,” he added,
“Sudra children in the rural districts will soon be fit for nothing better than feeding cattle.”


In the above quote, the contention that the Sudras considered themselves as high caste is similar to an Indian police constable considering himself or herself as a high ‘officer’. There are millions of Indians who are placed below peon-level ‘officers’.

As to the general use the Nairs make use of with their weapons, and who they ‘protect’ can be seen from this information given in the Native Life in Travancore:

If the Pulayar did not speedily move out of the way, instant death was the penalty : the low-caste man in former times would be at once cut down by the sword of the Nair.
.

Actually, on reading the real history part in this book, the Nayar valour seems to confined to cutting down insubordinate lower castes. When the Mysorean invasion came, they literally scooted. But then not only the Nayars, almost everyone ran for their lives. Only the English Company stood its ground.]

Beyond that there is this also: 'persuading themselves that no Nation goeth beyond them in Skill and Dexterity.' This quote more or less identifies the population. It is as what Al Biruni has mentioned. The shallow feeling that they are the 'greatest' people in the world. This kind of mood is there in most school textbooks of current-day India. May be all low-class nations do have this boasting emotion. There is a proverb in English to define this character: 'Empty vessels make the most sound'. Curiously in Malayalam also, there is an exact translation of this: നിറകുടം തുളുമ്പില്ല.

There is a curious information that I found in Travancore State Manual, with regard to the time Col. Munro had official authority over there. It is this from Travancore State Manual:
The restriction put on the Sudras and others regarding the wearing of gold and silver ornaments was removed.
. In spite of all contentions to the contrary, the Nairs also did face many restrictions due to the relative lower status in relation to the Ambalavasis and the Brahmans].

10. Finally the only British General of any note—Sir Hector Munro who had ever to face the Nayars in the field thus wrote of their modes of fighting :- “One may as well look for a needle in a Bottle of Hay as any of them in the daytime, they being lurking behind sand-banks and bushes, except when we are marching towards the fort, and then they appear like bees out in the month of June.” “Besides which,” he continued, “they point their guns well and fire them well also.” (Tellicherry Factory Diary, March, 1701.) They were, in short, brave light troops, excelling in skirmishing, but their organisation into small bodies with discordant interests unfitted them to repel any serious invasion by all enemy even moderately well organised.”

[My notes: Look at these words:
the only British General of any note
. They do not seem to be the words of a British writer. There are many quotes and hints and writings in various locations inside this book, where Nair fighting qualities have been mentioned in highly exalted words. However, in the location where William Logan has clearly done the writing, that is, in the history part, the exact opposite features of the Nair population is given. They are mentioned as quite cowardly, brutish and without any commitment to their own words of promise.

Even though, as I mentioned earlier that the Nairs / Nayars of Malabar and that of Travancore need not be one and the same people, in current-day newly-formed state of Kerala, both are treated as one. So it might be illuminative to know what was the exact state of courage and valour of the Travancore Nayars. For the above quote by Col Munro is about the Nayars of Travancore.

Image

The following are some of the quotes from Travancore State Manual:
1. The armies of the chieftains consisted of Madampis (big landlords) and Nayars who were more a rabble of the cowardly proletariat than well-disciplined fighting men.
2. But Rodriguez not minding raised one wall and apprehending a fight the next day mounted two of his big guns. The sight of these guns frightened the Nayars and they retreated;
3. Meanwhile the subsidiary force at Quilon was engaged in several actions with the Nayar troops. But as soon as they heard of the fall of the Aramboly lines, the Nayars losing all hopes of success dispersed in various directions.

Why I am illuminating such incidences is just to show the real quality of certain sections of this book, which certainly are not the words of William Logan. These kinds of self-praise words are a common feature in most of the writings and words of the people/s of this subcontinent. As such these words need not be given much value. The various quotes of other persons that these people mention to show the grand antiquity of their own ancestors are actually very carefully cherry-picked items. For instance, one might see a lot of quotes from Ibn Batuta’s writings, that seem to mention the subcontinent as a great place. The fact is that these quotes are taken from the midst of writings in which various terrible attributes of the subcontinent have already been mentioned.

There is this mention in his writing about his viewing of a Sati. That is the live burning up of a woman whose husband had died. She is first shielded from fire by others blocking the view. She seems to have some belief that her faith would protect her from pain. She jumps inside the fire with her hands clasped in a pose of prayer. The moment she jumps in, the men and women around push down upon her heavy wood to crush her inside and she has no scope for escape. There is terrific drumming and loud clamour. So the wailing of the burning woman is drowned in the sound. Ibn Batuta, on seeing this incident, loses his sense of equilibrium and would have fallen off his horse, had not his companions caught him and poured water upon his face.

In the Delhi Sultan's kingdom, he found the king extremely cruel. He mentions of : Every day hundreds of people, chained, pinioned and fettered, are brought to his hall and those who are for execution are executed, those for torture tortured, and those for beating beaten.

In another location, he mentions about women and little children being butchered and the women being tied to the pales by their hair.

The fact of the matter is that Col.Munro had very poor opinion of the officials of Travancore. The officials were more or less the Nairs. This is what he speaks about them:

“No description can produce an adequate impression of the tyranny, corruption and abuses of the system, full of activity and energy in everything mischievous, oppressive and infamous, but slow and dilatory to effect any purpose of humanity, mercy and justice. This body of public officers, united with each other on fixed principles of combination and mutual support, resented a complaint against one of their number, as an attack upon the whole. Their pay was very small, and never issued from the treasury, but supplied from several authorised exactions made by themselves.


In passing, I may also mention that the above description more or less is the perfect description of the Indian officialdom. The only difference is that the pay of the Indian official is of astronomical content. Clement Atlee will definitely have to answer to providence for the most terrible deed he did. That of handing over a huge set of populations to the Indian officialdom.

11. “By eating of this rice they all engage to burn themselves on the day the king dies, or is slain, and they punctually fulfil their promise.”

[My notes: This is another dubious quote taken from some solitary location. It is true that at times people can be made indoctrinated to be quite insane. However, it is quite intelligent to understand that these things do not last. Also, the claim that they will burn themselves to death. Well, people are known to do that. However, even in the case of Sati, the women have to be restrained by ropes or heavy logs of wood or by pushing them down back into the fire with bamboo poles, when they come realise the pain of the burning.]

12. ... for the Nayar militia were very fickle, and flocked to the standard of the man who was fittest to command and who treated them the most considerately.

[My notes: This quote is from the location dealing with insane fighting tradition connected to the Mamangam festival at Tirunavaya. Actually this undependability and fickleness and tendency to ditch one side and jump to a seemingly better side is part of the population character of the subcontinent. It is not a Nayar alone feature. It has its roots in the verbal codes in the local language. This character will be seen in other locations which have same or similar verbal codes in their native languages.]

13. Two spears’ length apart the palisades are placed, and the armed crowd on either hand, consisting on this occasion of the thirty thousand Ernad Nayars, it is seen, are all carrying spears.

[My notes: This is again from Mamangam festival at Tirunavaya. What is mentionable here is the number ‘thirty thousand’. It is true that in days when there is nothing else to do by way of entertainment, people would flocks to such locations. For they practically have nothing much to do. For their slaves and other lower castes would do the daily work. Yet, the contention that all these thirty thousand people are going there with a military ambition might be farfetched. For, an assemblage of thirty thousand human beings brings in the issues of food preparation, drinking water, toileting etc. The whole place would literally stink. These kinds of huge numbers are seen mentioned in various places. However, in the locations where it is quite sure that the writer is Logan the numbers of individuals involved in any war or fight are more or less mentioned in more believable numbers. I will mention them when I reach those lines in the book.]

14. On this occasion, however, a large portion of the body-guard seems to have been displeased, for they left without fulfilling this duty, and this story corroborates in a marked way the fact already set forth (p. 132) regarding the independence and important political influence possessed by the Nayars as a body.

[This is an example of how any incident or event can be mentioned in whatever manner one wants to present it. The above incident is connected to one of the Mamamgam festival at Tirunavaya. The sudden mood of discordance that come up and a sizable number of people breaking of, is just that they are the followers of one or a few individuals. They do not have any independent mental stature. When their leaders breakout from an association, they also do likewise. Again, this need not be understood as some kind of great fidelity and loyalty. It is just that in feudal languages, there is a hugging hold on individuals who are connected upwards.

Beyond all this, the above kinds of incidences of leaders suddenly breaking off were and are quite common in the subcontinent. The feudal language codes are quite terrific in their power for creating discordance. A simple change of the indicant level for the words You, Your, Yours, He, His, Him, She, Her, Hers &c. can literally create cataclysmic mood changes in an individual.

The fact is that it is this issue that is really spreading civil gun and other violence in traditionally peaceful native-English social systems. However, there is no way to inform them of this issue. For, it is an issue that cannot be detected in English.

15. The martial spirit of the Nayars was in former days kept alive by such desperate enterprises as the above, but in every day life the Nayar used to be prepared and ready to take vengeance on any who affronted him, for he invariably carried his weapons,

[The martial spirit that is alluded to is this:

...current tradition says that the corpses of the slain were customarily kicked by elephants as far as the brink of the fine well, of which mention has been made, and into which they were tumbled promiscuously.
.

What has to be understood is that these things do not display any kind of quality civilised behaviour. Moreover the spirit of vengeances towards anyone and everyone who has affronted ‘him’, is directly connected to the feudal language trigger-codes. A single unacceptable indicant word form for You, He, She etc. is enough to make a human mind to go into a very brooding mood of anguish and craving for vengeance. Only persons who do not understand these things would find anything worthwhile in these emotions and culture.]

16. A preparation and training (it is said) for twelve years preceded the battle in order to qualify the combatants in the use of their weapons. The men who fought were not necessarily the principals in the quarrel—they were generally their champions. It was essential that one should fall,

[My notes: Even though this information is given in the form of some kind of great tradition, the actual fact reflected is the tragic situation of this people. They are simply trained to be the henchmen of the ruling classes and the affluent landlords. The disputes among the higher classes with regard to so many things including that of the ubiquitous issue of conceding rightful ‘respect’ and not conceding rightful ‘respect’, is ultimately settled through the death or maiming of these individuals. Only totally insane persons would find anything of quality in this tradition. ]

17. from the fact that the Tamil and Malayalam languages were in those days practically identical, it may be inferred that the ruling caste of Nayar were already settled in Malabar in the early centuries A.D.

[My notes: The fact is that there is a huge content of lies in the above lines. It is about the languages of Malabar and Travancore. I will have to discuss this issue later. However, there is some hint to be derived from the above that the Nayars of Travancore were Tamil speakers, who were slowly changing over the centuries, through their constant proximity with the Brahmans and the lower castes.]

18. The nad (country) was the territorial organisation of the ruling caste (Nayars), and, in two instances at least (Venad and Cheranad), it was the territory of the “Six hundred.”

[My notes: This Six hundred is another curious item that is seen repeated all around the book. The feeling that is be radiated is that there was a sort of parliament or assembly-like structure with Nayar families from all the four corners of the geographical location that consisted of North Malabar, South Malabar and Travancore. It might be indeed a very tall claim, when the geography and the time period is taken into account. Since I am person who has more or less frequently travelled to most of the locations inside this geographical area, it is my conviction that such an organisation is very difficult to maintain in a time-period when means of travel were quite cumbersome and time-taking. Moreover, travelling beyond one’s own location was quite difficult and dangerous.

Image

It is true that travel by sea would be easier when trying to come to coastal areas. However, sea-travel was dominated more or less by the fishermen folks. Their companionship without them conceding due ‘respect’ and ‘reverence’ in words and body postures would be quite terrible to bear. This issue itself would make sea-travel quite a prohibited item for the higher castes.

The next cunning entry is the statement:
of the ruling caste (Nayars)
. It is true that the police constables are quite powerful in their own local areas. But then, they are not the IPS officers. Above the police constables, there are head-constables, Assistant Sub Inspectors, Circle Inspectors, DySp, Sp, DIG, IG and DGP. Similarly above the Nairs there were the various levels of Ambalavasis, and then the layers of Brahmins.

Nayars were not the ruling caste in this sense, other than in the sense that in their local areas, they held terrific powers for even maiming and killing a lower-caste individual. There could be slight confusion as to who were the ruling classes. If the Brahmins could be compared to the IAS (civil administration royalty of current-day India), then the Raja families could be compared to the IPS (police administration royalty of current-day India). The raja families seem to have stood apart from the Nayar / Sudras castes to a great extent.

It is true that some Nayars individually were of great status. Same is true about some police constable/head-constables. However, still they are not IPS. It is seen in this book, Malabar that some Nair peons / Kolkars at least were rich landlords in South Malabar.

See this QUOTE from Travancore State Manual

‘Besides the village associations already noticed, Venad, it would appear, had an important public body under the name of the ‘Six Hundred’ to supervise the working of temples and charities connected therewith. What other powers and privileges this remarkable corporation of “Six Hundred” was in possession of, future investigation can alone determine. But a number so large, nearly as large as the British House of Commons, could not have been meant, in so small a state as Venad was in the 12th Century, for the single function of temple supervision


This Six hundred is connected to the miniscule kingdom of Venad. When the population of Travancore spread out in the world, this miniscule ‘Six hundred’ will also expand to great heights, as has been seen in the case of China. See the reference to the ‘Six hundred’ is in Tamil, and not in Malayalam or Malabari (then possibly known as Malayalam).

19. The curved sword or dagger, that is, probably, the right to make war armed with the distinctive Nayar weapon, the ayudha katti (war-knife), or as it is sometimes called, the kodunga katti (curved knife).

[My notes: This contention does not make the Nayars look a cultured group. It is more or less the verbal claims of all low-quality ruffians in the subcontinent. In fact, the English administration had to prohibit the use of the ayudha katti by the Act XXXV of 1854, due to it being used in the Mappilla attack on the Nayars and Brahmins.

1. In this connection, there is this QUOTE from Travancore State Manual about the Nairs of Travancore:

Moreover the habits and character of these people have undergone a complete change within the last twenty years. That warlike, refractory and turbulent temper for which the Nairs of Travancore were once so remarkable has totally disappeared, and they must now be regarded as a population of pacific habits placing the most implicit confidence in our protection and well convinced that their safety entirely depends on the stability, support and friendship of the British Government.
.

The notable issue here is that even when the Nairs went soft, the lower castes did not. The latter became more ferocious and this led to the Nair / Sudra street-fights in the 1800s, and this later culminated in the Travancore kingdom’s police firing on the lower castes in Punnapra and Vayalar villages around the year 1946. However, the larger context of this incident was the unfettering of the lower castes in Travancore, the Pulaya, Pariah, Ezhava, Shanar etc. by the Missionaries of the London Missionary Society.

2. The Soodra (Sudra) or Nair (Nayar) part, of the community were more to be depended upon ; there was an honest frankness about them which you could not but admire, and which is a surety that in proportion to our increasing influence, these people will prove themselves worthy of the confidence of Government.

[My Notes: This quote is from this book, Malabar. The point to be stressed here is the very naivety and gullibility of the English folks. In feudal languages, a very affable manner, pleasant smile, friendliness are all weapons of conquest. They are used to subdue an unwary and wary prey. The above quote is seen mentioned in connection with the Pazhassi raja insurgency. Actually, in this very episode, a Yemen Nayar did use this very same technique to trick the English side. The point here is that all these kinds of good and bad description found in book are similar to the story of the four blind persons touching an elephant and trying to describe what it is. These persons seem to believe what they experienced is the total experience. None of the feudal-language speaking persons has a demeanour or character or behaviour feature that is stable and can describe a person’s innate attribute. Everything changes as per the verbal codes used in any particular context.]

24. One tradition says that for forty-eight years he warred with the chief of Polanad, the Porlattiri Raja, and in the end succeeded by winning over his opponent’s troops, the Ten Thousand, and by bribing his opponent’s minister and mistress.

[My notes: In feudal languages, bluffing is an essential component of social living and stature. So, the words Ten Thousands can be accepted with this due understanding. However, beyond this there is hint of the ancient culture of this location. This is: bribing his opponent’s minister and mistress. Well, truth is that natives of this land are used to bribing as a very effective form of defence, offence, overtaking and getting things done. There are other equally effective weapons in use here. It is quite good to understand that these weapons are used by the businessmen of this location when they want to take over the economy of native-English nations like England, USA, Australia, Canada &c.

25. After this, it is said, “the men of the port began to make voyages to Mecca in ships, and Calicut became the most famous (port) in the world for its extensive commerce, wealth, country, town, and king.”

[My notes: This incident relates to an incident of testing the king of Calicut for honesty by a Chetty maritime merchant. That particular king happened to be quite honest. So, the merchant decided that this port was the safest port around. However, the next contention of Calicut being the most famous port in the world has a taste of the academic writing of current-day India. Calicut was just a port a in a semi-barbarian land, where a honest king was found. This information does not transpire to mean the people of Calicut were in any way great. Incidentally, it may be mentioned that the people living inland at some distance from the sea-coast simply do not connect with the seafaring populations. They feel that they are different, rough, uncouth and low-class. The roughness is connected to the issue of how to mix without losing one’s ‘respect’.

26. “Being apprehensive lest their enemies the Moors might attempt to massacre them, the Raja had even lodged them in his own palace and had provided them with a guard of Nayars to protect them when they went into the town

[My notes: This is a quote about the Portuguese experience in Cochin. Why the sentence has been taken is to focus on the words ‘a guard of Nayars’. It simply corresponds to a modern sentence: a guard by a team of constables. It does not give the impression that the guards were a team of IPS officers.

27. “These Nayars are gentlemen by lineage, and by their law they are bound to die for whoever gives them pay, they and all their lineage.”

“And even if they are of the same lineage and serving different masters, they are bound all the same to kill each other if need be, “and when the struggle is finished, they will speak and communicate with one another as if they had never fought.”


[My notes: The above two-quotes are actually quite fanciful statements. Nowhere in the history section of this book does the Nayars appear to be especially brave or committed to their word of honour. Like everyone else in this land, they are also quite opportunistic. The feudal languages design the human personality features.

Image

The following quotes are from the Travancore State Manual. Even though the Nairs of Travancore could have been different from the Nairs of both North as well as South Malabar, the following quotes can be illuminating:

1. Kayangulam Rajah had anticipated the fate of his army. He knew that his ill-trained Nayars were no match to the Travancore forces which had the advantage of European discipline and superior arms.

2. The armies of the chieftains consisted of Madampis (big landlords) and Nayars who were more a rabble of the cowardly proletariat than well-disciplined fighting men.

3. But Rodriguez not minding raised one wall and apprehending a fight the next day mounted two of his big guns. The sight of these guns frightened the Nayars and they retreated; the Moplahs too lost courage and looked on.

4. Meanwhile the subsidiary force at Quilon was engaged in several actions with the Nayar troops. But as soon as they heard of the fall of the Aramboly lines, the Nayars losing all hopes of success dispersed in various directions.

5. In 1817 the Rani represented to the Resident Col. Munro her desire to increase the strength and efficiency of the army and to have it commanded by a European officer, as the existing force was of little use being undisciplined and un-provided with arms.

28. But the Portuguese artillery again proved completely effective, and the enemy was driven back with heavy loss notwithstanding that the Cochin Nayers (five hundred men) had fled at the first alarm.

29. it was with the utmost difficulty repulsed, the Cochin Nayars having again proved faithless.

30. The fort was accordingly abandoned and it is said that the last man to leave it set fire to a train of gunpowder which killed many of the Nayars and Moors, who in hopes of plunder flocked into the fort directly it was abandoned.

[My notes: This is not an unbelievable incident. See the next quote.

31. The Nayars and other Malayalis suffered in their eagerness for plunder, for a magazine blew up and killed 100 of them

32. Such family quarrels were not infrequent in the Kolattiri Chief’s house, and the reasons therefore are in operation in all Malayali families down to the present day and more especially in North Malabar.

[My notes: This continual mood for mutiny and mutual fights and quarrels are caused by the feudal language codes in the native languages. ]

33. The result was that the two settlements began to interchange friendly visits, and much gunpowder was spent in salutes, much to the chagrin of the Kurangoth Nayar, who tried various plans to prevent the respective factors from coming to an amicable understanding.

1. If attempts were made to sow dissensions by showing forged letters, etc. (as had already happened), inter-communication between the factories was to be free in order to get rid of the distrust thereby caused. The Nayars in the pay of the respective companies were to be kept quiet, and the factories were to take joint action in case of dissensions among them and also in protecting them against other people.

[My notes: The above two items are illustrative of what the local vested interests continually did. The Nairs had their own vested interest in seeing that the English and French trading groups fought against each-other. There is indeed a saying in Malayalam: കലക്ക് വെള്ളത്തിൽ മീൻപിടിക്കുക. It means the art of catching fish in muddied waters. (Fish in troubled waters).They would strive to create a state of uneasy distrust between two higher placed groups. The lower-placed groups would make use of this scenario to make the best profit for themselves.

34. From the position of his Nad, the Nayar was early brought into relations with both the English and French Companies, and he tried his best, to play off one against the other, not without loss to himself.

35. The English force secured an eminence with the Nayars on their right, but the latter fled when attacked by the Canarese.

Image

[My notes: The following are illustrative of the Nayar courage or fright]:

1. Then a crisis occurred. The Nayars and Tiyars at Ponolla Malta deserted, and the sepoys refused to sacrifice themselves.

2. Fullarton applied for and received four battalions of Travancore sepoys, which he despatched to the place to help the Zamorin to hold it till further assistance could arrive, but before the succour arrived, the Zamorin’s force despairing of support had abandoned the place and retired into the mountains. Tippu’s forces, thereupon, speedily re-occupied all the south of Malabar as far as the Kota river,

3. Nayres were busied in attempting to oppose the infantry, who pretended to be on the point of passing over. They were frightened at the sudden appearance of the cavalry and fled with the utmost precipitation and disorder without making any other defence but that of discharging a few cannon which they were too much intimidated to point properly.

[My notes: This incident is connected to the attempts to block Hyder Ali’s troops. The Nair soldiery in Malabar were simply next to nothing in organising a strong defence. In the ultimate reckoning, it was the timely intervention of the English that saved the Nairs. Otherwise the Nairs would currently be at the state of the lowest castes of Malabar and Travancore.]

4. The whole army in consequence moved to attack the retrenchment ; but the enemy perceiving that Hyder’s troops had stormed their outpost, and catching the affright of the fugitives, fled from their camp with disorder and precipitation.

5. The Travancore commander had arranged that the Raja’s force should reassemble upon the Vypeen Island, but the extreme consternation caused by the loss of their vaunted lines had upset this arrangement, and the whole of the force had dispersed for refuge into the jungles or had retreated to the south. [/i]

6. The consternation of the (Travancore) Raja's people was so great that they could not be trusted to procure supplies.

7. On this application Hyder Ali sent a force under his brother-in-law, Muckh doom Sahib, who drove back the Zamorin’s Nayars

36. The Nayars, in their despair, defended such small posts as they possessed most bravely.

1. The Nayars defended themselves until they were tired of the confinement, and then leaping over the abbatis and cutting through the three lines with astonishing rapidity, they gained the woods before the enemy had recovered from their surprise.” (Wilks’ History, I, 201.)

[My notes: However, the above two quote do show that the Nairs were capable of bravery when there was no other option.]

37. Captain Lane reported, “cruelly—shamefully— and in violation of all laws divine and humane, most barbarously butchered” by the Nayars, notwithstanding the exertions of the English officers to save them.

[My notes: These incidence lend light on the barbarous culture of the people/s in the subcontinent. See the next quote also:]

Image

38. A large body (300) of the enemy, after giving up their arms and while proceeding to Cannanore, were barbarously massacred by the Nayars.

[My notes: These kind of incidences were common in the location. Once an enemy surrenders, the other side would give two-pence value to them. They would be beaten-up into pulp. In the above incident, they are slaughtered.

In fact, a similar thing happened at the end of the 2nd World War. When the Japanese side surrendered in Singapore, a small number of British-Indian soldiers who had shifted loyalty to the Japanese side were among those who had surrendered. Many of them did this to avoid the terrors of a Japanese prison-camp, where many of them were simply bayoneted to death. (Subash Chandran was standing with the Japanese side at the time). When these soldiers were being kept under the British-Indian troops, the latter started butchering them. They called them ‘blacklegs’ and traitors. Then the British side had to take off the British-Indian troops. The surrendered troops were then kept under the direct supervision of the British troops. This kind of lingering mood for vengeance is also connected to the feudal languages.]

39. This arrangement did not much disconcert the Tellicherry factors, who shrewdly recorded in their diary that even if the Dutch did their part, the prince would not do his because of his avarice, which prevented him from paying even for the few Nayars the Company had entertained at Ayconny fort (Alikkunuu opposite Kavayi), and which would certainly, they concluded, prevent him from paying the market price for pepper and selling it at a loss to the Dutch.

[My notes: This is an information that sheds light on the real social status of the majority Nairs. They were the serving class of the royalty and the Brahmins. Many of them depended on the salary given out to them by their employers. However, the employers were not that liberal in paying the wages.]

40. “Before he quitted the country, Hyder by a solemn edict, declared the Nayars deprived of all their privileges ; and ordained that their caste, which was the first after the Brahmans, should thereafter be the lowest of all the castes, subjecting them to salute the Parias and others of the lowest castes by ranging themselves before them as the other Mallabars had been obliged to do before the Nayars ; permitting all the other caste to bear arms and forbidding them to the Nayars, who till then had enjoyed the sole right of carrying them; at the same time allowing and commanding all persons to kill such Nayars as were found bearing arms. By this rigorous edict, Hyder expected to make all the other castes enemies of the Nayars, and that they would rejoice in the occasion of revenging themselves for the tyrannic oppression this nobility had till then exerted over them.

[My notes: This is the apt answer to a native-of-the-subcontinent person who is at the moment standing on the pedestal of native-English nations and trying to fix up an idea that if the English rule had not come to the Subcontinent, the place would have been great. What would have happened if the native-English force was not there in Malabar? The above paragraph gives one answer. Now, look at the following quotes: ]

Image

1. Sultan Tipu dictates: Hereafter you must proceed in an opposite manner ; dwell quietly, and pay your dues like good subjects : and since it is a practice with you for one woman to associate with ten men, and you leave your mothers and sisters unconstrained in their obscene practices, and are thence all born in adultery, and are more shameless in your connexions than the beasts of the field : I hereby inquire you to forsake those sinful practices, and live like the rest of mankind.

2. The unhappy captives gave a forced assent, and on the next day the rite of circumcision was performed on all the males, every individual of both sexes being compelled to close the ceremony by eating beef.”

3. Parappanad, also "Tichera Terupar, a principal Nayar of Nelemboor” and many other persons, who had been carried off to Coimbatore, were circumcised and forced to eat beef.

Image


4. Another conquering race had appeared on the scene, and there is not the slightest doubt that, but for the intervention of a still stronger foreign race, the Nayars would now be denizens of the jungles like the Kurumbar and other jungle races whom they themselves had supplanted in similar fashion.

[My notes: The English East India Company was only a protecting force for all kinds of people here. In fact, in many locations where the English force vacated the location, people went into terror. See this quote.

5. The news of his (Colonel Hartley's) force being on its way had greatly quieted the inhabitants, and “the consternation which had seized all ranks of the people ’’ had considerably abated.

6. “Colonel Stuart arrived before Palghaut, with two day’s provisions, and without a shilling in his military chest ; the sympathy which he evinced for the sufferings of the Nayars and the rigid enforcement of a protecting discipline had caused his bazaar to assume the appearance of a provincial granary ;

41. The district had been in a disturbed state owing to the mutual animosities and jealousies of the Nambiars themselves and to the confused method in which they conducted the administration. It was very necessary to protect the lower classes of the people from the exactions of the Nambiars, who now freed by the strong arm of the Company from dependence on those beneath them, would have taken the opportunity, if it had been afforded them, of enriching themselves at the expense of their poorer neighbours and subjects.

[My notes: This item is about the mutual animosities among the various layers of the Nairs and also inside each layer and also with the kings. See these quotes:

1. His demand for the restoration of Pulavayi was left in suspense to be settled by the Supravisor as its Nayar chiefs were openly resisting the attempts of the Zamorin to interfere in the concerns of their country.

2. Subsequently, too, they were joined by Kunhi Achehan of the Palghat family, who fled to them after having murdered a Nayar]

42. Moreover in Darogha Sahib's time (paragraph 175) Itti Kombi Achan established a Parbutti Menon (Accountant) and two or three Kolkars (Peons) in each Desam to collect the revenue,

[My notes: Here, I am mentioning the so-called Kolkars, who have been mentioned as Nairs / Nayars in some other writings. It is more or less sure that they are Nayars. If they were some lower castes, it would have been very carefully mentioned. Even though, there are Nayar caste persons in higher posts like the Accountant, by and large, the Nayar posts were of the peon-kind. Actually this issue had a great bearing upon how the Mappilla rebels were dealt with in South Malabar. That I will deal with later.

Image

However, see the quotes given below:

1. Moreover, in addition to the regular troops, Captain Watson had by this time thoroughly organised his famous “Kolkars” or police, a body of 1,200 men,

2. The rebels were dispersed by the Kolkars, supported by the regular troops under Colonel Montresor.

3. The effect of this, coupled with the vigilance of the Kolkars, was to drive the rebels from the low country into the woods and fastnesses of Wynad, and

4. Mr. Warden returned to Calicut and Colonel Macleod to Cannanore in May for the rains, leaving 2,1523 non-commissioned rank and file and Captain Watson with 800 of his Kolkars in the district, all under the orders of Lieutenant-Colonel Innes of the 2nd battalion 1st Regiment

5. On June 11th Mr. Baber reported (with much satisfaction at the good results of his policy) the arrest of three rebel leaders and eight of their followers, by the Kolkars and people of Chirakkal acting in concert.

6. And the Palassi (Pychy) Raja himself narrowly escaped on 6th September from falling into the hands of a party of Kolkars despatched from below the ghats

7. The Kolkaras marched all night through the ghats amid rain and leeches, and at 7 a.m. completely surprised the rebel party.

8. Out of 1,500 Kolkars who had been in Wynad only five weeks before, only 170 were on the roll for duty on October 18th

43. The Nayars were no doubt spread over the whole face of the country (as they still are) protecting all rights, suffering none to fall into disuse, and at the same time supervising the cultivation of the land and collecting the kon or king’s share of the produce - the public land revenue in fact.

[My notes: These are self-eulogising descriptions made by the Nayar writers. It cannot be by Logan, for Logan does make at times very distasteful comments about their behaviour. See the following self-praising words:]

1. but to the great bulk of the people—the Nayars, the Six Hundreds — with whom, in their corporate capacities all power rested.

2. The Nayar protector guild was distributed over the length and breadth of the land exercising their State functions of ....

3. unless he acted in strict accordance with the Nayar guild whose function was “to prevent the rights from being curtailed or suffered to fall into disuse” as the Keralolpatti expressly says.

4. The duty of the Kanakkars (Nayar headmen) was protection.

5. The number of Nayars or fighting men attached to a Desavali was from 25 to 100 ; if it exceeded the latter number, he ranked as Naduvali.

6. He was the military chief, not the civil chief of the Desam

[My notes: It is possible that ‘He’ is in fighting man in the small village or town or town and villages around it, and has some kind of subordinates, and that he and his subordinates are Nayars. However, the word ‘military chief’ would give out a feel of an English army chief, which would be quite a ridiculous imagination. After all, the whole of Malabar, north and south was quite a small place. Inside this small place, there are very many desams. The subordinates are Nayars, meaning that they are like the ordinary constables and soldiers of India. Rough, rude and totally impolite to those who are suppressed by them. They are still not ‘officers’, for can one can mention the rude and crude type of dominating people in the subcontinent as ‘officers’?]

7. ...the share of produce due to him did not pass to those (the present Rajas) who supplied in some measures his place, but to the great bulk of the people—the Nayars, the Six Hundreds — with whom, in their corporate capacities all power rested.

8. SUDRAN, plural SUDRANMAR. (Sanskrit) = the fourth caste in the Hindu system. Who according, to the Sastram, are the fourth class of Hindus, are a particular caste of Nayars in Malabar, whose duty it is to perform ceremonies or Karmam in Brahman families on the birth of a child, etc.
Note.—Nayars generally do now style themselves as Sudras.[/i]

9. MENAVAN or Menon: From Dravidian mel (= above), and Dravidian avan (= he).

10. NAYAN, plural Nayar. (Sanskrit) = leader, in honorific plural, lord ; in ordinary sense, soldiers, militia.

11. The word Nayar has much resemblance to the Gentoo word Nayadu, to the Canarese and Tamil Nayakkan, and to the Hindustani Naig ; all titles of respect, applied in the manner that Sahib is at the end of a name.

44. At the time of Parasurama’s gift of the country to the Brahmans, 64 Gramams were established from Goa to Cape Comorin, 32 from Kanyirote (or Cassergode north to Comorin south) ; to these were attached all the Sudra villages.

[My notes: These are quotes that mention the state of servitude to the Brahman folks. However, it may be re-mentioned here again, the Parasurama story itself has to be imbibed with a spoon of free-flowing salt.

45. CHANGNGATAM: Is also a kind of vassalage, and is applied particularly to Nayars who have placed themselves in a state of dependency upon some Desavali, Naduvali or Raja. The word Adiyan would, with respect to them, be degrading and improperly used. Nayars have often agreed to give Changngatam or protection money to some chief of authority, and to make yearly presents in consequence from 4 to 34 fanams to individual patrons, and as high as 120 to the church.

Image

Now, I would like to move into the location of why the Nairs were so desperate to show themselves to be high and above, to the English administrators. The English administrators were in most cases, quite naive, gullible and good-hearted. In most occasions, they strived to see the better side of things, when actually there was no better side worthy of praise.

The most dangerous content in the subcontinent was the language. When I say that it is feudal, a native-Englishman will not understand it. For, if he is to take up imageries from the feudal system of England, nothing terrible or monstrous will appears in his mind.

For, the English feudal system has nothing in it, which can be compared with the gruesome beastly quality of the feudal systems of Asia and possibly Africa. In my ancient book titled March of the Evil Empires; English versus the feudal languages, I had mentioned that languages are software or software applications or software codes that do contain the design-codes of a social system.

The codes of beastliness in the social system of the South Asian Subcontinent lie encoded in the feudal language of the location. There is no corresponding items in English by which I can convey this idea to an Englishman.

If the reader is interested in knowing more in detail about this, I have mentioned that he or she can read my daily broadcast text. The first two parts have come out as books named: An impressionistic history of the South Asian Subcontinent. Part 1 & 2.

See the words in Malayalam, for You. Nee, Thaan, Ningal, Saar. (There are others also). These words if translated into English means just ‘You’. However, they are actually not synonyms. There are powerful coding inside each of these words, which inflict or convey very powerful placing of individuals in certain slots.

I will leave the theme here, for it has been very clearly described in the book I have mentioned. As of now, the book is in Malayalam. The English translation of the Part One is available.

When the English rule stabilised in the Malabar region, the caste or population group or even religion that got terrorised was the Nayars. Actually, the Nayars should be quite grateful to the English rule For, if the English rule had not appeared in the location, Hyder Ali or his son Sultan Tipu (Tipu Sulthaan) would have re-installed them as the lowest of the castes. All that takes to inflict the hammering blow on their physical and mental demeanour would be just an addressing of them by a Pulaya or Pariah (lowest castes) as a Inhi/Nee, and referring to them as Oan/Avan. They are literally finished. In a generation or two, they will look like the lowest castes.

Image

Moreover the Pulayas and Pariah will fornicate all their women folks with no qualms. For, even without any statutory permission, these lower caste males used to pouch on solitary women folks of the higher castes in Travancore area. This is mentioned in the Native Life in Travancore.

QUOTE 1: A curious custom also existed, which is said to have added to the number of the enslaved. The various castes met at fighting grounds at Pallam, Ochira, &c.; and at this season it was supposed that low-caste men were at liberty to seize high-caste women if they could manage it, and to retain them. Perhaps this practice took its origin in some kind of faction fights. A certain woman at Mundakayam, with fair Syrian features, is said to have been carried off thus. Hence arose a popular terror that during the months of Kumbha and Meena (February and March), if a Pulayan meets a Sudra woman alone he may seize her, Unless she is accompanied by a Shanar boy. This time of year was called Pula pidi kalam, Gundert says that this time of terror was in “the month Karkadam (15th July to 15th August), during which high caste women may lose caste if a slave happen to throw a stone at them after sunset.” So the slave owners had their own troubles to bear from this institution.

QUOTE 2: The Pariahs in North Travancore formerly kidnapped females of high caste, whom they were said to treat afterwards in a brutal manner.

QUOTE 3: Their custom was to turn robbers in the month of February, just after the ingathering of the harvest, when they were free from field work, and at the same time excited by demon worship, dancing, and drink. They broke into the houses of Brahmans and Nayars, carrying away their children and property, in excuse for which they pretended motives of revenge rather than interest, urging a tradition that they were once a division of the Brahmans, but entrapped into a breach of caste rules by their enemies making them eat beef. These crimes were once committed almost with impunity in some parts, but have now disappeared. Once having lost caste, even by no fault of their own, restoration to home and friends is impossible to Hindus.

QUOTE 4: Barbosa, writing about A.D. 1516, refers to this strange custom as practised by the polcas (Pulayars). “These low people during certain months of the year try as hard as they can to touch some of the Nayr women, as best they may be able to manage it, and secretly by night, to do them harm. So they go by night amongst the houses of the Nayrs to touch women; and these take many precautions against this injury during this season. And if they touch any woman, even though no one see it, and though there should be no witnesses, she, the Nayr woman herself, publishes it immediately, crying out, and leaves her house without choosing to enter it again to damage her lineage. And what she most thinks of doing is to run to the house of some low people to hide herself, that her relations may not kill her as a remedy for what has happened, or sell her to some strangers, as they are accustomed to do.

Even though the above-mentioned items might seem quite unbelievable, they are mostly true. The terror associated with being accosted by or being touched by a lower caste man, is actually encoded in the feudal language. It is not possible to deal with the issue here.

If an incident of the following kind can be imagined, the idea might be understandable to a person from the subcontinent:
A female IPS officer is taken into hands by a group of male or female constables. They address her as Nee, and Edi and refer to her as Aval. And make her live with them. The mentioned words are quite heavy. It has a hammering effect when delivered by the lowly constables on an IPS officer.

This is a scenario that is not imaginable in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh. However it is now more or less enacted everyday in native-English nations. Some of the native-Englishmen or women might go berserk. The idiots who claims to be psychologists and psychiatrist would then give out some utterly idiotic logic as to why the person went berserk. They speak without the barest of information on what has taken place. Any normal person in the Sub-continent would go homicidal if such a thing happens over here. But these things do not happen here. For, all social communications are generally done along very carefully built-up pathways. When some persons do not follow the pathways, other simply avoids him or her. They sort of practise apartheid on the person. However, in native-English nations, the foolish natives there cannot do this. For, they will end up in prisons for practising ‘racism’.

That is the truth.

When the English Company was protecting them in times of acute danger, it was okay. However, when the English Company took over the administration of the various small-time kingdoms, there was a new understanding that things are going to be quite dangerous. It was not that the English administration was dangerous or that they were knaves or that they would loot their temples, or molest their women. No. Actually the English administration did none of these things.

What was the greatest danger that arose on the horizon was another thing totally. It was that the English administration was good, honest, efficient, humane and stood for the common welfare of all human beings here. This was a most terrible item.

For the social structure would collapse. And the English officials had no idea about the terrible anguish they were going to give the Nayar caste or Nayar population or Nayar religious group. For, it was the Nayar who stood on the borderline as a sort of wall between the higher castes (Brahmins and the Ambalavasis) and the lower castes.

The lower castes which stood just below them were the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas of North Malabar and the Makkathaya Thiyyas of South Malabar. I personally think that it was the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas of North Malabar who intimidated them most in the newly emerging social scenario. One of the main reasons for this was that the English East India Company Factory was located in Tellicherry, which was in north Malabar.

The second item was that in South Malabar, the major fear that caught them was the rising of the Mappilla population. However, the Mappilla populations there were actually the lower castes, mainly the Cherumar (very low caste) and the Makkathaya Thiyyas who had converted into Islam. This Mappilla outrages against the Nayars and the Brahmins have to be taken up separately.

The terrorising factor from the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas of North Malabar was mainly connected to a few common features of Malabar.

One was that the lower castes did not have dark-skin complexion in Malabar. In fact, many of them had very fair skin features. (Some ancient claims to Greek bloodline is seen mentioned. However, as of now, the vast majority are of mixed-blood descent).

Image

Another connected factor was that there were at least a few Englishmen taking lower-class Thiyya women as their wife. Even though, many of the others of the local society, including the higher class Thiyyas would object to the use of the word ‘wife’ for them, the truth stands that these people to a great extent lived a family life raising good quality households and children. No one, not even the Thiyyas would like to see higher quality individuals sprouting up from amongst themselves. For, the language is totally hierarchical. It would be like in a modern Indian administration set up, finding a small percent of the peons have IAS level qualities, contacts and capacity for communication. This issue had a sad side to it. However, that is not in context here.

The third utterly incorrigible item was the stark madness displayed by the English administration to spread ‘education’ and English skills in the newer generation of youngsters. From all perspectives, this was an utter foolish activity. From their own national interest point of view, it was an act of utter treachery towards their own country and countrymen. It was a rascal act of sponging out all the traditional knowledges, sciences, mathematics, skills, technical knowhow, technical terminologies, all kinds of experiences including that of maritime skills and trade-secrets and much else of England, and scattering it out into a number of population groups, whose real and innate mental disposition was not fully known or understood. The heights of these foolish were that of giving away their national language English to populations, who the moment they get the upper hand would show not even one iota of gratitude or remembrance of what had been given to them.

Here there is need for some information to be mentioned. Learning English is not like learning any feudal language. Learning English will liberate a person from various kinds of shackles, confinements and controls.

However, learning a language like Malayalam, Tamil, Hindi, Telugu etc. would be equivalent to allowing others to tie up oneself and hand over rights of control and command to them, if one is in a lower position. This is a terrific information that is currently being withheld from all native-English nations. If this information is not discussed in native-English nations, the native populations of those nations will be in enslavement before long.

Fourth point is that the moment any Thiyya man or woman rises up in stature, above their own Thiyya others, there is no way to keep them down. The Nairs would find that they have to accept the risen-up Thiyya man as an equal first, and then later on as a superior. The terror in this total up-side-downing of roles cannot be understood in English.
When this happens, there is a terrible change of words, which connect to so many other verbal usages inside the feudal language. Since words are actually software code buttons or switches, this change can effect almost everyone in the connected social system. At every nook and corner, the relative stature and status of an immense number of persons will get affected.

The innumerable family relatives of the Thiyya man who has risen up would very quietly mention their connection to this man. The moment they mention this, the relative verbal codes for You, Your, Yours, He, His, Him, She, Her, Hers will change. The commander can very fast change into the commanded. And vice versa.

It is like this. Two young men are accosted by an Indian police constable, on the roadside. The latter asks one of them a few questions. It is quite possible that he would use the lower indicant words for You, Your, Yours etc. And he would refer to his company with the lower indicant words for He, His, Him etc. (Eda, Inhi/Nee, Oan/Avan &c.)

Instead of answering the questions, one of the young men simply mentions that his father’s brother is the Police SP (District head of police) of the district. It is a very powerful input. Immediately the constable would have no other go other than to shift the verbal codes for You &c. and He &c. to a higher indicant word stature. (Ingal / Ningal / Saar).

In fact, he might even act a bit subservient and ‘respectful’.

Now, this is the kind of horrendous social restructuring that was in the offing.

A single Thiyya man entering into the administrative positions as an officer could literally strew the social scene with an array of disorder and disorderly disconnections and connections.

Image

The fifth issue was actually of more terror in content. It was the opening up of English schools in the Tellicherry area, and in some other locations in Malabar. In these places, some of the Thiyyas were able to admit their children. That more or less foreclosed the entry of Nair children in these schools. It might be true that some Nair children did join them. However, many kept away. The Nayar families which could afford it, sent their children to Calicut, to attend the school run by the erstwhile king of Calicut, meant only Hindu (Brahmin), Ambalavasi and Nayar children.

The issue that faced the Nayars would not be clearly understood by the English officials, who were under the foolish understanding that they knew everything better. That they understood the real calibre of the lower castes &c. The fact is that the higher castes were also quite aware that the lower castes had enough and more brains and skills for everything. And that exactly was the reason that the lower castes were put down terribly.

For instance, there is ample proof that the carpenters of the subcontinent were brilliant. However, to allow them any leeway to rise up in the social order to the extent that they can address the Nayar by name and by Inhi/Nee (lower or intimate level of You) would be suicidal. These kinds of freedoms are given to others only in foolish native-English nations. And that is why the native-English nations are heading for mass suicides.

It is good to improve lowly-placed populations and individuals. However, before doing that there is need to understand why these populations have been placed in lowly positions by their own native-land upper classes. Social Engineering has to be attempted only by those who know what is what.

Others like Abe Lincoln etc. enter like a fool into a location where only persons with extreme levels of information have the right to enter. And they create issues which the posterity will have to bear in terrible anguish.

There was an array of problems in allowing the lower-caste Thiyya children with the relatively higher-caste Nayar children. First and foremost was that a good percent of the Thiyyas were from the lower professional groups, like coconut climbers, agricultural workers, household servants etc. Even though their children would not be able to afford English education, the Thiyyas who could afford it would be connected to them.

A lower stature in caste hierarchy naturally has its affect on various human quality, including that of the quality of conversation, quality of words, quality of the human connections that frequently gets mentioned in conversations, the way other persons see the lower-caste children etc. The terror of the Nayars would be that everything that they can imagine as negative would be loaded on to their children if their children were to study in the same class and school as the Thiyya children.

Actually this is not a Hindu (Brahmin), upper-caste and Nayar caste mentality alone. In fact, the Muslims also did not want to send their children to school, where they would be forced to imbibe non-Islamic cultural items from their school-mates.

See this
The scruples of the parents prevent them from permitting their children to attend the vernacular schools of the Hindus. A fairly successful attempt has however been made to reach them by giving grants to their own teachers on condition that they must show results


If one were to go into the interiors of this emotion, it would be seen that this terror is not connected actually to caste. For even now, parents who can afford a more expensive education for their children would strive to keep their children away from children whom they perceive as lower to them. The reader is requested not to immediately try to think that similar emotions are there in native-English nations. The reality in English nations cannot be taken up for any kind of comparison here. However, I will not go into the details of that here.

There is another emotional issue. The moment the Thiyyas get to feel a sort of equality with their immediate upper caste, the emotion that would spring forth from them would not be any kind of gratitude. Instead, the emotion would be for terrific vengeance and antipathy and competition and a desperation to show that they are better than the Nayars in everything.

At the same time, these Thiyyas would also try to keep the undeveloped Thiyyas at a distance as some kind of despicable beings. Nothing would be done in quite obvious ways. Everything would be by sly verbal codes, for which the local feudal language could give much facility.

The English-educated Thiyyas (high quality English education was dispensed at that time) would be of a softer mien. But then, as they improve, they would naturally and inadvertently be pulling up the other educated-in-vernacular Thiyyas. For even an uncle in the government service as an officer would give a huge social boost to a lower-level Thiyya. For even land-owner Nayars were working as Peons in the government sector.

And there is the fact mentioned by Edgar Thurston that there were many Marumakkathaya Thiyyas families in North Malabar and Makkathaya Thiyya families in South Malabar who were of sound social standing. I cannot mention more about this. However, he has mentioned something like Eight illams of the Thiyyas. What this is supposed to actually mean, I am unable to gather. However, in the Native Life in Travancore, it is seen that there is mention of the Ezhavas also claiming some kind of Illams. However, Pulayars and the Mukkuvars also are mentioned as having this verbal usage, ‘Illam’ (Source: Native Life in Travancore). At best, all this might be a desperate attempt to connect to the Brahmins, which is an emotion generally seen in many lower castes in the subcontinent.

See this quote from Native Life in Travancore:

They broke into the houses of Brahmans and Nayars, carrying away their children and property, in excuse for which they pretended motives of revenge rather than interest, urging a tradition that they were once a division of the Brahmans, but entrapped into a breach of caste rules by their enemies making them eat beef.


With the setting up a reasonably stable social living, good quality administration, security to individuals, everyone getting the right to do business and to move goods to distant place, and judiciary to adjudicate civil disputes without giving any extra premium to any caste status, the social system was simply changing. As seen in this book itself, and very clearly mentioned in such books as Travancore State Manual etc., the period of continual warfare, battles, raiding, molesting, looting, plundering, enslaving and such other things had come to an end.

In the earlier periods, all towns and villages would turn into battlefield or areas through which totally uncontrolled fighters of some side would walk through. It goes without saying when such things happen, the peoples of the various castes tries to run off. However, many are caught and butchered. Many are taken as slaves to push the carts and make food and wash clothes etc. for the fighting persons. Women are generally forcibly fornicated in their houses. Some of them are taken as slaves or as woman to be kept as concubines by the individuals who are the leaders of the soldiers.

There was no one to appeal to.

Image


However, as of now, everything had changed. There was quietude and time to ponder on a new terror for the Nayars. The higher castes like the Ambalavasis and the Brahmins would also be perturbed. But then, they were not the castes which were on direct competition with the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas.

The book, Malabar, is not a book written with an aim at misguiding the natives of the subcontinent. Such books are now published by the Indian and Pakistani governments. This book was written as a guide book for the English administrators to understand the land they were administering. It was here that the Nayars had to work strenuously to give an erroneous idea about the land. For, they had much interests to protect and many populations to keep down.

All over the book, they have mentioned that they are some kind of genteel people, yet, courageous fighters, whose families had the antiquity of great traditions, and that they were the protectors of the land and that they were in charge of some kind of law and order machinery.

Even though there might be some element of truth in some of these assertions, it would be quite a lie to say that they stood for any kind of social welfare activity. Their best intentions would be to see that the subordinated castes and classes remained suppressed.

However, they could not simply continue this system. For, the English rule had prospered. The only thing that they could do in North Malabar was to insist that the Thiyyas were more low-class than they actually were.

In fact, as seen in a quote from Travancore State Manual, with the establishment of the English rule in Travancore, the mental and cultural quality of the Nayars had improved from that of a rowdy population. They had become more softer and cultured.

The same thing must have been experienced by the Nayars of Malabar also. Especially those in North Malabar. In fact, it is a very obvious thing that people who live in close proximity with the native-English improve in quality and culture.

[The reader should be very careful to note that the native-English are totally different from Continental Europeans. Please do not mix up these two totally different people groups into one group. Moreover, pristine-English population of yore was a totally different population from the current-day Multi-culture English.]

However, in Malabar this quality enhancement was not confined to the Nayars alone. It arrived into the households of a few Thiyyas also. Especially those around Tellicherry areas.

In fact, there would not be much to differentiate a Thiyya and a Nayar who are both well-educated in the high quality English schools of Tellicherry of those times. The difference would be felt only if the Nayar’s and Thiyya person’s traditional family relatives are brought into the comparison.

Even though, a Thiyya individual who had developed culturally via means of the English education he had received would not personally appear to be an intimidating entity, on the social horizon, this man’s existence would be giving a total uplift-ment to all the crass low-class Thiyya families who were from the labourer classes. The main content of this ‘crass low-class’ quality would be the lower indicant verbal definitions meant for them. However, the moment they rise up relatively, they would very forcefully assault and harass the Nayars with a simple flipping of the verbal codes. The Nayars who do feel or experience this flipping action would feel himself or herself or their own family members going for vertical flip-flop.

What the English administration was giving was equivalent to giving a gun to a team of mice, to accost the cats.

Till date the Thiyyas were like the herbivorous animals like the deer, wild-buffalos etc. They can be pounced upon by the carnivorous animals like the cheetah, tiger etc. Their horns which point in more or less useless directions were of no use against the wild beasts. However one fine morning they find that they have been given a very suitable weapon of offense. It goes without saying that they would become more or less trigger-happy when they see a wild beast, even if the beast has no inimical intentions.

Actually the wildest beastliness are in the language codes of the local languages. It is not an individual quality. All persons who get the ability to inflict harm on another competing entity or human will inflict the harm. That is the way the language codes of feudal language are designed.

Gullible native-Englishmen had no way to understand this inglorious secret, which is currently turning their own native-nations into wastelands.

This book, Malabar, is full of cunning verbal attacks on the Thiyyas. Nothing direct. And that is the wonderful part of it. Where these sly attacks have been done, even Logan would have simply shrugged his shoulders. However, in the areas where he has directly made the inputs, that is, in the history part connected to the records from the English East India Company’s Factory at Tellicherry, the hue and tone is different. The perspective is different. If one knows that there is something wrong with the book, then one would put one’s mind on noting these things. Then they would appear very clearly.

Others, who read this book as some kind of old history, will simply gulp down the sterile facts as if they are of resounding quality.

When speaking about knowing history or what took place, there are immense information that do not come inside formal textbooks. For one thing, academic history that comes out from 3rd world historians who reside inside their home nations are literally the mouthpieces of their national policy indoctrinations. As to those from these nations who have relocated themselves into native-English nations, a good percentage of them simply retell the lies that they have been taught at home.
Image

I can give several instances of information that might not appear in formal histories of India.

Take this instance: When speaking about the modern state of Kerala, there is not enough importance given to the ideas that Malabar and Travancore were totally disconnected political entities. English-ruled-Malabar had a bureaucratic apparatus which was run by officials who were quite good in English. The officialdom at the level of the officers were honest to a fault. This information I know personally, because one of my own family members was an officer in this Service. This Service was part of the Madras Presidency Civil Service and later of the Madras State Civil Service. In the earlier period of this Service, Travancore was a foreign kingdom. And later a neighbouring state called Travancore-Cochin State.

The Travancore officialdom was not run on English systems, even though at the top-levels English might have been used. The officials including the ‘officers’ were literally thieves. Beyond that they were most ruffians and rogues in all ways. The standard definition that they gave for the common man was ‘a donkey’.

In Malabar officialdom, everything was different. For instance, the members of the public were not to approach the peons and clerks for any office dealing. They had to approach the officers, who would assign their papers to the various clerks. The clerks would process the files and hand it over to the officer. The finished file/paper would be handed over back to the individual on the appointed day.

If a particular clerk is absent on any day, the officer would hand-over the file to another clerk. Or if that is not possible, the officer himself or herself would go through the file and have it ready for giving to the member of the public who had submitted the application.

Even in Malabar officialdom, the clerks and peons were not very good in English communication. If and when the member of the public approaches the clerk or the peon, they would most naturally try to dominate or distress the individual. For, that is the way the language codes are designed.

It was most probably for this very reason that the officers were made duty-bound to deal with the members of the public. The clerks and peons were merely workers inside the office, and had no power to take any decisions or to harass the public.

These kind of information do not usually come in formal histories, currently written by feebly-informed formal academicians.

The system of conducting a Civil Service exam by which youngsters, who were good in English but not necessarily from the high social-status families, could become officers was a novel idea in Malabar. However, there was a great pitfall in this. But then, the English officials foresaw the pitfall and took evasive action in a very intelligent manner, even though it is doubtful if they fully understood the pitfall.

One of the major issues of this kind of recruiting of individuals to position of officiating public offices is that the languages are feudal. The content of verbal ‘respect’ is required for that person to be able to manage the office and the subordinate clerks and peons. And to make the members of public feel that the government is of quality standards and has power and authority.

The respect in the local vernacular is connected to two basic items. One is ‘age’. The relatively younger individual has no right to claim ‘respect’ unless he or she is a higher-caste person. That means his words and actions are seen as of no consequence. Such an individual cannot run an office.

The reader has to bear in mind that the English rule was creating a new system of administration based on written codes of law. If the officers were seen as totally useless people, the administration would collapse.

The second item that was connected to spontaneous ‘respect’ was family status. Naturally this would mean that the highest posts should go to the Brahmins and then the next to the Ambalavasis and then to the Nayars.

The English-rule was trying to create something that had no likeness or sync to this system which had been the standards for centuries.

Image


It must be mentioned here that the second item would override the first item, when both these items come to compete with each other. That is, if a higher-aged lower-caste man were to come in front of a lower-aged higher-caste man, the ‘respect’ is for the higher-caste younger-aged individual. The higher-aged lower-caste person would be addressed and also mentioned in the lower indicant words by the younger higher-caste person.

For instance, a higher caste 12 year old boy or girl would address a forty years old Thiyya man with a Inhi (Nee in Malayalam), and refer to him as an Oan (Avan in Malayalam).

A tumbling down of this system would not improve the situation. It would only change the individual positions. The higher-aged lower-caste man would address the younger-aged higher-caste boy with an ‘Inhi and refer to him as an Oan. This is not actually an improvement in the social order. Only a reversal of roles.

That is, the young-aged Nayar female in the image here would move from Ingal to Inhi, to a lower caste man, when the social structure tumbles. This is a terrifying event, for it connects to an immensity of other locations. Persons who thus find their ‘respect’ withdrawn will not come out of their residence.

However, what the English-rule attempted was the total abrogation and nullification of these satanic language systems. The satanic language in the location was something I would like to mention as Malabari. However, another satanic language called Malayalam was also entering into the location, desperately trying to replace Malabari and takeover. I will go into the competition between languages later.

When creating an administrative apparatus with youngsters getting recruited via means of an government recruitment Civil Service exam, the English administration did take quite efficient steps to see that only quality persons became Officers. This content of ‘Officers’ is something that has come to be missed in current-day India. No one seems to know the basic ideas of what it is to recruit ‘Officers’.

The major item is that Officers are Gentlemen. The word Gentlemen is not what it means in the native languages of the subcontinent. The word Gentlemen as understood in English is connected to a lot of sublime human qualities as seen in pristine-English. His behaviour to others should be gentlemanly and he should be chivalrous. A person who uses lower indicant words to the common man is not a gentleman. Nor can he be mentioned as an ‘Officer’. From this perspective, not many of the current-day ‘officers’ of India are actually ‘officers’. They are mere brutes in the attire of ‘officers’.

Good quality companies recruit their staff, based on individual quality. So that inside their office and working areas, the individuals in a particular work-location would have similar or same individual dispositions.

However, in current-day India, the ‘officer’ exam is simply like a marathon race. Anyone with some stamina can get in. There is no need for any ‘Officer’ quality. Even an individual fit for rowdy-work can get in, if he or she has the stamina. However, the system is quite rude within itself and individuals cannot be blamed.

When a youngster of around 23 years, with no outstanding family background is positioned as an Officer, with a number of subordinates under him or her, who could be from higher status families or castes, and possibly of more age, the system will not work in the feudal language and the prevalent social system. The subordinates would very spontaneously use the word ‘Oan’ (Avan in Malayalam – lowest ‘he’) or ‘Oal’ (Aval in Malayalam – lowest ‘she’) when referring to their officer. That itself will spell doom to the system.

Beyond this, the members of the public will also look down at the young man or woman from a feeble family status sitting at the officer’s table. They too would not get to feel any hallowed feeling with regard to government functioning. In a feudal language system this is an essential item for the machinery to work. The way then to gather respect is to terrorise and create hurdles of the person who comes to the office. However that would not be an English administration then.

However, the English administration did understand the issue. The solution they found out was this. The officers would be quite good in English. The administration and the office functioning would be in English.

I have personally seen in my childhood young Officers of the erstwhile Madras State Civil Service, after being moved into Kerala Service with the formation of Kerala, functioning in an English communication mode. They would address their senior-in-age subordinate clerks with a Mr. or Mrs. prefixed to their names. So that the local language issue of senior-in-age becoming a Chettan or Chechi to the officers was circumvented. If this had been allowed, a sort of double, mutually opposite hierarchies in communication would exist inside the office.

The second thing that the English administration did was to keep a pedestal-like platform for the chief officer in an office to place his or her seat. This more or less lifted them up above the others. Yet, this was not to add to the feudalism in communication. For, it was pristine-English in its most stern form that was upholding the government office functioning.

This wooden stage for the young officers to sit could be seen in such places as Sub Registrars office, Tahsildar’s office etc. As of now, in Malabar, this stage like seating arrangement was adding to the feudal hierarchy of feudal language officialdom that is now in vogue in Malabar.

I am not sure how it was in the government offices in Travancore Kingdom. I do not think this kind of physical lifting was necessary. For, the ‘officers’ there were recruited on the basis of their family stature. So a government office was just a mere reflection of the various terrible hierarchies already there in the kingdom.

In English-ruled Malabar, the offices were locations where the social feudalism and hierarchies went into disarray. This was one major difference between English ruled-Malabar and Travancore. It may be correct to say that this would have been the correct difference between the English-ruled locations everywhere in the subcontinent and where the local rajas ruled.

Formal history writers may not know much about these slender and yet quite powerful items.

Actually in the book, Malabar, there is not much information on the various Civil Service exams that had been initiated by the English rule. As to what it consisted of, I can base on only from my own family member’s exam.

I had found that the officer classes of the Malabar district of those days were extremely well-read in English Classics, good in English speaking, and stood as a group which was incorruptible. Moreover, they were not ready to use lower indicant words about or to a member of the public. However, when I came to interact with the members of the Travancore officials way back in 1970s onwards, I saw that the ‘officers’ there were low-class individuals who used totally bad indicant words about the common man. Most of them used words like Avan (lowest he/ him), Aval (lowest she/her) about them, with no qualms at all.

These words do contain the power of hammering, and the sharpness of a poking spear.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:41 pm, edited 11 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

17. The Thiyya quandary

Post posted by VED »

17 #

Let me now take up a very intriguing feature seen all around the book, Malabar, where the text has been evidently written or edited or doctored by the Nayars and certain others.

This feature element is this: In almost all locations, where the Thiyyas are mentioned, very evident interest has been shown to mix them up with the Ezhavas of Travancore, and also with many of the very low-castes of Malabar.

Before moving ahead on this route, I would like to mention a few things about Ezhavas. The fact is that until around 1975, when my family moved to Travancore area, I do not think anyone in our family had any information on a caste known as Ezhava. This does not mean that no one in Malabar was ignorant of them. For, there is an Ezhava temple at Tellicherry known as the Jagadnath Temple. Beyond that there are several SN Colleges and other institutions run by the SNDP, which is the leadership organisation of the Ezhavas of Travancore.

The first impression of the Ezhavas of Alleppy was the terrific darkness of their skin complexion. I think it was a very conspicuous item for the individuals who came from Malabar then. As of now, this skin complexion difference has vanished much due to the mixing of populations.

Later on, on getting to know more about the Travancore, it was found that the Ezhavas were in themselves a mixed population, with many individuals fair, some of mixed complexion and some quite dark complexioned. However, they were not at all similar to the Thiyyas of Malabar, especially of north Malabar.

The north Malabar Thiyyas were generally fair, if they were not from the labour class. Labour class persons generally had a darker skin complexion that they had acquired due to constant exposure to the sun. Or maybe they did have Ezhava bloodline mix in them. However, it would be clearly noticeable that skin-colour did not have much connection to intellectual and cultural content.

A mental quality known as ‘inferiority complex’ or a mood to retract from it using powerful props, was seen in the Thiyyas of the lower classes in north Malabar. I cannot say much about the Thiyyas of South Malabar, who actually were a different population group different from the North Malabar Thiyyas. I do not have much personal experience with them. The higher class north Malabar Thiyyas were quite developed and fashionable. However they also had the same repulsive feelings for the lower-class Thiyyas, as had the higher castes. These repulsions are encoded in the word-codes.

Image


The person in the picture was not a socially high-class individual. That was the intriguing part.

Thiyyas themselves used derogatory words about other Thiyyas. That is, words like Chekkan (lower grade male), Pennu (lower grade female), etc. The point here is that there had been occasions when the Thiyya working class had mentioned objection to the use of these words about them by the richer classes / castes or by the Mappilla rich.

Image

From the inferiority complex sense, the Ezhavas did have more reason for that. For, till 1947, they were more or less kept out of so many statutory rights and functions which were then available to the Thiyyas of Malabar. However, that was due to the English rule in Malabar.

As to the skin complexion issue, it is true that in the Subcontinent, in many locations, a dark skin colour is seen as a negative attribute. However, in Tamilnadu, the people are mostly quite dark. They do not seem to have any inferiority complex due to this, unless they are purposefully compared with a fair-complexioned person. Yet, there also, film starts and successful political leaders have tried to don a fair-skin complexion.

Maybe if the Englishmen had been dark-complexioned, there would have been more appreciation for this skin-colour. For, then, higher quality human attributes like fair-play, honesty, rectitude, sense of commitment, chivalrous mental attribute, English Classics &c. which are generally seen as associated with native-English common standards would have been connected to dark-skin.

However, as of now, in most themes connected to all kinds of heritage and antiquity of the land, the dark-skin complexion is seen mentioned as connected to diabolic and wicked entities. Even in the puranas (epics) of the northern parts of the subcontinent, the heroes (such as Sri Rama) are seen shown as fair in colour. There is another divinity Sri Krishna. By various descriptions, this divine personage should be of dark skin-complexion. However, in almost all pictorial depictions, Sri Krishna is seen as of blue-skin colour. The dark-skin element is avoided.

Speaking about the Thiyyas, there is this thing also to be mentioned. In the Tellicherry location, due to the close connection with English administration and also due to the terrific sense of freedom and social eminence that perched upon the Thiyyas there, corresponding higher features appeared on their personality.

It is simply a matter of a person who had been in the lower indicant word definition suddenly rising up to the higher indicant word definition. It is a social machinery work. That of an ‘Oan ഓൻ’ (Avan അവൻ in Malayalam) population rising to a ‘Oar ഓര്’ (Avar അവര്/ Adheham അദ്ദേഹം in Malayalam) population.

Persons who rise higher in the verbal codes generally display a more softer demeanour and a fairer (or less dark) skin complexion. Learning English also makes a person much softer. It gets reflected in the next generation.

However, this is a comparison of two different population groups, for which actually there is no need for any kind of comparison. For, historically there is no connection between them. There would be practically no family connection other than those achieved by the means of caste-jumping. Caste-jumping is done by any lower caste to a higher or more attractive caste, the moment they relocated to a new location. I have mention about this earlier.

For instance, I have found Ezhavas in Malabar who go about mentioning that they are Thiyyas. However, generally their dark-skin complexion will lend a clue that they have simply changed their caste.

The word Ezhava is used as a cunning perjorative by those who want to insult, it seems.

Now, how the Ezhavas came to get connected to the Thiyyas and vice versa might be a very interesting bit of information.

This book, Malabar, in all its positions, other than in the history part written directly by Logan (connected to the written Log book records of the English Factory at Tellicherry), has tried to establish a total connection between the Ezhavas and Thiyyas. However, there is no evidence of any direct intervention by the Ezhava vested-interests in this regard. In fact, there is ample feeling that the Nayars did the work, which the Ezhava leadership sort of desired, on their own.

Since I do not have any historical records with me regarding the origin of the Ezhavas population in Travancore, I will have to take as much as possible from such books as Travancore State Manual, Native Life in Travancore, Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Omens and Superstitions of Southern India etc.

The general talk is that the Ezhava came from the Ceylon Island (current-day Sri Lanka). If that is true, then their ancestors are Sinhalese. Traces of Sinhalese language might be found in the Ezhava ancestry. However, the general feeling of Travancore way back in 1970s onward that I personally felt was that the place had a linguistic antiquity of Tamil. The discussion on the languages of the three components of current-day Kerala has to be taken up separately. I will leave that here.



Image

However, it must be mentioned that the Thiyyas of north Malabar did have a language right from the ancient times. This is seen reflected in the Thottam chollal (ritualistic chanting) (തോറ്റം ചൊല്ലൽ) of the Muthappan Theyyams, Vellattaam and Thiruvappana.

Image


Now, if the ancestry mentioned above is correct, Ezhavas are not connected to the Brahmanical religion. They are not any kind of Hindus, as understood by the Brahmanical spiritual belief systems.

QUOTE: The residents about the Guruvayur temple are chiefly the higher classes of Hindus, viz.. Brahmans and Nayars END OF QUOTE.
The reality of Hindu religion is that it is basically the religion of the Brahmans.

In Native Life in Travancore, there is mention of two of their deities or entities to whom they do worship. That is the Madan and Marutha. And also of Bhadrakali, Shastavu and Veerabhadran. There might be others also. There is no mention of any Thiyya deity in their worship system mentioned anywhere.

In the Castes and Tribes of Southern India by E Thurston, I have found it mentioned or hinted at that many of the subordinated castes did try their level best to claim some kind of connection to the Brahmans. This is not a surprising thing. In fact, even now all persons try to mention some connection to a higher-placed government official or doctor or political leader. If there are nondescript persons in their relationships, they conveniently forget or refuse to mention them. Word codes would get pulled to the heights or lowliness, depending on who it is that one mentions as a relative.

The same is the case with mentioning antiquity. No caste or population would mention any hint of a connection to a lower-placed population. For, a mere mention is enough to degrade the individual in the verbal codes. This is the location where the Ezhavas admits their lowliness compared to the Thiyyas. It might not be real. However, position-wise the Thiyyas were under the English in the 1800s. While the Ezhavas were still under the Nayars.

The Ezhavas were not directly under the Brahmins. They were under the Nayars who were themselves under a number of levels of Ambalavasis, who were under a number of levels of Brahmins.

Being under the English was like standing on the mountain-top. Being under the Nayars, defined by them as Nee, Avan, Aval, Cherukkan, Pennu, Chovvan, Kotti etc. was like standing under some abominable dirt. This was the desperation that possibly made the Ezhavas to claim that they are Thiyyas in north Malabar.

A claim to sameness and similarity between the Ezhavas and the Thiyyas was done due to the fact that both were under the same-name caste; that is ‘Nayars’. However the former was under the Travancore Nayars, and the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas were under the North Malabar Nayars. I have no idea about the social standing between the Nayars and the Thiyyas of North Malabar, traditionally. However, it is seen mentioned that in the Panappayatt (പണപ്പയറ്റ്) programmes, there was interaction between the Nayars and the Thiyyas in North Malabar. I have no information about this in South Malabar.

This is the way this Panappayatt has been mentioned in this book, Malabar: QUOTE: CHANGHGATIKKURI KALYANAM - It is not, it appears, confined to people of the same caste, but the association was often composed of Nayers, Tiyars and Mappilas END OF QUOTE

I do not know what the standing between the Ezhavas of Travancore and the Nayars there, was. It is seen mentioned in Native Life in Travancore that: QUOTE: In some temples and ceremonies, as at Paroor, Sarkarei, &c., they closely associate with the Sudras (Nayars). END OF QUOTE

In North Malabar also, in the various interior Nair household temple, their dependent Thiyyas and other castes like the Malayans are known to have collaborated in the temple rituals. However, I feel these Thiyyas and Malayans would be those who stood as the dependents of those households.

Image


One of the main differences between the North Malabar Thiyyas and the Ezhavas of Travancore mentioned very much is that the former was following Marumakkathaya (matriarchal) family system, while the latter was following Makkathaya (patriarchal) family system. However, in the case of the Ezhavas, it is found that this has not always been the case. There was some kind of influence of matriarchal system among a few of their families also.

It might be possible that some kind of matriarchal influence has entered into the social stream of certain populations. There is no historical record seen mentioned in any other books I have mentioned as to how this entered.

As to there being similarities and differences between any particular caste or population group, well, if one were to go through the Castes and Tribes of Southern India by E. Thurston, it is seen that there are a lot of similarities and common heritages among so many different population groups who lived in the various locations of the Subcontinent. The most powerful common string that connected all of them was the more or less similar kind of feudal content or hierarchy in most of the local languages of the subcontinent.

Language is a powerful society designing factor. It has the power to design both human behaviour pattern as well as human relationship strings.

However, the issue remains that the Thiyya of north Malabar had no social or traditional connections with the Ezhavas of Travancore. It is the Ezhavas who insists on this connection. Why they should insist this during the English rule time might have been a desperation to place themselves at a higher plane. For in the English-ruled Malabar, the Thiyyas were higher placed. But then, that is not the reason why the Ezhava insists on such a connection now.

As of now, it is a big political leadership issue. The Ezhava leadership has spread its tentacles all throughout the Malabar region. A disconnection from the Thiyya population would mean the erasing up of this leadership and the loss of followers.

Otherwise, there is no conceivable reason to claim an attachment. For currently the Ezhavas do not have any need for any kind of inferiority vis-a-vis the Thiyyas. In fact, in many locations in Malabar, it is the Thiyya populations who are desperately in need of social enhancement. This is slightly connected to the fact that with the formation of Kerala, there was a complete shift of focus to Travancore. The Malabar systems created by the English-rule went into disarray and oblivion. However, that is another theme which would need a lot of words to describe.

Now, coming back to the English-rule period in Malabar, and to the period of the Travancore kingdom, it is true that the Ezhava populations of Travancore were quite a suppressed lot.

Now, let me look at the Thiyya population of Malabar. The English administration had a tough time to understand the Thiyya populations, when the two Malabars, north and south, were amalgamated to form a single district. The young English / British officials, who came to work in the judiciary as judicial officers, or as administrators, were at first quite confused about this Thiyya content.

It took them some time to understand the issue. With the setting-up of a formal judiciary, all kinds of populations who had been traditionally dependent on the thraldom of their village / panchayat headmen or higher castes were suddenly liberated. A terrific feeling came about that everyone were equal in the eyes of the law.

It is true that the novelty soon wore off. For, the succeeding generations did not quite appreciate the fact that just one generation back, their parents were mere nonentities with bare right to any kind of social or personal dignity.

The social changes as well as the connection between two distinct geographical regions which had totally different family systems as well as population groups led to so many new enterprises and relationships, as well as to financial connections between individuals.

In many of the administrative and judicial codes, the English rule did not want to upset any applecart. Actually, they more or less only codified the social codes of inheritance and such things already in existence in the land. However, when judicial cases went into adjudication, there was terrific confusion, in the case of the Thiyyas. It was seen that the Thiyyas had two mutually opposite customs with regard to inheritance and to family relationship. And then a more profound information arrived that the two Thiyyas were different from each other. One of them, actually declaring some sort of a repulsion for the other.

Image

Now, it may seem that the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas were presuming some kind of superiority over the Makkathaya Thiyyas. However, in a deeper analysis, the Makkathaya family system was a more stable and sensible kind of family system. Then why the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas acted superior is not known. Or is it possible that the Makkathaya Thiyyas also had a superiority complex, but were not bothered much about the Marumakkathaya aversion to them?

Whatever it is, the English officials were soon forced to understand the term ‘Thiyya’ represented two different castes or population groups.

Now, there was another complication in the social system. That was the entry of Ezhavas into many locations in Malabar via various routes.

It is quite obvious that the Nayars were totally unnerved by the possibility that the Thiyyas would soon occupy much of their positions, in the newly emerging English rule.

Even the Calicut king’s family members must have been terrified. For, they had been reduced to mere pensioners of the English East India Company. Actually the English Company came to take-over the power of the king due to the fact that the different members of the king’s family were continually in a mood for fights against each other and mutiny against the king.

It is seen mentioned that even the Calicut king’s officials (must be Nayars) used to designate the Thiyyas as Ezhavas in their official record. Even though Calicut was in south Malabar, with the unification of both North Malabar and South Malabar, the official records of Calicut seems to have had its bearing upon North Malabar also.

Edgar Thurston does mention that whatever way the Thiyyas object to being defined as Ezhavas, the king’s officials would not change the description. This was their way to sort of control an emerging population. That is, by identifying them with a population which was seen as outcastes in nextdoor Travancore Kingdom.

However, I have to mention that Edgar Thurston’s writings have been doctored then and there itself. I could feel this same issue with the Thiyya identity in the different parts of his huge 7-volume book. There is sharp difference in the way the Thiyya identity is mentioned in different parts of the book. So as to give a feel that the different parts of the books have been filled by information from different and mutually antagonistic sources.

In some locations, for instance, the Volume 7 of Castes and Tribes of Southern India, the plight of the Thiyyas of north Malabar is mentioned in that they do not accept that they are Ezhavas or that the Ezhavas are Thiyyas. However, the officials of the king of Calicut, which is in South Malabar would go on insisting that they are Ezhavas. And they have no way out of this quandary. May be the king’s officials are focusing on the Makkathaya Thiyyas of South Malabar, but in the newly emerging confusion, there is no way out of this false identification.

But then, from my personal instinct, I feel that the South Malabar Thiyyas are also not Ezhavas. Who they are I do not know.

There is a book of ‘history’ that is seen quoted all over this book, Malabar. That is Keralolpathi. It is a book written with certain meticulously planned aims. The history it provides could be false, but then a lot of historical incidences have been placed inside the book to give it a feel of authenticity.

The history of this subcontinent till the advent of the English is similar to a history of a colony of ants. This leader fought with that. Then another leader fought from the west. Then the south and east joined together and entered the location and massacred the ants therein, and took many as slaves. Then a religious leader came and converted some to his religion. Then communal fights. There is nothing more to record or write.

Image


Actually in those times, events practically repeated. But then there are slow changes in the population groups. Yet, everything changed totally with the advent of the English rule. It is from here that actually the history of Malabar starts. But this is also the part of formal history that is simply dismissed by dismal words like English colonialism, English looting, Freedom fights etc.

There is enough content in the English rule period to write volumes. On how innumerable populations groups living in mutual terror, antipathy and frequent fights and massacres were rearranged into a decent social system and nation. And how a bloody idiot in England again handed the whole location to a group of low-quality self-serving politicians, who literally overran the subcontinent and occupied all the independent kingdoms. 10 lakh (1 million) people died almost within weeks or months of this monstrous treachery).

I have seen young people speak in great admiration for the so-called great freedom fighters who killed the Englishmen. The truth of the matter is that these youngsters like the looks of the ‘freedom fighters’ in the books and films. However, they would not go anywhere near a group of common people in their own nation. They detest the common Indians, who appear on the roads in real life. However, in the virtual world of fake story films, the great fighters look quite a splendid group.

These young persons, who have great admiration for their own nation and nationals, would all love to run off to native-English nations.

Now, I think I have given enough background to take quotes from the book, Malabar from which one can sense out the antipathy the Nayars seems to have had towards the Thiyyas, especially of North Malabar.

But before going into that there are certain things that have to be mentioned about what has been deliberately missed out in this book.

As an keen observer on human reactions to feudal language codes, I have sort of developed an idea as to what to look for in all descriptions on human interactions and social links. The moment a social system speaks a particular language, there are certain very clearly predictable manners in which the individuals behave. For, they are all infected with certain specific terrors or relief from terrors.

The setting up of a very placid state of social system under an egalitarian language, under the English administration would create a lot of heartburns, in many layers of the social system. If the society was in a condition of continual fights and killings and hacking and such things, there would not be much time to ponder on these things. People simply endure the terror and the time passes on.

However, when the society becomes quite peaceful, and an egalitarian language is slowly changing the landscape of the social system into a planar form, there is time for everyone in every layer to ponder on what would be the outcome. Their most terrible terror is the possibility of individuals who had been considered as their inferiors coming up on top. Even though the egalitarian language English is what makes this happen, the social system and social communication is still in the feudal language.

When the relative stature of each individual changes, the words form for You, Your, Yours, He, His, Her, She, Her, Hers, They, Their, Theirs &c. will change in the case of each individual human-link. Persons who cannot be addressed by name by someone may arrive at a location where he can be very casual called by name by this very person. There are terrors, which cannot be imagined by a native-English person, in feudal languages.

This is the information that makes me look deeper into descriptions. I had an overwhelming hunch that something of this sort would be there in this book, as I slowly started moving through the book.

Image

I did find many things. I will deal with them one by one. However, here I would like to mention what was missing.

In this whole book, there is a complete blackout of the Thiyya population. It need not be that curious in that the Thiyyas come below the Nayars, and were more or less a lower caste.

However, Edgar Thurston does give some very glorifying words about at least a section of the Thiyyas of north Malabar. One is that some of them were extremely fair in skin complexion. This is a high premium statement in a land that prizes fair skin-complexion. (Greek bloodline?)

There is another quote of William Logan, which I found in Edgar Thurston’s Castes and Tribes of Southern India:

QUOTE: There are, in North Malabar, many individuals, whose fathers were European. Writing, in 1887, concerning the Tiyan (Thiyya) community, Mr. Logan states * that ** the women are not as a rule excommunicated if they live with Europeans, and the consequence is that there has been among them a large admixture of European blood, and the caste itself has been materially raised in the social scale. In appearance some of the women are almost as fair as Europeans.”

On this point, the Report of the Malabar Marriage Commission, 1894, states that “ in the early days of British rule, the Tiyan women incurred no social disgrace by consorting with Europeans, and, up to the last generation, if the Sudra girl could boast of her Brahmin lover, the Tiyan girl could show more substantial benefits from her alliance with a white man of the ruling race.
END OF QUOTE.

The above is also another terror looming ahead on the social horizon for the Nayars. For, they are the caste just above the Thiyyas. The Brahmins were on top and more or less the landed gentry. The Nayars were the supervisor castes for the higher castes. It goes without saying that if the Thiyyas rise up, they would most probably replace them in many official positions.

As to the English officials, they were going ahead with a social egalitarian policy without any keen understanding of how it is going to hurt the Nayar caste individuals. For, the language is terribly feudal. It is so terrible a thing, that in the native-English nations, many local citizens who can barely understand these languages have gone berserk and committed Gun Violence crimes in a mood of unexplainable insanity, when effected by the negative codes of feudal languages.

What the Nayars feared did happen. From the latter part of the 1800s, the Thiyyas started appearing inside the administrative set up, with some of them becoming sub-magistrates and Deputy District Collectors inside Madras Presidency.

English education was lifting up a small percentage of the Thiyyas.

There is a wider information that can be mentioned about this eventuality. However, it is out of context here.

But then, there is another bit of information that can be mentioned here. That is, this social enhancement of a small section of the Thiyya caste was not a welcome event for at least some of the Thiyya caste leadership. This contention I am mentioning without any record or evidence in my possession. I simply rely here on my impressionistic approach to history, based on my understanding as to how individuals react to social changes in a feudal language social system.

This is a theme I will take up later.

It may be true that in the subcontinent, many of the lower castes are not actually Hindus, even though they all are categorised as such. This does not matter for most persons. For, everyone is more or less totally engrossed in keeping the various terrors of living in India at bay. Every individual is now totally focused on his or her own social or political leadership or in his or her job. Losing out to others can be dangerous.

There was and is an understated spiritual culture of Shamanism in this subcontinent. However, all these shamanistic spiritual system may not be from the same route or focus. Nayars have their own traditional temples wherein Shamanistic practises are going on. Their Shamanistic deities might include Kuttichathan, Gulikan, Paradevatha, Asuraputra and Chamundi.

The Thiyyas have Muthappan and some other deities. The lower castes like the Pulaya, Pariah etc. also might have had them. However, the lowest castes were literally kept like cattle as slaves in the households of the landlords till the advent of the English rule. So, in most cases of such populations, their ancient traditions have been wiped out.

Still, Edgar Thurston has made very detailed study about most of these castes. In Rev. Samuel Mateer’s Native Life in Travancore, the deities and worship systems of the Ezhavas are mentioned in detail.

None of them, if examined detail are actually from the Brahmanical spiritual systems. However, over the centuries there have been very ferocious attempts to attach their spiritual system to the Brahmanical religion. This is mainly due to the feudal content in the local languages. A proximity to the Brahmanical religion would add ‘respect’ to their gods. A detachment would make their deities have a feel of a semi-barbarian god. The words would change.

Image

In fact, I have heard directly from some Nayar individuals that in their childhood, they would not go near a Muthappan Shamanistic ritual. They looked upon the Muthappan ritualistic dance as some ritual of a lower class population. However, from a very local vested-interest perspective, there would have been Thiyya higher classes who would have wanted a closer connection with their higher castes. If that had been allowed, the Muthappan worship would have been very quietly mentioned as some kind of lower form of the Hindu Trinities.

Due to a very particular aspect inside the local feudal languages, people generally get trained to lean on something. The physical posture of standing without leaning on something like a doorframe, tree, another person’s shoulder &c. are connected to a deeper need aroused by the language codes. I cannot go into it here. However, it may be noted that in pristine-English social system, individuals are trained to stand erect without leaning on anything.

The mental craving for something to lean on is there in almost everything. People would need to have some support. It can be a higher placed man, a connection to a higher status family, a link to a more respected religion and thus. These are basic things that are totally different from what is natural in pristine-English.

This book, Malabar, seems to simply allow the Thiyyas of those times to vanish into a nonentity stature. There was indeed a huge population of Thiyyas in north Malabar. The Muthappan temple at Parashinikadavu and the hilltop shrine at Kunnathurpadi are not at all found mentioned in this book. This is quite a curious item. For even the small-time Brahmanical temples in the various locations are mentioned. Mappilla mosques are mentioned. The various Christian religious sects are also given detailed writing.

Image

However, the fact is that the Thiyyas of north Malabar had a spiritual worship system which was quite wide-spread throughout North Malabar. (I am not mentioning the south Malabar Thiyyas, because I do not have much information on them and I think that they are another population totally.) This string of worship system was none other than the Muthappan shrines. I did not find one single mention of Muthappan in this book of records on Malabar, purportedly written by a Collector of the Malabar District. It should be quite curious.

This item become more curious and intriguing when it is seen that there is some kind of a historical association between the English-rule built Railway Stations in North Malabar and Muthappan worship. In fact, there seems to be a Muthappan temple in close proximity to many a railway station in north Malabar stretching up to Mangalore in the erstwhile Mysore State. The most famous in this regard is the Railway Muthappan Shrine at Thavakkara in Cannanore, which I think was the first to be built in close connection with the railway stations.

The more curious issue is that some rogue has mentioned Muthappan worship as a Hindu worship system in one internationally known low content-quality web-portal. It is totally curious in that a temple and worship system that had been totally avoided by those persons connected to the traditional Hindu and Brahmanical worship systems is now being connected to it. However, I do not have enough knowledge to say more about this. It might be possible that some higher caste links might be mentioned in the Muthappan tradition also. That is how the local languages generally tend to gather power and admiration.

There is a much-mentioned story of how the Muthappan shrines came to be connected to the Railway stations of north Malabar. However, I am not taking that up here. For, I am not sure how authentic the popular version is. But then, in the North Malabar Railway Archives, the real history of this connection might still be there on the records. If it was English rule here, I could have approached the officials to make an enquiry about this. However, since the administration has changed into feudal language systems, it would be quite difficult to go an make an enquiry in a government office, unless one goes there with some official supremacy. The ordinary man in India can literally get shooed out of an Indian government office.

There are traditions and folklore and other stories connected to the Muthappan heritage. However, the stories are quite insipid when compared to the Shamanistic phenomenon that gets enacted during the ritualistic procedures. The person who gets possessed by the Muthappan entity or supernatural software or some indefinable being or entity, literally become a different persona. In bearing, tone, faculty and competence, the individual is different.

Image

Actually the Muthappan phenomenon could very well go beyond the current parameters of physical knowledge, in that it is like Muthappan can look into some kind of a software application of life and reality, and see the past, the present and future. My most formidable experiences with this phenomenon had been with the Muthappan phenomenon at the Railway Muthappan Shrine at Thavakkara, Cannanore.

Interested readers can check my book: Software codes of mantra, tantra, witchcraft, black magic, evil eye, evil tongue &c.

The phenomenon seems to be a Shamanistic spiritual phenomenon connected the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas of North Malabar. However, some other castes are also seen mentioned in close association with this religion. I have no idea if a similar Shamanistic spiritual religion was there among the Makkathaya Thiyyas of South Malabar. However, it is true that some kind of Shamanistic spiritual religion was there in practise in various locations of the subcontinent. However, it is also a reality in so many other locations all around the world. I have no idea as to whether they all have any mutual connections and if they all do focus on the same central point of focus.

But then there is zero mention of this in this book, Malabar. As to the Keralolpathi, which has been mentioned with a sort of clockwork periodicity in this book, I wonder if this religion has been mentioned.

It is quite curious that the English and European historical researchers in this location of those period simply skips all historical enquiry on the origin of the north Malabar Thiyyas. It is possible that all of them had native helpers from the higher castes, who must have led them away from this topic. Actually there is evidence that this kind of fooling by the native section had been practised on the officials of the English Company. I will mention that later.

These researchers mention Jain, Buddhist, Tamil, Arabic, Phoenician, Roman, Ceylonese, Far-eastern, Chinese &c. population entry. However, what was patently visible right in front of them, they seemed to have missed seeing. It is quite curious. But then, if one knows the mentality of the populations of the location, one can understand how the native-Englishmen had been made to go blind. In the feudal languages, a single mention and a single glorifying adjective will work wonders on the verbal codes. These are things unknown to the native-English mind. No mention is the way to kill a competing entity.

However, the Thottam chollal or the ritualistic chanting that leads to the conversion of an individual to a supernatural entity is in a language which seems to be part of the heritage of this phenomenon. If this be so, then there is an error somewhere in mentioning that the Travancore part and the Malabar part of the geography had a common or same heritage. For the antiquity of Travancore is Tamil. While the actual traditional language of North Malabar was a language quite different from modern Malayalam, in that it might not have any influence of both Tamil and Sanskrit. These words of mine are not a studied one. However, it might be good to look at this information from a disinterested perspective.

The traditional language of North Malabar was Malayalam, but that Malayalam is not the Malayalam that was seen promoted by the Christian evangelical groups and Gundert. However, that is another issue. I will deal with it later.

There is this quote from this book: QUOTE: The only exception to this rule is that which forms the most characteristic feature of Malayalam—a language which appears to have been originally identical with Tamil, but which, in so far as its conjugational system is concerned, has fallen back from the inflexional development reached by both tongues whilst they were still one, to what appears to have been the primitive condition of both—a condition nearly resembling the Mongolian, the Manchu, and the other rude primitive tongue of High Asia. END OF QUOTE

See the words: nearly resembling the Mongolian, the Manchu, and the other rude primitive tongue of High Asia. It is quite curious. Does the original language of Malabar have features or similarities in any kind with the Mongolian, Manchu and other rude primitive tongues of High Asia? It is quite curious in that the Nayars have been mentioned as possibly having some connection to the northern parts of Asia.

See the words of Mr. F. W. Ellis’ essay mentioned in this book QUOTE: — “.................. and establish etymology on the firm basis of truth and reason, will suggest to the philosopher new and important speculations on mankind, and open to the historian views of the origin and connection of nations which he can derive from no other source.” END OF QUOTE

NOTEs: etymology: a chronological account of the birth and development of a particular word or element of a word, often delineating its spread from one language to another and its evolving changes in form and meaning. END OF NOTEs

The word rude is also quite a surprise. The word ‘rude’ is an adjective that Lord Macaulay had used to describe the languages of the subcontinent. Why they are rude, he did not explain. However, they are rude due to the feudal content in them. These languages are extremely impolite to the subordinated classes and to the vanquished.

Image

Now, there are two things to be mentioned with regard to the Thiyya caste-mention in this book. The first item is about the various insertions that tend to connect the Thiyyas to other castes with a sort of meticulous maliciousness.

The second is about the successful attempts by the Ezhava leadership in Travancore to encroach into north Malabar and assert the claims that the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas are actually Ezhavas. As to the Makkathaya Thiyyas, I am not sure. For, that location and that caste seemed to have gone into another terrific historical experience. That of the so-called Mappilla lahala, the Mappilla (Malabar Muslim) revolt. In which the Mappillas attacked the Brahmins and associates, and the Nayars with a vehemence that cannot be understood in English.

Makkathaya Thiyyas will have to be studied on their own. It is a different population, I think. Where they came from is not seen mentioned in the books.

However, I have to place on record here that I personally feel that the Makkathaya Thiyya family system was more modern, sensible and stable. But then, they were the caste, from which a lot of persons converted into Islam, to escape some terrible kind of social enslavement. There will be quite profound explanations for that. However I will not take up that issue in this book, because I fear that the book will become too lengthy, and I will have to put in more time to study that population group.

It is true that Dr. Gundert does have the feel of an active agent of certain extra-national interests in Malabar. That is a different issue. However, what is quite intriguing is that he is also quite active in connecting the Thiyyas of Malabar to the Ezhavas of Travancore.

However of more interest is the interest shown by the authors of this book, Malabar, to bring in his words to assert the claim that the Thiyyas of Malabar are Ezhavas of Travancore. There is this quote in which he mentions the castes in Malabar and Travancore which follow the Marumakkathayam family system. He says: QUOTE: ..... (26) Tiyan in north, and in Travancore. (Marumakkathayam) END OF QUOTE. Thiyyas are not the natives of Travancore. Ezhavas of Travancore are given a Thiyya identity here.

Look at a similar quote about the communities that followed the Makkathaya Family system: QUOTE: (26) Tiyar in Kadattunad and Travancore (Makkathayam). END OF QUOTE.

In both the full text of the quotes, the word ‘Ezhava’ is not mentioned. Instead, the word Thiyyan is used for Ezhavas. This type of mixing-up actually follows a very well-planned pattern in this book. Also, there is a slight issue of the word ‘Tiyan’ being used in the first quote, and ‘Tiyar’ used in the second quote. There are actually quite powerful differences in the two words, when seen through the querulous codes of the local feudal languages. Whether this difference is an inadvertent entry or something denoting some other more malicious intent is not known.

In most locations of the book, where it is more or less certain that native vested interests have written the text or added insertions, there is a continuing pattern. It is that whenever the words Tiyar is mentioned, a very consistent insertion is also given therein. That is ‘Islander’, ‘Ilavar’, ‘Islander’ etc. Actually all these words are for defining the Ezhavas. But then, there is a very malicious intention felt all over the book in these kinds of sections, to connect the word ‘Tiyar’ with ‘Illavar’ (Ezhavar).

Image

See the following:
1. and fully described by Cosmas Indicopleustes, the islanders [Tiyar) must have been settled in the country before the middle of the sixth century A.D.
[My note: The context could be about Ezhavas, and the word ‘Tiyar’ should be an extra entry by the persons who inserted text into this book.]

2. another of them may have been the Islanders or Cingalese (Dvipar, Divar, Tiyar, and Simhalar, Sihalar, Ilavar) ;
[My note: Again similar kind of entry inside brackets]

3. Tiyar or Islanders who, it is said, came from the south (Ceylon),
[My note: Here these is very obvious mixing up of populations]

4. one-third for the expenses of the Tiyars, Cherumars or other cultivators attached to the soil,
[My note: Here the Tiyars are connected to the Cherumars and other indentured slaves attached to the soil. However, it is quite doubtful if this definition could be applicable to the Thiyyas. There is desperation in the minds of the upper castes to inform the English officialdom that the Thiyyas are mere slaves attached to the soil. Do not give any higher official rank to them. The administration will stink!]

5. The Tiyar or Ilavar caste is the numerically strongest section of the Hindu population, numbering in all 559,717.
[My note: See the way the Ilavar caste of Travancore is mixed up with the Tiyar caste of Malabar. Moreover the mentioning of them as Hindus can also be part of a wider conspiracy.]

6. One of their caste names (Tiyan) denotes that they came originally from an *island, while the other caste name (Ilavan) denotes that that island was Ceylon. Tiyan is a corruption of the Sanskrit Dvipan passing through Tivan, a name which is even now sometimes applied to the caste. In the records of the Tellicherry Factory the caste is generally alluded to “Tivee.” Simhala was the ancient name for Ceylon, and the other caste name of the planters must have passed through Simhalam to Sihalan and Ihalan and finally to Ilavan.

[My note: It is quite obvious that the words Tiyan and Illavan have nothing in common. However, a connection is built up through a roundabout manner, by going through Sanskrit. The main problem here is that Malabar location does not have much Sanskrit influence in its antique communication system.

As to the Tellicherry Factor using the word ‘Tivee’, it could be just because it was the way the word was understood by the native-English officials, or it must be the cunning way it was introduced to them by the higher castes starting from Nayar upwards. Actually, there is no context in the text to even mention Ilavan or Simhalan or Ceylon. But no opportunity to buttress this totally fabricated idea is missed. ]

7. And I also (one of the above lords of Maruwan Sapir Iso or the church, vide n), who formerly had the possession of the share staff (வாரககொல், feudal tenure ?) of the four families of Ilawar (Simhalese, also Tiyar, Dwipar, Islanders,” now palm-tree cultivators),

[My note: This quote is from one of the Deeds connected to the Travancore kingdom. What is the meaning of adding Tiyar, Dwipar, Islander &c. into a translation of an ancient deed? And at the end adding palm-tree cultivators. This palm-tree cultivator usage is also a deliberate attempt to added the adjective Toddy-tapper, which in the local language could have connected the individuals to a lower verbal status. It is very clear that there was some terrific meticulously planned idea to demark the Thiyyas of north Malabar to destruction through ignominy and connection to a population in another country with which actually Malabar had very little connection, linguistically, population-wise and history.]

8. p. Those Ilawar are permitted to follow out their occupations (?) in the bazar and on the wall.

q. Nor have the Island ruler (or Tiyar headman) and the Wall office or whoever it be, any power to stop them on any charges whatsoever.

NOTEs: 1. See Glossary under Tiyan, &c.


[My note: The above three sentences have one basic problem. The Ilawar has permission. And the Island ruler has no power to stop them. But then what is the words in bracket ‘or Tiyar headman’ doing here. The point is that these are insertions into the original text translation done by someone with some malicious intentions.]

9. ILAVAN. From ilam, from Chingngalam, Simhala, Sihala = Ceylon. The name of the Tiyan in the Palghat and Temmalapuram Districts in parlance, who are aborigines of Malabar ; in other places they are only so named in writings. Note—The Tiyar or Tivar (from tivu, corruption of Sanskrit divpu = an island) are believed not to have been the aborigines of Malabar, but to have come from an island (Ceylon), bringing with them the southern tree (tengngkay), the cocoanut. See Tiyan, Shanar, Mukkuvar. [My note: The above is a glossary listing on Ilavan. However, instead of focusing on Ezhavas, the writing more or less puts it full force to connect to Thiyyas. Actually there is much that can be written about Ezhavas without any mention of Thiyyas.

And the Note given above is also taking full strain to emphasis the point, ‘don’t you know Tivu means Island, and that island, don’t you know is Ceylon, and don’t you know Tiyan, Shanar, Mukkuvar &c. all came from that island. It is a most rascal act in which there is no one to put a restrain. Simply connecting a population who themselves proclaim that they have no connection, to a population in another country. The basic aim is clearly to connect the Thiyya population to a population group that was then clearly seen as menial in their native country. The Thiyyas were showing all abilities to move up with the advent of the English rule in north Malabar. However, the fact remains that a huge percent of them would bring up their lower social qualities to disturb the Nayars.

Image

The reader should not understand that the Thiyyas or any other lower castes are soft and polite. The fact remains that every lower population given a upper hand would be like the much mentioned behaviour of the Negro slave population that was let loose in the USA. The attitude would be that of ‘taking a mile when an inch is offered’. A bit of leeway would only add to a feeling of supremacy and an urge to overtake. There would be no sense of gratitude on being allowed the chance to improve. See the quote below:]

10. A caste of Vellalars or cultivating Sudras residing in certain Hobalis of the Palghat Taluk, who are said to have come from Kangayam in the Coimbatore province, and who are now so intermixed with the Nayars as not to be distinguished from them except when a Tiyan addresses them and gives them this appellation instead of Nayar. In Kangayam they are called Mannadi.

[My note: There is a bit of a problem here, in that the so-called Thiyars of Palghat seems mentioned as a Ezhava population donning the name of Thiyyas. This is a general attitude seen in Malabar in earlier days. That of Ezhavas mentioning themselves as Thiyyas. And in Travancore the Ezhavas do have a tradition of mentioning the Nayars as Sudras, to give a pierce.]

11. Tiyar or Islanders who, it is said, came from the south (Ceylon), [where was it said that the Thiyyas are Islanders and that they came from the south (Ceylon).

12. MUKKUVAR. From Dravidian mukkuka

Note.—“Said to be immigrants from Ceylon with Ilavar” (q.v.) —Gundert.


[My note: Attempts are there in this book to identify the Thiyyas as Mukkuvars. The point here is that in the subcontinent, despite all its high-sounding historical claims of seafaring &c., the fact remains that the toilers of the seas are considered as a lowly group by the people living in the interiors. ]

13. The Melacheris are apparently the descendants of Tiyyars and Mukkuvars (fishermen) of the coast.

[My note: Even though this might seem to be quite an innocuous statement of facts, actually there is more to it when viewed from the feudal language perspective. In feudal languages, a verbal link mentioned to anyone has a very powerful meaning and content. For instance, suppose an individual has a distant uncle who is an IPS officer and another distant uncle who is a menial worker. Depending on whose link is mentioned, the word codes for ‘You’, ‘Your’, ‘Yours’, ‘He’, ‘His’, ‘Him’, ‘She’, ‘Her’, ‘Hers’, ‘They’, ‘Their’, ‘Them’ &c. would change powerfully. It would be like flinging a person from the heights to the ditch or from the ditch to the heights.

There is a wider issue here. There are many other populations also in the subcontinent. For instance, there are immense incidences of higher caste Brahmin, Ambalavasi as well as Nayar females being taken over or sold to lower castes. This has really created a mixed blood people among the lower castes. However, the higher castes literally forget them and no mention about them is made anymore. For a simple mention of a family relationship to a lower caste person can pull down a person’s complete social attributes.

The cunningness here is that the Thiyyas are very quietly connected to a population that in those days were considered as the seafarers, who were looked down. It is quite a funny scene. There is fabulous claims about ‘Indians’ being great maritime traders. However, the nearest seafarer is still kept at a distance by their great ‘patriots. In Trivandrum, I have very plainly heard the local people, both Nayars as well as the Ehavas making verbal usages that try to distance themselves from the fishermen folks. As for the fishermen folk, there are indeed a different group with a lot of rough verbal usages and facial demeanour. However, this does not mean that they are bad or good.

I think generally even the Indian navy tries to keep a distance from them. Even though it is quite possible that the British navy would not.]

14. SHANAR. The name by which Tiyars or toddy-drawers are called in the Temmalapuram and Palghat Districts, who are not aborigines of Malabar, but come from the districts to the east of the ghats. Note.—See Iluvar and Tiyar.

[My note: There is terrible malice in the above writing. Actually the Shanars are not mentioned in Malabar. They are generally mentioned in Travancore. They might be toddy-tappers. Ezhavas do have Toddy-tappers among them. So do the Thiyyas. That does not mean that all of them are the same people. They are actually different people who traditionally spoke different languages and looked different. Moreover, the text seems to give an idea that all the people in these castes are toddy-tappers, which is not true.

Among the Thiyyas only a few were doing that. Others were agricultural workers. Still others were traditional medicine men, practising herbal medicine. There would also have been land owner and rich persons. However, in the above text, there is absolute callousness in the way the populations are clubbed together and given the status connected to a particular profession.

Apart from that Toddy-tapping actually does require a lot of physical and mental abilities. ]

Image

15. TIYAN: Formerly written Tivan, that is islander (from Sanskrit dvipam).

[My note: In this book, Malabar, for so many cunning fallacious, false, inaccurate, inappropriate, malapropos, unacceptable, unseemly and defective connections given to so many words, many quotes from various books are given. However, some of the very obvious ones are simply ignored. All quotes and connections are filtered out from books and traditions to propose what the authors want to present. Dipu means Island in Sanskrit. What is that to do with Marumakkathaya Thiyyas?]

16. The most probable view is that the Vedic Brahman immigration into Malabar put a stop to the development of Malayalam as a language just at the time when the literary activity of the Jains in the Tamil country was commencing.

[My note: This is supposed to present a part of the history of Malabar. Where is the entry of the Thiyyas mentioned in this or anywhere else? Is there any Sanskrit book that mentions with clear citations that the Thiyyas are from Ceylon and are Ezhavas? There is obviously no mention about the entry of Thiyyas in the fake history writing in Keralolpathi. For no such thing is seen quoted.

In fact, the so-called histories of the location do not mention the majority population/s of the place. They mention only the castes who could insert their own presence in the writings that were created during the English rule. Before the English rule, there was no history writing other than certain forgeries like the Keralolpathi, which itself seems to have been written quite recently.]

17. If, as tradition says, the islanders brought with them the coconut tree-—the “southern tree” as it is still called — then, judging from the facts stated in the footnote to page 79, this must have happened some time after the beginning of the Christian era ; and, judging from the fact that the tree was well known to, and fully described by Cosmas Indicopleustes, the islanders (Tiyar) must have been settled in the country before the middle of the sixth century A.D.

[My note: This is actually a historical description of the Ezhavas, which has been simply superimposed upon the Thiyyas. First of all using the word ‘Islander’ itself is a suspicious item. Second, adding ‘Tiyar’ in brackets in most indiscriminate manner. The problem is much connected to the local feudal languages, which assign very specific lower indicant verbal codes for physical labour. So, mentioning a connection to a profession that is considered menial in the local languages is a very powerful way to introduce the population to the new people who had arrived in the subcontinent from England.]

In almost all the areas where the writings have been doctored or done directly by others, there is no mention of Thiyyas in any English endeavour. In those locations, Nayars are presented as great people, valorous, brave, intelligent, genteel etc. However, in the location where the writings are very clearly done possibly by W. Logan himself, the whole tone changes. Nayars are presented or hinted as cowards, undependable, traitorous, selfish, and oppressive.

Moreover, in the locations where the others have written the text, the Nayars are presented as both great ‘barons’ of the lands as well as the foot-soldiers. However, there is no mention of Thiyyas also being part of the English native-army. See the below quote.

18. Captains Slaughter and Mendonza and Ensign Adams with 120 soldiers, 140 Nayars and 60 Tiyars, and others, mustering altogether 400 men, accordingly took possession of the fortress that same forenoon, and the Canarese general received notice to quit, with which he feigned compliance ; but he did not actually go.

[My note: Thiyya soldiery is seen very clearly mentioned. However, the terror this eventually must have created for the Nayar folks might not have been understood by the English. For, it is like appointing a master class and their servant class in the same professional position. For, the feudal language verbal codes would wreak havoc on the Nayar people, when they have to treat the Thiyya folks on par with them. The issue would be that both the Nayars as well as the Thiyyas who joined as the soldiery would be from the financially lower social positions. It is inconceivable that the financially and land-owning Thiyyas would join this job. However, for the Nayars, their caste would have given them a detachment from the Thiyya labour classes. However, the amalgamation of both these groups would be a terrible imposition on the Nayars, and the social enhancement for the Thiyya labour classes.

Even though one might see social reformation and such high-sounding ideas in such events, the real truth is that in feudal language ambience, what has occurred is a very painful occurrences to the higher side. For, it is the language codes that have created the level differences. The English endeavours of removing the detachment without erasing the local languages, was at best a foolish endeavour.]

19. On the 27th the native levies from Tellicherry—all Narangapuratta Nayar’s men, the corps of Tiyar, and 231 Mappillas, 450 men in all—proceeded to join the Prince’s and Kottayam Raja's forces at Edakkad.

[My note: Here we see that the Thiyya population did work in the same location that the Nayars had worked. As ‘protectors’, if that word is supposed to mean anything. Actually foot-soldiers (cooliepada) do not mean much in the subcontinent, other than that they can induce terror in the people if they are let loose in an area.]

20. Then a crisis occurred. The Nayars and Tiyars at Ponolla Malta deserted, and the sepoys refused to sacrifice themselves.

[My note: Both Nayars as well as Thiyyas do not seem much different when it comes to courage, valour and commitment. After-all both of them are designed by the same language codes, even though at different levels.]

21. After this the Mappilla picked a quarrel with a Nayar and was subsequently shot by the Tiyar guard.

[My note: Here it is seen that there was an official Thiyya Guard. Beyond that they did come to the help of a Nayar. Quite interesting stuff. What is their enmity to the Mappilla who after all was not their traditional oppressor? Well, it is here a very powerful social content comes out. In feudal languages, when one is oppressed, there is love and ‘respect’ for the oppressor. However, if one is liberated and allowed equality by a superior, one does not have love or ‘respect’ for the liberator. Instead, envy and jealousy is what comes out for the liberator. This is a very powerful information that the native-English did not get. Almost all the populations whom they improved are envious of them and speak only bad things about them. However, to those who suppress them by means of verbal codes, they show respect. They address and refer to them as ‘Mahatma’, ‘Ji’, ‘Bhai’, ‘Chettan’, ‘Chechi’, ‘Akka’, ‘Ikka’ etc.

Image

22. ADIYAN. Is literally slave both in Tamil and Malayalam, and in the Northern Division of Malabar it is applied to the real slaves, but in South Malabar it means generally vassals. Under the old system, where every Tiyan was under a kind of vassalage to some superior, to some patron, to a Tamburan as he is commonly called, the patron was bound to protect him and to redress any petty wrongs he might sustain, and the client or vassal acknowledged his dependent state by yearly presents, and was to be ready with his personal services upon any private quarrel of his patron. This kind of dependency gave the patron no right of disposal of the person of his vassal as a slave, nor did it acquit the dependent individual of a superior obligation to the Raja or his representatives, the Desavali, and Neduvali, upon a public emergency.

[My note: To a limited extent, the above might state the social status of the labour class Thiyyas in Malabar. Here, again there is difference in the social status of the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas from that of Makkathaya Thiyyas. It may be connected to the different kind of Nayars above them. Being under a lower quality Nayar is worse than being under a higher quality Nayar.

But then again, this might not be the actual picture. For, it is a known thing to me that there were Thiyya families which were not traditionally from the labour class. For, among the Thiyyas themselves, there is great repulsion for the labour class Thiyyas. This mental repulsion for the labour class is encoded in the local languages. ]

23. There is a celebrated pagoda known as Totikalam (തൊടിക്കളം) temple about one mile northwest of Kannoth, where, in the month of Vrischigam, Tiyyars bring tender coconuts as offerings to the deity.

[My note: I simply quote this to mention something. I do not know anything about this temple. However, it is a fact that the Thiyyas were not allowed into Hindu Temples till around some time in the early part of the 1900s. They had their own shrines for worship to their traditional gods. Yet, there was still an innate attraction for the Brahmin temples. I have been told that in the Tiruvangad temple at Tellicherry, the Thiyyas used to stand outside, with tender coconut offerings. This tendency to get attracted to a seeming superior, who keeps one at a distance is also part of the feudal language codes. It more or less reflects the mental standard of low self-esteem. This low self-esteem is again a creation of the feudal language codes.

This mental mood can be equated to the craving in such places as South Africa among the blacks to encroach Whites-only beaches. There are hundreds of places where the blacks can go. But their total mental focus is on occupying Whites-only beaches. The simple fact they can create blacks-only beaches seems quite insulting and nonsense to them. Therein lies the issue of innate quality in a population. If the black populations had quality, then there is no need to get attracted to the Whites-only beaches. Native-black languages of South Africa would need to be examined in detail to understand the core codes that induces a feeling of inferiority in them. When inferior people are given a chance to dominate, they become oppressive. Their attitude would be to encroach upon everyone who they feel are soft. They don’t want a distance. They want a stranglehold.]

24. Upon asking a number of Brahmans and Nayars assembled at Calicut whether Tiyars were included among the Sudras of the Sastra they professed ignorance, and said they must refer to the Sastra.

[My note: This again seems to suggest that at least a section of the Thiyyas did improve very fast in personality features, with the advent of the English rule. It is like a lower-class family from the subcontinent going to England and living there for some time. They all will show remarkable positive personality changes.

The Brahmins and the Nayar would have been in a quandary to mention very fabulous looking Thiyyas as some kind of lower castes. Yet, there is some confusion with regard to this. There were two different populations that went with the name Thiyya.

Image


The second point is that the lower section of the Thiyya population, which lived at places distant from the English education systems still retained their lower caste demeanour. See this quote about what still lingered on in attire:

QUOTE: The Tiyan woman (Tiyatti) wears no cholee, or any cloth thrown over her shoulders and neck. Her body down to the waist is entirely exposed END OF QUOTE.

However the fact remains that the Nayar females also were more or less in the same attire when they moved in the proximity of their senior castes. As to the Brahmin and other similar higher caste females, their plight was more terrible. They could not come out of their residential areas. Due to the fear of the lower indicant verbal codes and profane glances of the lower castes. They were like the people who lived at a distance from the sea. These persons would not venture much into the sea. For the seashore was in the hands of the fishermen (Mukkuva people). They were the lower castes, but were actually living a life of full freedom in the seas. The Brahmins cannot even think of being addressed by them.

A fisherman coming and addressing Brahmin or Nayar as an equal would be worse than being taken hostage by the Somali pirates of current-days.

Therein lies the great lie of the great mercantile history of the subcontinent. The people who dominated the seashores and the ports and harbour were slightly or greatly different from the high-class people/s of the subcontinent. However, the only population that had not much of a concern in this were the Mappillas in Malabar and other Muslims in other countries in the subcontinent.

Why the Mappillas were different has to dealt separately. ]


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:43 pm, edited 7 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

18. The terror that perched upon the Nayars

Post posted by VED »

18 #

Now about the terror that the Nayars had with regard to mentioning the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas of north Malabar.

The language of the land is feudal. That means, the lower-placed persons are differently defined in the verbal codes. They then exist as different kind of human beings. Their very words can cause harm. They do not have to even touch. If they look at a ‘respected’ persons with a disdainful eye, then that person will be negatively affected.

It is like this: An IPS women officer. She suddenly understands that the police constables are referring to her as Aval അവൾ (Oal ഓള് in Malabari). This information is enough to make her confined to her cabin. When the constables view her as an Aval, literally she is molested by them by means of profane usages.

This is a terrific information. But then how to convey this to a native-Englishman?

This is more or less the same terrifying issue before the Nayars. The moment the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas develop socially, their far-distant links in the social system (their relatives) would also go up. They are the persons whose profane words and looks can wither up a upper-caste individual’s personality features.

Historically this kind of scenarios would not happen. It is like saying that constables would never address an IPS officer as a Nee or refer to him or her as an Avan or Aval. But then, the entry of the English Company rule made this totally impossible situation to happen. It was like a new administration taking over the country and ordering the constables to address the IPS officers as Nee and refer to them as Avan and Aval.

Even though the Nayars generally collaborated with the English rule, the above-mentioned topsy-turvying of the social equations was one thing that still hurts some of them. There is one person from this caste, who literally received an immensity of glorious content from English. He is on a campaign to make England pay a compensation for improving the subcontinent. Even though he does not mention this in so many words, it is quite evident that many of his household members cannot still forgive the English for giving the Thiyyas and other lower castes, an escape route from their subordinated positions.

If a calculation is done on the hundreds of years of slavery his household must have inflicted on the various lower castes here, it is possible that all his wealth would not be enough to pay the rightful compensation that the erstwhile slave families have a right to.

Before concluding this chapter on Nayars, I think that it would be correct on my part to mention a very positive input about them. It is simply their attitude that they are not ‘low-class’ or ‘low-caste’. This is actually a wonderful mental stamina, which most of the populations in the subcontinent does not seem to have.

This being a low-caste is a big business in India as of now. Once a low-caste tag has been taken possession of, all kinds of shady reserved seats become available for these ‘low-castes’. There is reservation for all professional college seats, including the much-desired Medical colleges. There is reservation for the much-dreamed of government jobs.

In fact, when Kerala was formed by amalgamating Malabar with Travancore-Cochin state, a section of the Thiyyas took up the stance that they were low-caste like the Ezhavas, who had already been given reservation in such things. A particular percentage of the Thiyyas took up the stance that the Thiyyas are not low-castes. However, the ‘we are low-caste’ lobby won the day, and the Thiyyas were given the same reservation that had already been given to Ezhavas.

With this, the standard demeanour of the Thiyya officer class of Malabar went in for drastic change. From a personality of extreme standards, it changed to an personality of the exact opposite. The change was so powerful that if anyone had taken the care to observe it, it would have felt that a golden goose was changing into a dry rat.

The daring of the Nayar folks to take a stand that they are not low-caste, but would demand reservation on the basis of being precluded out by the rabid imposition of reservations on everything was most exemplary.

However, it is tragic that the birdbrain who is campaigning in England for ‘reparations for English colonial rule’ happens to be from this caste. It is most tragic that his ancestors escaped the notice of the Mysorean invaders. Possibly they must have run to the English Company for protection.

I need to say that the third quote given in beginning of this book is apt to connect with them.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:46 pm, edited 4 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

19. The entry of the Ezhavas

Post posted by VED »

19 #

Now we come to the entry of Ezhava leadership from Travancore. Some very indelible facts need to be mentioned here. There is a very strong indoctrination being promoted that it is Sree Narayana Guru or an association connected to him, the SNDP that is responsible for the social reformation in Travancore kingdom. This claims does not seem to have much basis. For, the social reformation in Travancore was connected to entirely different two items.

The first was the Missionaries of the London Missionary Society who literally entered into the social system, interacting and living with lower castes such as the Ezhavas, Shanar, Pulayas, Pariah &c. They gave them education, and made them learn many trades and skills by which they could eke a livelihood.

The second terrific influence was the English rule in the neighbouring Madras Presidency. This administration went on forcing the Travancore king’s family to give more social rights to the lower castes. Due to this, a lot of proclamations that led to more freedom to the lower castes came up.

Slavery was banned and the slaves liberated. When Col Munro was appointed as the Diwan of Travancore, the lower castes were given right to wear certain dresses which had been prohibited to them till then. However they went beyond what was allowed. This created terrible social issues that the Sudras (Nayars) tried to block them on the streets. There were literally street fights between the Sudras and the lower castes.

What actually happened in the Travancore kingdom can be taken from the Travancore kingdom’s own Manual, the Travancore State Manual, written by V Nagam Aiya.

QUOTEs:
1. In 1833 A.D., there was a disturbance raised by the Shanars of South Travancore, but the riot was easily put down without military aid.

2. Shanar converts and Hindus — Disturbances in South Travancore. Reference has already been made to the establishment of the London Mission Society in South Travancore and the great toleration afforded to the Christian Missions by the Travancore Government that led to the rapid spread of Christianity in Nanjanad.

3. The result was that the Shanar converts (it may be observed here that the Mission work of conversion was mostly if not exclusively confined to the Shanars, Pariahs and other lowcaste people), who were looked down upon by the high-caste Hindus, relying on the support of the missionaries, caused great annoyance to them.

4. The casus belli in this case arose from the Shanar Christian females assuming the costume of high-caste women. By longstanding custom, the inferior classes of the population were forbidden to wear an upper cloth of the kind used by the higher classes.

5. During the administration of Col. Munro, a Circular order was issued permitting the women referred to, to cover their bodies with jackets (kuppayam) like the women of Syrian Christians, Moplas, and such others, but the Native Christian females would not have anything less than the apparel of the highest castes. So they took the liberty of appearing in public not only with the kuppayam already sanctioned, but with an additional cloth or scarf over the shoulders as worn by the women of the higher castes. These pretensions of the Shanar-convert women were resented by the high-caste Nayars and other Sudras who took the law into their own hands and used violence to those who infringed long-standing custom and caste distinctions.

Image

6. The women of the Shanars or toddy-drawers who abound in South Travancore and from among whom the Protestant Missionaries have for the last sixty years reaped the richest harvest, had been prevented from covering the upper part of their person.

7. The mutual jealousies between the Sahanars and the Sudras were dormant for some time, but the Queen’s Proclamation of November 1858 on the assumption of the direct Government of India renovated these feelings. The Shanars imagined that it permitted them to infringe existing rules while the Sudras equally considered it as sanctioning their taking the law into their own hands to repress what they took as an aggression into their caste domains. Serious affrays ensued, and these were aggravated by the gratuitous interference of petty Sirkar officials whose general standard of capacity and moral worth we have already alluded to. Public peace was imperilled.

8. In December 1858 A.D., the two communities had assumed hostile positions against each other and troubles of a serious nature broke out. The Sudras openly attacked the Shanar women who dared to appear in public in high-caste costume and the Shanars duly retaliated.

q9 #. Sir Charles Trevelyan, as Governor of Madras wrote to the Resident in these strong terms: “I have seldom met with a case, in which not only truth and justice, but every feeling of our common humanity are so entirely on one side. The whole civilised world would cry shame upon us, if we did not make a firm stand on such an occasion.

[My note: The English administration in Madras did not really understand the issue of the dress-codes. It was essentially connected to the feudal language codes of Malayalam and Tamil, which were the local languages. Dress-codes are essential to understand the social level of an individual. It is like an Indian police constable and his family members desiring to wear a clothing usually seen dressed on by an IPS officer and his family members. In the local society of Travancore, the hierarchy in verbal codes on who has the right to use the Nee word on whom and the Avan / Aval word on whom; and who has the duty to use the ‘respectful’ words for You, He/She etc. can be very readily understood by the dress-codes. It is similar to the police hierarchy. By seeing the uniform, the various ranks in the hierarchy arrange their words of addressing and referring as per proper protocol.]

10. Dewan’s reply to English Governor in Madras: As the Shanars took it upon themselves to infringe the Proclamation of 1004 M.E., so the Soodras took it upon themselves to punish such infringement. The Shanar women were attacked when they openly appeared with what was considered the high caste costume. The Shanars on the other hand did not confine themselves to a bare defence. They too retaliated the outrages on Soodra women.

11. “The decree of interference which for many years past has been exercised by the representative of the British Government in the Affairs greatly rests with the British Government and it has thereby become their duty to insist upon the observance of a system of toleration, in a more decided manner, than they would be at liberty to adopt, if they had merely to bring their influence to bear on an independent State.”

Image

12. A Royal Proclamation was accordingly issued on the 26th July 1859 abolishing all restrictions in the matter of the covering of the upper parts of Shanar women and granting them perfect liberty to meet the requirements of decency any way they might deem proper with the simple reservation, however, that they should not imitate the dress of the women of high castes.
END OF QUOTEs.

Image

A very detailed information on the way in which the missionaries of the London Missionary Society worked to improve the lower castes can be seen in the book Native Life in Travancore by Rev. Samuel Mateer. However, their improvement was focused on those who converted to Christianity. Actually this was a deed that literally created havoc and nightmare in the upper crust of the social system.

It was like giving the menial house servants the right to sit with the householders at the eating table in current-day India. Not only the Nayars, but even the traditional Christians were terrified. The Syrian Christians very categorically disallowed these converted-Christians from entering their places of worship.

And among the converted-Christians, the Ezhava converts refused to pray in the same church were the Paraiah, Pulaya &c. converts came for worship. Even though all this looks like pure madness, they were not insane human reactions. Very powerful verbal codes can be seen in the native feudal languages that can more or less ratify the reactions. The native-English do not have any means to understand these things. That is why they have allowed their nations to be overrun by outsiders who speak feudal languages.

The Ezhavas were quite perturbed to be on a platform of equality with the Pulayas and Pariahs inside the newly built churches. For, an equality thus created would get encoded as a Nee-Nee, Avan-Avan, Aval-Aval &c. communication code relationship. Once this is established, the Ezhavas would find it quite difficult to maintain their social connection with the Nayars. The Nayars would definitely get perturbed to find themselves at close proximity with persons who are addressed as Nee or referred to as Avan/Aval by a Pulaya or Pariah.

However, the converted-into-Christian lower castes were very much controlled and developed by the evangelists of the London Missionary Society. However, the other lower castes who also received the benefits of the social reforms literally had no one to control them. This is one of the reasons that the lower castes who remained in their own castes under the Hindus had a terrible fight with the Travancore police at Punnapra and Vayalar. The lower castes killed a police inspector who had come for a compromise talk.

Even the reason for the killing of the police inspector might be traceable to the feudal language codes. In a feudal language social ambience, if the lower side refuses to be treated as lower, then the very talks would inflame into an outburst. The police inspector would find it quite difficult to address the lower castes leaders with ‘respect’. In most probability, he would have used the words ‘Nee’ (lowest You) and ‘Avan’ (lowest he) to and about the lower caste leaders.

The lower castes who had assembled in strength would find it most distressing to see their leaders whom they addressed as ‘Chettan’, ‘Annan’, etc. being thus addressed and referred to. As if they are abominable dirt. They would react with profanities like ‘Pundachimone’, ‘Poorimone’, ‘Thayoli’ etc. which are terrible profanities, with a very jarring verbal sounds. (As of now, most of these profanities have been exported into English by the immigrant crowds from all over the globe). The lower castes would have used the Nee word also on the police inspector.

In this book, Malabar, there is this quote about the English effect on Travancore society: QUOTE: ... the presence of the English in Travancore was gradually leading to a revolution in that State. END OF QUOTE.

However, it is quite curious that Logan and the others who inserted their own ideas into this book, missed seeing what was happening under their own nose. The Mappilla attacks on the Nayars in Malappuram was also kindled by the English rule in south Malabar. The lower castes, especially the Cherumars were converting into Islam in large numbers in the general social freedom that had arrived in the location. Makkathaya Thiyyas also converted into Islam. Once converted to Islam, almost all social restraints got erased.

However, there was a difference here. Here the administration was run by the English Company and later on by the British government. They were under compulsion to support the maintenance of status co. The Nayars were attacked by the Muslims for issues which the English officials could not understand. This is a very deep verbal code issue. It might not be good if I skipped explaining the issue. However, I will do that in the location where I take up the Mappilla attacks on the Nayars and higher castes like the Brahmins.

Now, coming back to the Ezhava issue, it is true that though just under the Nairs, the Travancore government did not allow them to enter into government service at any level other than as a menial worker. I do not have any information on how Sree Narayana Guru improved them, beyond what was on offer from the English side and from the Travancore Government.

It is possible that his biography would also contain bits of connection to Brahmins and such other higher castes. This is how the ‘respect’ codes of yore worked. If he has a Brahmin disciple, then it would be a point to be mentioned in a hundred locations. However, I do not know anything about him.

He is said to have build Hindu temples. I am not sure why he went around building Hindu temples. He could have very well created places of worship which are connected to the traditional deities of Ezhavas.

Image

It is true that the SNDP, which is the organisation that is connected to him has created a lot of educational institutions all over the state. However, the quality of education in these institutions, I understand, were in sharp contrast to the high-quality English educational systems that had prospered in the Tellicherry location under the auspicious of the English rule. Generally the SNDP educational institutions were of a very Malayalam (extreme feudal language) version of education. However, it might be true that their anti group, the NSS (the Nayars’ organisation) would also be of a similar kind. However, I do not have any records to substantiate these claims. They are mere feelings.

Talking about Sree Narayana Guru himself, there is something quite curious about his name. This is a point that is quite easily noticed by me because of my constant observations on language codes. It is possible that his name is Narayanan or something like that. I do not know exactly what it is. Usually in the feudal languages of the subcontinent, a mere ‘name’ is a very uninspiring entity. Usually a suffix is required that stands as a sort of bulwark to hold up a person’s ‘respect’.

Usually in the local feudal languages like Tamil, Malabari, Malayalam etc., words like ‘Chettan, Chetti, Akka, Ikka, Saar, Maadam, Mash, Teacher, Avarkal or anything else that comes handy is used. In the English-rule time in Malabar, words like ‘Butler’ were used as ‘respect’ suffix for persons working inside English households. Working inside an English household was a great social status inducing item. It is not like what is now being promoted. That the Englishmen were exploiting or enslaving them. Working in an English establishment would give that man a chance to converse in English with the English individuals. It more or less removes a lot of socially degrading content that had been placed upon the individual by the local languages.

In fact, any work that connected a person with the native-English was not an experience of enslavement, but a personality enhancing item. Only total birdbrains would go around saying that working under the English was a degrading item. Actually working under the local bosses who speak feudal languages was the real degrading item and experience.

Now coming back to Sree Narayana Guru, his name Narayanan was kept inside two words of ‘respect’. Birdbrain academicians have used a term, ‘honorific’ for such usages. However, it is a much more complicated item than is understood or delineated by birdbrains.

However, there is something more intriguing. Many persons feel that even enwrapping his name with two words of ‘respect’ on both sides is not enough to prop him up. It is seen that in many locations they add one more word of ‘respect’. That is, his name is then mentioned as Sree Narayana Guru Devan.

When seen from an English perspective, it is a very singular situation. Native English individuals who are connected perfectly to pristine-English do not want any suffixes or prefixes of respect. For instance, Robert Clive, if mentioned as a mere Clive still does retain his stature in his native language. However, in the case of most ‘great’ personages of the subcontinent, some suffix or prefix is required. If it is removed, then it becomes a terrible issue. The ‘greatness’ of the personage will go into oblivion.

There was on incidence with regard to the so-called ‘father of the nation’ (actually there is no such father of nation in any statutory records). When he was once, mentioned with as a Mr. by a political leader of those times, the followers of the ‘great’ personage ran on to the podium and started attacking him physically. The ‘great’ personage, who was present there at that time, did nothing to stop it. For, it was quite clear that his followers were trying to protect his ‘respect’.

This incident went on to the creation of a communal party, and this in turn led to the creation of Pakistan, when India was created.

This adding of ‘respect’ to hold up the stature of a personage is a deed that should seem to suggest that without these words of ‘respect’, the personage would not have any stature. In fact, if the various ‘Ji’, ‘Mahatma’, ‘Swami’, ‘Amma’, ‘Chettan’, ‘Anna’, ‘Saar’, ‘Maadam’ etc. words are removed from the names of various ‘great’ Indians, they would immediately appear in their stark human quality, as mere nondescript persons.

Usually, in the local areas, people who cannot find any such props, usually use their place name behind their name. It acts as a barricade that holds them up from tumbling down the gorge of ‘no-respect’. It acts in the verbal code area. It is a way to hold a person as an ‘Adheham’ / ‘Avar’ (Highest He/ Him) from falling down to the ‘Avan’ (lowest he / him) level.

Now, the next question would as to why the Sree Narayana Guru and his team tried to extend their influence to the Malabar region. Actually none of the problems that the Ezhavas were facing in Travancore was faced by the Thiyyas in locations like Tellicherry. There was no block to the Thiyyas joining the Civil Service even at the highest levels. In fact, they were eligible for competing for the ICS (Imperial Civil Service) officer cadre posts and for the highest officers’ posts in the British-Indian Railways.

The Marumakkathaya Thiyyas had their own traditional worship systems which had not gone into oblivion. Many of them were in the government service with some of them appointed as Tahsildars, Sub-Magistrates and a few even as Deputy Collectors. They were part of the Madras Presidency Civil Service.

There is one more thing to ponder upon. In the Travancore kingdom, it was the members of the London Missionary Society who inspired a lot of social reforms. The English East India Company and later the British administration both did exert their pressure to speed up this process.

However, the Christian Missionaries were not really interested in promoting pristine-English. They were more interested in developing a native language, for which they used the name ‘Malayalam’, thus more or less giving it a mixed up and confusing identity. The issue here is the local degrading and subordinating lower indicant words of ‘Nee’, ‘Avan’, ‘Aval’ etc. from Tamil could be retained and used effectively as a regimenting tool.

In the case of Sree Narayana Guru also, there would be no difference in the use of these verbal tools. The SNDP, the organisation which was to promote him and spread his name would also use the same things for regimentation and promotion of ‘respect’.

The promotion is like this: Our leader is the Swami, Avarkal, Adheham, Avar etc. (all highest He/ Him). You are Nee (lowest you), Avan (lowest he / him), Aval (lowest she / her). This kind of population stature improvement is directly opposite to the population stature enhancement done by the native-English administrators.

The very interesting item about the use of these verbal regimenting tools is that the more a person is suppressed, the more that individual becomes ‘respectful’ and obsequious. The mentionable items about these kinds of sinister languages is that if the lower person is extended any kind of ‘respect’ or consideration, the more he or she will become disrespectful and disobedient. Things do not work as they do in pristine-English.

The wider idea in this is that persons who fall in line to the regimentation induced by their verbal codes incessantly try to bring other persons under them using the same verbal codes. This creates a sort of satanic brotherhood of persons, all of them focused on to a single command centre, connected upwards and downwards with the same satanic verbal codes.

The still wider issue is that a lot of similar mutually competing brotherhoods form in the social system. Each would find the other one intolerable. For, the command codes downwards and ‘respect’ codes upwards in one brotherhood would have no relevance or acceptability in the other.

At the same time, for the people of North Malabar near to places like Tellicherry (about South Malabar I have no information), the English administration did support the spread of English. In a way, this was a direction away from the grip of the feudal languages. That is, persons who worked with them or associated with them naturally escaped from the thraldom of these sinister verbal codes.

Now, we arrive at the location for enquiring on how the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas became connected to the Ezhavas of Travancore. In the present-day times, North Malabar and Travancore are quite nearby due to the advances in technology, roads, railways and air travel. However, way back in the 1960s, when I was born in Malabar, the interior locations had very few roads. The travel time would take hours, days and weeks. I have heard from old people that a travel from Wynad to Tellicherry would take a few days by bullock carts. As of now, this is a distance easily traversed in a few hours.

Image

In such a situation, Travancore was literally a very far-off location. It is quite possible that many persons who lived in the interiors from the seacoasts would have heard of Travancore only very briefly. However, it is true that the fishermen and other seafaring populations would be quite familiar with the seacoasts of Cochin, Alleppy, Quilon, Trivandrum etc. For that was the way they saw the land. However, the seafaring populations were seen as despicable by the people who lived in the interiors.

The above idea itself is a very curious bit of information. For instance, there are many highly jingoist persons who write about the ‘great’ Indian maritime-traders and other sea travellers. However, even now, these great jingoists would not find it interesting to be connected with the fishermen folks and populations who traditionally are associated with the sea in the subcontinent.

Off course, they would be quite happy to be connected to the Indian Navy officers. However, they are not the traditional people here. They are the part of the population who imbibed the English systems, and not the traditional systems. Even the uniform of the Indian Navy is what has been designed and copied from the English heritage. The native seafaring heritage looks are as given below:

Image

The culprits who worked to connect the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas with the Ezhavas need not be Ezhavas or Ezhava leaders. It is here that one needs to understand the terrific aspirations for social leadership that grips everyone the moment they get a feeble right to leadership.

I can view the Thiyya condition of those times only from an impressionistic perspective. For, I was not the present at that time. As to trying to understand or gather information from local writings, it is for most parts a waste of time. Most persons who write such things write from a Fan-version mode. Words like ‘great’, ‘world-famous’, ‘it is in Roman records’ etc. are seen used to prop up a person or institution.

I remember many years ago sitting in the Kerala House in Delhi. This is the official office of the Kerala government in Delhi. A group of people had come from an interior village in Kerala. They were speaking about the coconuts of their area. They mentioned the coconut name, which was connected to their village. Their query was: ‘Don’t you know the ....Coconuts?’ and ‘Haven’t you heard of the ...Coconuts?’. The official had obviously not heard of them.

The other side continued: ‘They are world famous!’

The curious item in this was that if it was ‘world famous’, how come this information officer of the Kerala state government had not heard of it before?

In many ways, this is the condition of many items in current-day Indian history writings. “ ‘India’ is mentioned in Roman history. The word ‘India’ is there in that famous travellers’ writings. It is seen mentioned on that rock inscription. &c. ‘

The same is the case with Kerala also. “‘Kerala’ is mentioned in this and that, and in the rock inscription of Asoka” etc.

The foolishness of all these claims would come out if a similar history studies are done in England. To prove the greatness of England, if the English were go searching other lands and their literature and rock inscriptions, it would be a very foolish level of greatness.

The larger truth never comes out from these kinds of wild-goose chase with regard to both ‘India’ as well as ‘Kerala’. There was no India before British-India and there was no ‘Kerala’, as understood now, before 1956.

As to the word ‘Kerala’, mentioned as seen mentioned on the Asoka rock inscription at Gaya, in this book, Malabar, it is seen mentioned that actually the transliteration of the original word is Ketala and not Kerala.

The presence of the English population in Tellicherry and in Cannanore did give a huge boost to certain Thiyya individuals and families. Some of them served in the English houses as butlers. Some became lawyers in the local courts. Many got government employment even as officers. Some of them learned the art of baking confectionary and pastry items from English households and went on to build up huge bakery businesses. Even though I am not sure about the case of the fabled Circus companies of Tellicherry, it is quite sure that these all improved fabulously due to the presence of the English population in near proximity.

Image

For the Thiyyas who connected with the English households, it was simply a location where their traditional subordination in the local feudal languages stood erased. Those who had been Inhi (lowest ‘you’), Oan (lowest ‘he’ /’him’), Oal (lowest ‘she’ / ‘her’), Iyttingal (lowest ‘them’), Chekkan (degrading word for young man but generally used on all-age lower castes male labourers), Pennu (degrading word for young woman but generally used on all-age lower castes female labourers), etc. could simply jump above all these personality slicing social codes when they entered into the native-English locations.

It would be quite unwise to think that those who emerged out of the strangling holds of the social system would be interested in their own ancestry or in improving others who had not yet escaped.

It is a totally different social scene that is emerging. The individuals who improved would go on to set up businesses, hotels, bakeries, circus companies, join the higher cadres of the British-Indian railways, and of the British-Indian Civil Service (ICS – Imperial Civil Service), and of the British-Indian Army.

The more they improved, the more cut-off they would become from their traditional systems. They would have more disgust with their higher castes, especially the Nayars, who they would like to treat with disdain. They would have more complaints about the native-English also, who in the ultimate count would not treat them as one among them.

Even though these suddenly-improved Thiyya individuals would like to distance themselves from their own, lower-level, caste populations, their ire would be on the native-English also to a limited extent due to the above-mentioned fact.

I need to quote from Castes and Tribes of Southern India Vol 7 by Edgar Thurston:

QUOTE: In the pre- British days, a few of the well-to-do families of Tiyans lived in houses of the kind called nalapura (four houses), having an open quadrangle in the centre.

QUOTE: But, for the most part, the Tiyans — slaves of the Nayars and Nambutiris — lived in a one-roomed thatched hut. Nowadays, the kala pura usually consists of two rooms, east and west. Toddy-drawing, and every thing connected with the manufacture and sale of arrack (country liquor) and unrefined sugar, form the orthodox occupation of the Tiyan.

QUOTE: But members of the community are to be found in all classes of society, and in practically all professions and walks of life. It is interesting to find that the head of a Tiyan family in North Malabar bears the title Cherayi Panikar, conferred on the family in the old days by a former Zamorin. A title of this kind was given only to one specially proficient in arms. Even in those days there were Tiyan physicians, bone-setters, astrologers, diviners, and sorcerers. END OF QUOTE.

From the above quote, one can take a little bit of information, without being too enthusiastic about any claims. It is seen that there were Thiyyas who were land owners. It is seen that there were Thiyyas who were in all kinds of professions including that of martial arts. As to the mention of the Zamorin, one need not become too spirited. For Zamorin was the king of a small kingdom called Calicut. This king’s authority was not too widespread and in his own household, there was constant rebellion and mutiny against the person who occupied the title of king.

As to the claim that the Thiyyas were some kind of slaves of the Nayars, it can be a very partial view. It might be true that in some locations, the Thiyya families would be sort of totally suppressed servants of the Nayars. However, there were other castes which were much below the Thiyyas and some were acknowledged as slaves. But then the more a Thiyya family is suppressed by the Nayars, the more they would have to display disdain and suppression to populations and individuals lower than them. In fact, they would have to use verbal hammering to display that they are above them and not connected to them.

This display of disconnection to a lower positioned individual/s is a very important requirement in the feudal languages.

The newly-developed Thiyyas in the wake of the English rule need not be the traditional Thiyyas who were traditional land-owners and who may have been from the households which continued the ancient traditions of the Thiyya traditional worships, like that of the Muthappan.

In fact, I have heard directly from persons who had lived in the early 1900s that some of the newly-empowered Thiyyas were quite disdainful of Muthappan worship.

There might have been a competition between various social groups within the Thiyya community. However, the Thiyyas who had official positions and such persons as lawyers (vakil), lawyer clerks (gumasthans), English household staff (butlers), Nouveau riche Thiyya businessmen etc. would be yearning to convert their money and official power into a social leadership.

This could be the real inspiration for inviting Sree Narayana Guru and his team to North Malabar. It is possible that these persons did not have any information on what was the state of affairs in Travancore then (Readers who are interested in that information can check Travancore State Manual by V. Nagam Aiya; and Native Life in Travancore by Rev. Samuel Mateer).

Connecting to a totally unconnected population group was not going to do any kind of positive inputs to the Thiyyas actually. For, the amount of liberation that the English rule had bestowed on them was of a most supernatural level when compared to what the Ezhavas of those times were enduring.

However, a good percentage of the Thiyyas population was still disconnected to the English systems. They would be burning with anger and ire at their Thiyya brethrens who had improved.

The other tumultuous emotions among some of the Thiyya social leaders would be to somehow get-back the social leadership in the emerging situation wherein many lower-class Thiyyas were simply escaping their verbal stranglehold by learning English.

Even today, the non-English populations in India cannot bear to see the freedom of movement and articulation that the English-speaking populations get.

If a scrutiny is done of who all took part in bringing in Sree Narayana Guru and his team to North Malabar, it might be seen that it was a group that mostly consisted of the newly emerged Nouveau riche and newly become officials from the Thiyya Community.

It is seen that there were certain traditional households among the Thiyyas who were continuing the Muthappan worship over the centuries. It is not known if they participated in connecting the Thiyya worship systems with the Hindu (Brahmanical) gods and temples. As it is, only the Brahmins had the right to their own worship systems and to build their temples. No other castes, not Pulaya, Pariah, Malayan, Ezhava, Thiyya or any other caste in the subcontinent or elsewhere had the right to build temples for Brahmanical gods.

Doing such an action would be an irascible act and not a social reformation.

However, the Nouveau riche and the persons holding the official positions might not have any leadership over the Muthappan worship systems.

Now about the Nayars contribution in this act. It is possible that the Nayars also would have greatly supported the idea. For, it is seen in this book, written around this period that the Nayars are simply promoting the idea that the Thiyyas are Ezhavas, and toddy-tappers, toddy-tappers, toddy-tappers .......... .

So it is possible that the Nair side would have whole-heartedly given the support to connect the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas to Ezhavas.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:47 pm, edited 8 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

20. Exertions of the converted-Christian Church

Post posted by VED »

20 #

However, beyond all the above groups there was another totally encompassing and overwhelming group which would have stood behind some veil and more or less promoted the connecting of Marumakkathaya Thiyyas to Ezhavas, to happen. This group who stood behind without showing its face or connection to this event would be the Christian Church of the converted to Christian populations in Travancore.

I have not read anything about them in this regard or about certain other claims I am going to make about this entity. This entity was not an evil one. Instead it was a most altruistic one. However, it represented the interests of a huge number of people who were its members.

The total of my impressionistic perspectives on why the Christian Church of the converted to Christians from Travancore supported the Ezhava entry into North Malabar will be mentioned later. However, it may be stated here itself that they were also from Travancore and more or less connected to the Ezhava populations.

I will have to make some quite daring statements with regard to Travancore. However it has to wait.

So the entry of the Ezhava leadership to hoodwink the Marumakkathaya Thiyya population was supported by one section of the Marumakkathaya Thiyya population, who had their own vested interests.

Second welcome support came from the Nayars who must have watched the proceeding with sly and drooling delight.

The third support must have come from the Christian Church of the converted to Christians from Travancore.

As to the ordinary Marumakkathaya Thiyyas, most would be quite lowly in social stature that they would be in a mood of showing total subservience to the newly emerged Thiyya - Tahsildars, Deputy Tahsildars, Deputy Collectors, Vakils, Sub magistrates, Gumasthans, Compounders, Butlers, Masters, Gurukkals, Bhagavathars, Mesthiris, Adhikaris, Royal Indian Air Force officers and all others who had somehow scrambled high on the social ladder in the newly emerging scenario.

Image

The unmentioned issue is that all these wise guys would attach the above-mentioned professional titles behind their names. These professional titles become some sort of a social title like that of the Nayars, Nambhoodhiris etc. However, the lowly-positioned Thiyyas would be mere name and Inhi and Oan and Oal and Thiyyan and Thiyyathi to their clever Thiyya brethrens who had jumped to the higher platform. These higher-class Thiyyas’ main aim would be to see that the lower-positioned Thiyya remained struck there in their lowly positions.

If a historical examination of the persons who sponsored the Sree Narayana Guru and team entry into North Malabar is done, it would be seen that it was not the Thiyyas who were under the caste suppression who did it. Instead it was the higher social class Thiyyas who did this. Actually these people who sponsored this entry were not suffering from any kind of social suppression, during the English rule. If temple entry was what they wanted, the traditional Muthappan temples were their own places of worship. It is quite interesting to note they who had such temples and shrines were not happy with what they had. They wanted only the Brahmanical temple. It is quite curious.

The whole verbal-code scenario of the subcontinent is one of sly cunning using the feudal language codes. A slight addition or removal of an information or title is enough to change the total social stature of an individual. These are things that the gullible and naive native-English never got to understand. As to the cunning folks of the subcontinent, they are too cunning to reveal it. They simply would not even promote a discussion on these things.

In fact, when a writ petition was filed in the Hon’ble High Court of Kerala against the compulsory imposition of a feudal language (Malayalam) in the schools, there was a very concerted effort on the part of the self-appointed ‘cultural leaders’ to see that this event was not discussed in the news media. When I personally tried to get it posted in the Wikinews through the efforts of one person, a very funny reply came. It said something to the effect that the evidence produced (copy of the High Courts’ order) had the looks of some nondescript old document.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:48 pm, edited 5 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

21. Ezhava-side interests

Post posted by VED »

21 #

Now, let me take up the Ezhava-side interests.

Even though there seems to be no documentary evidence mentioned in the book, Malabar, it is seen mentioned that the Ezhavas came from Ceylon. It is again seen asserted that they brought in the coconut tree from Ceylon. Since Ceylon and Travancore are quite nearby locations, it is possible that it was a common tree in both the locations. In fact, Ceylon is much nearer to Travancore than is Cannanore. As to anyone bringing the coconut tree to Travancore and from there to Malabar, there might not be any specific need to identify it with any one particular caste or population unless there is some documentary evidence to that effect. For, history literally goes backward indefinitely.

Since the traditional language of Travancore is seen being mentioned as being Tamil, it is quite possible that the Ezhavas also had some close Tamil links. However, as of now, there might be different populations who might be identified as Ezhavas. I do not personally have much information on Ezhavas, other than what is seen written in such books as Travancore State Manual, Native Life in Travancore, Castes and tribes of Southern India etc.

In the last two mentioned books, there are locations where some attempt to identify the Ezhavas with the Thiyyas is seen. In the Native Life in Travancore, there is this line:

QUOTE: In the far south on both coasts they are known as Shanars; in Central Travancore as Ilavars; from Quilon to Paravoor, Chogans; in Malabar, as far as Calicut, they are called Teers, or Tiyars; and still farther north Billavars, which appears to be a slightly altered form of Ilavar. END OF QUOTE

What was Rev. Samuel Mateer’s source of information that made him mention the Makkathaya Thiyyas of South Malabar as Ezhavas is not known. However, as I had mentioned earlier, the Converted Christian Church had its own self-centred aim in promoting an idea that the Travancore and Malabar were one single geo-political unit. However, it is again curious that Mateer has not mentioned the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas of North Malabar.

Image

As mentioned earlier, the Ezhavas of Travancore had their own deities. Not necessarily that of the Brahmanical religion. However, being under the Nayars, as the both the two Thiyyas were in Malabar, there would naturally be a lot of worship systems wherein they collaborated with the Nayars.

It is similar to any kind of hierarchical systems. For instance, see the case of the Kerala police now. The DySp (deputy district police officer) is conducting a function. In that function, the Circle Inspector, the Sub Inspector, the Head Constable and the Constables would have different and certain definite roles to play. In a similar manner, in any sacramental function conducted by a Nair household, there would be many lower-placed populations who would willingly and joyously participate.

In a manner similar to the police constable being placed at the down-below fag end of the hierarchy, the lowest class populations would stand at the lowest levels. However, they would also participate. There would not be any antipathy towards the Nair household. For, this is the social system everyone is accustomed to.

[Incidentally the antipathy arises only when the lower-placed populations are allowed to rise up in social standing. Then they would start having terrible and vexatious memories of how they had been low-level servants of persons who they now perceive as equals. Generally in feudal language social systems, the lower-placed populations are never allowed to improve. Only utterly foolish English social systems allow the slave populations from elsewhere to rise up in social standing to their own levels. These populations later carry a lot of grudge towards the same people who helped them improve. As to the lower-placed populations in feudal language systems, they have a lot of gratitude and affection towards the higher castes who throw a few crumbs to them.]

The second item is that the Ezhavas are generally dark-skinned. As mentioned earlier, there were many Ezhavas who were fair-complexioned also. So, it is evident that there has been a lot of mixing up of population among the Ezhavas.

At the same time, it must also be admitted that in those days, the total population of Travancore had a darker hue to their skin. In Malabar, in those days, the dark-skin was more or less confined to the labourers who worked in the sun.

In Travancore, it was possible to find Nayars and even some Brahmin folks with dark-skin complexion. All this generally point to a genetically different population mix in Travancore.

The wider theme with regard to the skin-complexion is that dark-skin complexion is less liked by many people in the subcontinent. It is not that the dark-skinned persons are inferior or something like that. It is simply that dark-skin is seen as less lovely. However, beyond that, dark-skinned is slightly connected to lower-placed population groups in Travancore. However, in Malabar, since the lower-castes are also fair in skin complexion, this identification is not absolute. But then again in Malabar also, dark-skin is mentally connected to a lower class population.

The problem with the dark-skin complexion is that the dark-skinned populations themselves do not appreciate their skin colour. It is at this point that the dark-skin goes down. However, from a personal experience, it is generally seen that the dark-skinned people are capable of bearing the sun-heat much more than the fair-skinned.

There is some other observation that I have had that seems to connect the skin-colour with certain language-code effects. However, I cannot go into that here.

The second terrific problem that confronted the Ezhavas and all the lower castes in Travancore was them being kept out of all kinds of government jobs in the kingdom, other than menial jobs. Ezhavas would naturally try to stick close to the Nayar community, and at the same time try to keep all the castes below them at a distance. This more or less proves that they were willing collaborators of the social system. Their only complaint being that they are not allowed to move up. They were not keen that the castes below them should come up.

The social system and the various kinds of repulsions and attractions were designed by the feudal languages of the location. The language is seen mentioned as Tamil. How it became Malayalam might be a very curious story.

The Ezhavas in Travancore were under the Nayars as were both the two different populations known as Thiyyas in Malabar. However, it is quite doubtful if the common Ezhava in Travancore or common Thiyya in Malabar would be aware of each other. In fact, way back in 1970s, I did understand that not many common persons in Malabar had heard of a caste called Ezhava. At the same time, in 1982, when I mentioned Thiyya in my college in Trivandrum, not even one person could understand what that caste was. In fact, it was a very curious incident that one of my college-mates understood it as some kind of Brahmin caste (something like Elayathu), seeing the casual manner in which I had mentioned the word Thiyya.

With the establishment of the English-rule in Malabar and the establishment of a close relationship between the Travancore kingdom’s government and the English administrators in Madras, the detachment and disconnection that Malabar and Travancore had between each other broke down at the official levels. It is possible that the Malabar district higher officials would have immense chance to meet and interact with the Travancore government higher officials in some common meeting place in Madras meant for the senior civil servants.

It might be true that at among the seafaring and fishermen folks from Malabar and Travancore, there would be much contact. However, it is seen that generally the fishermen folks and such other traditional seafaring populations seem to be from a common population group. Even though they were good at their work, they were generally kept at a distance by the people who live and work in the land areas. As of now, all these distance and disconnections are melting down.

Even though these kinds of melting-downs of social barriers are very easily understood as some kind of great social reformation, the fact remains that unless these kinds of changes are forcefully directed by some higher-quality people like the native-English, what ultimately comes out is a highly profanity-filled communication group. In fact, the worst qualities of the mixing groups get diffused into everyone. The good qualities simply fade out.

The knowledge of Malabar and its people and location would be slowly filtering into the Travancore region by way of the Christian Church also. When mentioning the Christian Church, it must be very carefully mentioned that a huge majority of the traditional Christian populations in Travancore and Malabar had nothing to do with the establishment of the English rule in the subcontinent. I will take up that point later.

Image

When the English administration in Madras exerted pressure upon the Travancore government, the lower castes were given a lot of liberties for the first time in centuries. It is sure that it is this freedom that gave the social condition for persons like Sree Narayana Guru etc. to come up. Otherwise it is quite conceivable that if any Ezhava man were to set up a Brahmanical temple and make a totally cantankerous statement that it was an Ezhava Sivan that he was consecrating, he would have been beaten to a pulp then and there, along with huge stream of profanities to add insult to injury.

Generally there was a punishment used by most ruling kings and other small-time and big-time royals in the Subcontinent. That is impalement. If the higher classes feel that they had been slighted, they would complain to their rulers who would catch the miscreant and impale him. In fact, there is the incident of the so-called Pazhassi raja (he was not actually a raja, but just a family member of the ruler of Kottayam, who had the chance to occupy the title of raja during the melee caused by Sultan Tippu’s rumpus in Malabar.) of Kottayam near Tellicherry, impaling certain Mappillas because of some ‘respect’ issue. This was the first cause of consternation for the English administration with regard to him. Impaling means, hammering iron nails through the body to sort of fix it to a wooden pole or board.

Velu Tampi who occupied the post of Dalawa of Travancore for quite short period had this habit. He would also impale persons as a sort of quick punishment. In many cases, it was seen as quite effective. The Muslims in Travancore also had this experience from him. There might be need to study why there is so much antipathy for the Muslims in the subcontinent. It is due to a range of issue. Each different in different locations. I will try to take that up later.

Even though the Ezhavas were experiencing a lot more freedom, still they were a lower-placed population who could not get a government job. The issue of a government job in the subcontinent is that it is not at all like a government job in England. A government job in the subcontinent is not really a job, but a social position. All the lower grade words will get deleted with regard to the person who gets a government job. An ‘avan’ will become an ‘Adheham’ in Malayalam. An ‘aval’ will become an ‘Avar’ in Malayalam. This is something not understood or known in English. Naturally no sane individual from the higher caste would allow such a change to come upon a lower caste man.

It would be like household servant in the subcontinent being allowed to sit on the dining table and eat along with the members of the household. It would be a terrible infliction on the householders. The language codes insist that the servant maid has to sit on the floor and eat. She has to be addressed as a ‘Nee’ and she has to use ‘respectful’ words to the householders. If she is allowed more freedom and allowed to sit on the dining table, she would start addressing the householders with a Nee. And she would refer to the landlady as an ‘Aval’.

Without understanding all this, it would be quite unwise to define the terror that the Nayars felt in allowing the Ezhavas and other lower castes to come up. It was this perfectly mischievous deed that the Christian missionaries from the London Missionary Society were doing in Travancore kingdom. They were interfering into a social system they did not understand. And the more terrible part of their deed in Travancore was that they were developing a new language called Malayalam. This new language was to contain all the local feudal codes. So, in that sense the Christian Church was doing a social interference in Travancore, which was totally opposite to what the English administration was doing in Malabar. In Malabar, as elsewhere in the subcontinent, the English administration was trying hard to crush down the native feudal languages. More so, after the Minutes on Indian education was ratified by the English East India Company administration. Macaulay had clearly mentioned that the native languages here were ‘rude’.

The fact that the Thiyyas of Malabar, who by caste hierarchy were on the same pedestal as the Ezhavas, as being just below the Nayars, were in a social system where there was no statutory restrains on them would have been a most painful information to the Ezhava leadership and other Ezhavas who knew about this. There is no doubt that these people who came to know about this would be discussing this most ‘terrible’ information. That, over there in Malabar, ‘we’ are able to get high ranking government jobs.

It is like a menial servant finding that his friend’s son is an IAS or IPS officer.

It goes without saying that for the Ezhavas, it was just a matter of moving into Malabar, and they become a ‘forward caste’ population. This would be a great information. For, the path to salvation was a ‘relocation to Malabar’. Or to somehow connect with the Thiyyas of Malabar, especially of North Malabar.

This point would be quite clearly understood by the Ezhava leadership also. For, over there in Travancore, they are mere dirt to the officialdom. At the same time, in Malabar, they become the leaders of the officialdom!

Image

It might be true that there would be a lot Ezhava families which were not poor or of the labour class. In fact, there might be herbal medical men, astrologers and many other professionals among them.

Financially, in the newer social situation, they would be not poor. All they wanted would be political and social freedom.

There was one Ezhava person who had become a medical doctor. He had studied in England. I am not sure as to who sponsored his studies. It is possible that it was the English Missionaries. Whatever it is, when he came back, he was not allowed to join the Travancore kingdom’s Health Service. For, he was an Ezhava. He then got a job in the British-Indian health service at Mysore.

It is possible that persons like him could also coax or influence event in Tellicherry and Cannanore. For, he was an England-returned person. The very address of an ‘England-returned’ would do wonders in the subcontinent. For, it was sure that such persons could talk in good English and address the English officials as equals. The other native leaders here had to go step-by-step towards the higher positions of the local officialdom. In most cases, they would have to stop at the level of the deputy tahsildar or deputy Collector. It is not that that the English officials will not deal with them. It is more due to the fact that the native officials will not allow them to deal with a level higher to them.

This England-connection was made use of many others like Nehru, SubashChandran, Gandhi etc. Even now, so many persons who get to stay in native-English nations like England, USA, Australia, Canada etc. make use of this verbal code liberty when they come back home. This more or less could make the local man seem like an imbecile compared to them. At the same time, the fact remains that if the Indians who is currently domiciled in native-English nations, are brought back to India, they will get to know the reality of their native land, which they had been praising in the English land. They would go into a bout of social paranoia, if they were to find themselves addressed as Thoo / Nee, and referred to as USS / Avan/Aval. They will not come out of their houses.

When the Thiyya delegation from North Malabar came to meet Sree Narayana Guru, it is possible that the others in the Ezhava leadership must have been already apprised of the idea. It was too good an idea to go waste. For, there was the whole landmass of Malabar to be occupied. And that too an escape to an English rule location from their traditional social system, wherein they had ‘deep love and respect’ of their higher classes. From this level of ‘deep love and respect’, they would be moving to a level of ‘equality and disdain’.

I did get one message in my Whatsapp on what happened in Malabar as the next part of the events. I do not know the source or correctness of this information. I am posting it here (no corrections are added):

QUOTE: How Thiyya's associated with Ezhava's ? --- A glance in to History. For centuries, Thiyyars used to worship in their own "Kavu's". Most of the Kavu's were not in organised way. For making an organised way of community rituals, some prominent Thiyyas of Thalassery formed a committee. It was decided by the committee to start an organised Temple with annual feast like Sri Rama Temple of Thiruvangad. Unfortunately, nobody could be identified within the community to do the planning / establishing & sanctifying the Project, as they did not want to involve Brahmins. Suggestion came that a person named Sree Narayana Guru from South Kerala established couple of temples for non-Brahmins.

As the committee did not want to involve Brahmins for establishing the Temple, they entrusted Sri. Varadur Kaniyil Kunhi Kannan to visit Sree Narayana Guru at Varkala and submitted the idea that Thiyya Community should have a Temple at Thalassery, in the year 1904. Narayana Guru permitted the celebrated poet Kumaran Asan, as his representative and to convene meetings to ascertain the reaction of the people about the feasibility of a Temple for the community.

Kumaranaasan who was staying with Dr. Palpu in Bangalore accepted the invitation and consequent on his arrival the first meeting was convened at ‘Parambath House’ of Sri. Cheruvari Govindan Shirastadar on 9th July 1905.

The report given by Kumaranaasan to Narayana Guru was - "Thiyyars are Socially and Economically forward community but they lack sound leadership". As Sree Narayana Guru was busy in awakening Ezhavas in South Kerala, he was not much keen into going Thalassery. So the committee again visited Narayana Guru and invited him to Thalassery.

Subsequently, Sri Narayana Guru arrived at Thalassery on 17th March 1906. The instruction of Narayana Guru was "his arrival would be kept secret" was strictly adhered to. On 23rd March Sri Narayana Guru drove the pile for the temple construction at an auspicious moment.

The foundation stone was laid on 21st April 1906 by Sri. Kottiyath Ramunni Vakil in the presence of the great poet Kumaran Asan. It was on 13 February 1908 that Narayana Guru consecrated the Temple and named it Sri Jagannath Temple and the administrating committee was named as "Gnanodaya Yogam". (Though Narayana Guru was the President and Kumaranaasan was the Secretary of SNDP, they were not interested to add the temple or Thiyya community in the clutches of SNDP !!! )

After this function, Thiyyas became followers of Sri Narayana Guru. This was the first relation between Thiyya and Ezhava. After independence, during compiling the constituency the then Government clubbed Thiyya and Ezhava together.
END OF QUOTE

Actually, the deed done by some of members of the Thiyya community was not something asked for by the majority members of the community. A few persons who had the financial acumen and official power and status, joined together to organise the community under their leadership. That was all.

Now, let me check the above QUOTE: Most of the Kavu's were not in organised way. END OF QUOTE.

I think this is true. Due to the feudal nature of the language, it could be very difficult to arrange different worship centres to arrange themselves under any specific organisation with a specific leadership. It is like the Indian administrative system. It is totally inconceivable that the native population of the subcontinent would be able to organise such a thing on their own. However, once such a thing is organised, the various hierarchies would arrange into something like a caste system and would endure on.

Image

QUOTE: For making an organised way of community rituals, some prominent Thiyyas of Thalassery formed a committee. END OF QUOTE.

Even though the idea can seem innocuous, the aim was not so. The aim was to completely delete the traditional rituals and worship systems of the Thiyyas and commit them en masse to Brahmanical deities and temples as worshippers.

QUOTE: It was decided by the committee to start an organised Temple with annual feast like Sri Rama Temple of Thiruvangad. END OF QUOTE.

I have heard it said that even though a Ezhava temple was built at Temple Gate Tellicherry, the common Thiyya person had more faith and devotedness towards Sri Rama Temple of Thiruvangad. However, it was again a location where they traditionally had no right to enter. The issue was something akin to the adage: ‘distance lends enchantment’.

QUOTE: Unfortunately, nobody could be identified within the community to do the planning / establishing & sanctifying the Project END OF QUOTE.

It is partially the traditional attitude of not finding anything great in a local man. The greatness was seen in an individual from afar. It was actually a totally foolish situation. The native-English rulers have given all kinds of liberties and improvements for the Thiyyas. And yet, they could not find anyone amongst themselves who they could mention as having quality.

In fact, the social improvement in the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas has only spurred the mutual jealousies in them.

QUOTE: Suggestion came that a person named Sree Narayana Guru from South Kerala established couple of temples for non-Brahmins. END OF QUOTE.

There is a problem here. Sree Narayana Guru was not from South Kerala. He was from the Travancore kingdom. The newly formed Thiyya leadership was trying to bring in an individual from a foreign nation. When I use the term ‘foreign’, the reader might find it quite cantankerous. However, in Travancore State Manual, the words ‘foreign’ and ‘foreign country’ has been repeatedly used to denote people from outside Travancore kingdom. From that perspective, it would be correct to mention that Sree Narayana Guru was from another country. For, the events happened in the same period that the Travancore State Manual was written.

Second thing was, under what sacramental authority was Sree Narayana Guru establishing Brahmanical temples for non-Brahmans? Simply hearing such a thing and inviting him to do the same thing in North Malabar, has some kind of social error that can be smelt out. The issue was: were the newly self-appointed Marumakkathaya Thiyya leaders given the go-ahead by the households that had till then continued the traditional Marumakkathaya worship systems over the centuries, right from the hoary days of the hazy past?

If such a traditional worship system was in vogue, who were these newly formed busybodies to bring in something that would override those traditional systems?

QUOTE: Kumaranaasan who was staying with Dr. Palpu in Bangalore accepted the invitation END OF QUOTE.

It is a very revealing statement. Both of them had taken up residence in Bangalore, where it is possible that they would enjoy the egalitarian social ambience that the English administration had showered. And yet, it is these persons who are mentioned as the reformers of the social system. Is it very difficult to see that the egalitarian and liberal social reforms were the handiwork of the English administration? And that all these so-called ‘great’ social liberators were merely basking in its shining halo?

The English administration sort of removed the feudal content in the native languages. The Nee, Avan, Aval, Avattakal, Avarkal, Adheham, Avar forms of human personality was removed by the English language? Could these ‘great’ social reformers do anything like that? Or did they ever even attempt to do anything like that?

QUOTE: The report given by Kumaranaasan to Narayana Guru was - "Thiyyars are Socially and Economically forward community but they lack sound leadership". END OF QUOTE.

It is an extremely interesting report. The Thiyyas are socially and economically forward? That was only in the areas where they existed in close proximity to the English administration. Elsewhere in the distant villages, they were still at the beck and call of the Nayars. As to the Ezhava leadership providing a social leadership for the ‘socially and economically forward’ Thiyyas, it was a sort of nonsensical claim and ambition. The Ezhavas were in terrible situations. To invite a group that claimed leadership over them to come and take over the leadership of Marumakkathaya Thiyyas has all the contents of some kind of unbelievable nonsense.

As to Sree Narayana Guru being the accepted leader of all the Ezhavas also might be a debatable point. It could be like the various rich folks from the South Asian subcontinent, both from inside British-India as well as from the independent kingdoms near it, going to Europe or England, and then organising Indian freedom movement conventions and debates. The moot question was who gave them the authority to act as the leaders or representative of the people/s of the Subcontinent?

QUOTE: After this function, Thiyyas became followers of Sri Narayana Guru. END OF QUOTE.

Marumakkathaya Thiyyas who were the traditional devotees of Muthappan and other shamanistic deities then became the followers of Sree Narayana Guru? Could be true to a certain extent.

Now before moving off from this location, it must be mentioned that Sree Narayana Guru has been mentioned as a great Vedic scholar. It is seen said that his writings are of great scholarship and profundity. These claims might be true. And as a person, he would have many charms. However, making his name and individuality mixed up in a different location where he and his ideas did not have much relevance, can be the issue. There has been no greater social reforming force in the subcontinent other than the English rule. All other ‘great’ social reform movements have been mere minor ingredients that survived due to the superb protection and security provided by the English administration.

In no way could the SN Colleges run by the SNDP be compared to the colleges of the English rule time in Tellicherry. Institutions like the Brennen College of those times, in Tellicherry were repositories of great English atmosphere. Out of which student came out who were extremely good in English and English systems. The officer class of the Madras Presidency Civil Service and later of the Madras State Civil Service were many populated by students from such institutions. They were to create an incorruptible and high elegant officer class. The students who came out of SN Colleges and NSS colleges were rarely of this mental stamina. In fact, there has been mention that these colleges taught the students the tougher and rougher sides of social living, including that of the calibre to use Malayalam profanities with rare equanimity. Even though, this is a very formidable training that is received by the students, the issue is that there is no need to go into a college to get trained in such rough and uncouth social standards.

Beyond all this, it was rank nonsense to attempt to replace the Muthappan worship with an idol of Sree Narayana Guru.

QUOTE: Though Narayana Guru was the President and Kumaranaasan was the Secretary of SNDP, they were not interested to add the temple or Thiyya community in the clutches of SNDP !! END OF QUOTE.

It might correct to state that it was not really the interest of either Sree Narayana Guru or of Kumaranashan to connect the Thiyyas with the Ezhavas. It might be the subversive elements in the Thiyya community who might have wished to establish this connection.

When speaking of the Muthappan and such other Shamanistic deity worships, which include such entities such as Kuttichathan, Gulikan, Paradevatha, Asuraputra, Chamundi, Vettakkorumakan &c., the fact is that there is something as yet un-deciphered in these phenomena. Even though the traditional stories connected to these spiritual entities seem quite stale and insipid, the phenomenon in itself is superb and well-worthy of preserving. May be a time might come when more information on such things can be had.

Interested readers are requested to read this book of mine: Software codes of mantra, tantra, witchcraft, black magic, evil eye, evil tongue &c.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:49 pm, edited 5 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

22. The takeover of Malabar

Post posted by VED »

22 #

Now coming back to the book, Malabar, it can be mentioned that the following groups of persons were hell-bent on connecting the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas of north Malabar as well as the Makkathaya Thiyyas of south Malabar to the Ezhavas of Travancore kingdom:

1. Nayars of Malabar
2. Subversive elements in the Thiyya Community
3. The Christian Church of the converted Christians of Travancore, operating in Malabar.

To understand the aspirations of the Christian Church of the converted Christians of Travancore, there are basic ideas that have to be understood. It requires some bit of foundation building. For, it would require the visualisation of the local history from new framework.

As of now, everyone speaks of ‘Kerala’ as if it was the original conceptualisation of all ‘Malayalis’ who lived in a location commencing from Manjeshwar in the northern tip of Kerala to somewhere around Balaramapuram, at the southern tip of Trivandrum district. However, the fact is that this visualisation of a geopolitical area is just the creation of a concerted education and indoctrination. Actually when I first moved to Alleppy in the year 1975 from Malabar, it was literally like going to a neighbouring state. The people looked totally different. They spoke a different language. And for the same words in Malabar language, there was a totally different meaning in Malayalam.

In fact, I remember having a very heated argument with one person with regard to the word ‘Mappilla’. He very categorically said that it meant ‘Christian’. However, to me this mention seemed quite unacceptable. For, in Malabar, a ‘Mappilla’ was a Muslim (of Malabar).

As of now, the population has mixed and the newspapers, the cinemas and the radio broadcast etc. have established a Malayalam state called Kerala.

When the book Malabar was being written, there was no Kerala. However in the various textual wordings, one can see someone’s hand inserting ‘Kerala’ all over the location. It was as if someone wanted to change everything and create a state called Kerala. There is no historical evidence that can categorically state that such a kingdom had existed in any time in history, that was positioned right from Manjeshwar to Balaramapuram.

It is historically a impossibility. For, the Travancore antiquity is Tamil. While that in Malabar, it was a language that I would like to call as Malabari now. For, actually the name of that language could have been Malayalam. And it might have had a script, which is currently taken over by the new language of Malayalam. These inputs of mine are mere impressionistic ideas, for which I do not have any documentary evidences. However, from my acute understanding of how the people of this location manipulate history to accommodate their own interests, I think there might be some veracity in what I mention.

Image

Just to understand what I am trying to convey, look at this map of the States of India, just after the nation was created.

The brown location at the south-western end is the Travancore-Cochin State. All around it is the Madras State. Just north of the Travancore-Cochin state was the Malabar district of the Madras state.

To come up with a fake history that the Travancore kingdom was close to the Malabar location is some sort of nonsense. In those days, travel was quite difficult. Malabar was thick jungle in most places. Even in the place where I am currently residing, that is Deverkovil, way back in 1966, when we first came there, there was no proper road. The place was sparsely populated. The terrain was not plain. It was totally uneven landscape with all kinds of blocks to travel; thorns, huge stones, varying levels of land &c. See these image here. The place was somewhat like this.

Image

Image

However as of now, everywhere good roads have come. The place is filled with people and houses.

In the Native Life in Travancore, Rev. Samuel Mateer does very graphically mention the problems faced by the lower castes like the Pariahs, Pulayas, Shanar, Ezhavas etc. who had converted into Christianity. It would be quite an erroneous idea that they converted due to any love or understanding of Christ or Christianity. The most fundamental attraction was that the evangelists were speakers of English. That itself was a very powerful allurement. For, when speaking with persons who speak English, it is a very commonly felt issue that the issue of degrading of human personality is not there in the verbal content.

This point is not known to native-Englishmen. However, on the contrary, they would get to feel the tremulous splintering and degrading of human personality that the feudal language speakers convey in words, facial demeanour and eye-language. If they, the native-English, are not properly shielded from its negative effects, they would literally try to keep a distance from the speakers of such satanic languages. However, this is again a problem. For, the satanic language speakers can quite easily define their action as ‘racist’. The whole scenario is quite curious and funny. The villains appear in the attire of great humanists! And the people of innate refinement appear as villains.

The local Sudra / Nayar people had given proper warning to the evangelistic that the lower castes, especially the slave castes were not fully human being, and more or less only semi-humans or half animals, or human beings with their mental facilities not fully developed. However, the evangelistic went ahead with their work. Actually in certain totally interior areas like that of Kottayam (north of Trivandrum), persons like Henry Baker and his wife, I am told, did stay there and set up schools for the despised classes.

The missionaries improved the status of the individuals who had converted to Christianity. They were made to learn to read and write the local language. I think, it was then that the missionaries started improving the local language or creating a new language. From Native Life in Travancore, it is understood that there were many languages which the lower castes used. Some of them were not understood by the higher castes. However, the slave populations had been maintained over the centuries as sort of cattle.

These lower castes soon improved in their personality aspect quite remarkably. However, due to the severe feudal content in the language/s, it was not quite easy to erase the various non-tangible social communication boundaries. The Ezhava converts absolutely refused entry to the pulaya, pariah &c. lower caste converts into their churches. They were frightened that if they went down to the levels of the lower castes, their social equation with the Nayars would be dismantled.

This is not a very difficult issue to understand. Look at this illustration:

Among the clerks in an office, there is much fellowship. The menial workers in the office address the clerks as Saar and refer to them as Saar. One of the clerks starts moving with the menial workers to the extent that they start calling him by his name, and he starts addressing the senior-aged persons of the menial workers as Chettan (respected elder-brother). They start treating him as one among them and address him with Nee and refers to him as Avan. It goes without saying that the other clerks would soon like to distance themselves from him.

Some of the converts soon became teachers amongst themselves, in the schools started by the Missionaries. This is a very great social elevation. For, they become some kind of Saar or Chettan (both titles of ‘respect’). It is a very curious situation. Persons who would have been treated like dirt are now in charge of establishments which were qualitatively better than most establishments run by the higher classes. For what was reflected in these lower caste establishments were a minor reflection of the England, in its native-Travancore form.

Here again, there is nothing for others to rejoice. For, these ‘teachers’ would set-up feudal hierarchical set-ups, in which they were the ‘Saars’ and ‘chettans’. And the others would arrange themselves below them in a ladder-step manner as Saar (highest You) – Nee (lowest you) arrangement. If any outsider tried to up-set this hierarchy, they would be treated with an immensity of rudeness. This rudeness would be of terrific content, because the population was innately lower caste.

A lower caste man using the word Nee word would have a terrific hammering effect, much more powerful than when a higher caste man uses it.

If the protective umbrella of the English administration from Madras Presidency was not there over them, it is quite easy to understand that all these great ‘teachers’ and ‘Ichayans’ would have been caught by their collars, addressed as Poorimone, Pundachyimone etc. (or some other profanity that would be effective on the lower castes – for many of the profanities that could hurt a higher class man might not have any effect on a lower caste man), tied up in bullock cart and taken to the public square. They would be nailed to the trees in the location. That was a usual practice done to the lower castes who tried to be too smart. In fact, Velu Tampi, who had been a Dalawa for a short period of time used to practise this art quite frequently during his tenure. Pazhassiraja in Malabar also was a practioner of this art.

The next point is that the lower castes were still the slave populations of the upper classes. They were not allowed to walk on the public roads. See this quote from Native Life in Travancore:

QOUTE:
The children of slaves do not belong to the father’s master, but are the property of the mother’s owner. In some places, however, the father is allowed a right to one child, which, of course, is the property of his master. This succession is by the female line, in accordance with the custom of the Nayars, the principal slaveholders of the country.

“A great landlord in a village near Mallapally has nearly 200 of them daily employed on his farm, while three times that number are let out on rent to inferior farmers. The slaves are chiefly composed of two races — the Pariahs and the Puliahs— of whom the latter form the more numerous class.”

Further interesting details are supplied in the same periodical for February, 1854, in the form, of questions and answers, as follows : —

“Why do you not learn?”

“We have no time — must attend to work by day, and watch at night, — but our children teach us some prayers and lessons.”

“What are your wages ?”

“Three-quarters of an edungaly of paddy for adults over fifteen years of age, men and women alike.”

“What are the wages of slaves in other districts ?”

“Half an edungaly, with a trifling present once a year at Onam.”

“In sickness, is relief given by the masters ?”

“At first a little medicine, but this is soon discontinued. No food is supplied.”

“What is your usual food ?”

“Besides rice when able to work, often only the leaves of a plant called tagara (Cassia tora) boiled; and for six months the roots of wild yams are dug from the jungle.”

“How do you get salt?”

“We exchange one-sixth of our daily wages in paddy for a day’s supply of salt”

“And for tobacco ?”

“We give the same quantity for tobacco.”

“How do you do for extra expenses as weddings, &c. ?”

“We borrow, and re-pay at harvest time, when we get extra gleanings.”

“Are slaves sold and transferred to other countries, or to distant districts?”

“Four days ago we saw a man and woman and two children brought for sale.”
“In your neighbourhood, are wives and children separated from the father by these sales?”

“This sometimes occurs — the Wattacherry Syrian Christian family have four slave women, who had been married, but were compelled to separate from their husbands and to take others chosen for them by their masters.”

“Are slave children brought for sale?”

“About six months ago two children were brought and sold to T. Narayanan : the relatives afterwards came to take them away, but the master would not suffer it.”

“Are slaves sometimes chained and beaten?”

“Not now chained, but sometimes beaten and disabled for work for months.”
“In old age when disabled for work what support is given?”

“No pension or support of any kind.”

“How are children paid?”

“Not having proper food, the children are weak and unable to do hard work, therefore they are not paid any wages until they are fifteen years of age; they are not even allowed to attend the mission school, if their masters can hinder it.”
END OF QUOTE.

Image

There is something that is missed out in the above quote. A slave cannot answer such queries at this level of intelligence usually. The word Nee (lowest you), will erase much of his or her human qualities; because at his or her level of existence, this word Nee has the power of a terrific hammer.

The above scenario is not actually connected to the caste system. It is part and parcel of the feudal language social design.

Now, the question is when the lower castes are given education and made to improve, what is to be done with them? This was the actual crucial point that led to the takeover of Malabar by Travancore population.

The Christian Church of the converted Christians does seem to have a number of representative establishments or supporting establishment in the English-ruled Malabar. The English East India Company had prohibited all kinds of Christian evangelical missionary work inside the locations under its administration. Due to this, there was no conversion work anywhere in British-India. However, in Travancore, London Mission Society was able to conduct its work, with proper authorisation from the king’s / queen’s family.

Image

However, the traditional Christians, the Syrian Christians, who had their own versions of claims to fabulous social status in yesteryears, were not quite happy with this new development which could really test the fundamental tenets of the Christian faith in them. In the feudal language situation, it is inconceivable that they would allow the lower castes to come on par with them socially. The solid fact is that no sane person from the subcontinent would dare to uplift a downtrodden population or person. For, the moment he or she gets a upper hand, the word codes would change.

It is a matter of ‘Avan’ (lowest he /him) becoming ‘Adheham’ (highest He / Him) and the traditional ‘Adheham’ turning into an ‘Avan’. This terrible information is not known to any native-Englishman even now. That is why England is slowly rotting.

With the establishment of Christian schools and other things there under the auspices of the various Christian churches in Malabar, it is possible that at least some of the converted Christians relocated to Malabar. Some could have become pleaders in the courts of Malabar. In fact, they would have sort of become included in the ‘educated’ folks of Malabar. I have no direct information on this. The issue is that a solitary converted Christian in Malabar was not actually alone. He had behind him a huge framework of the Christian establishment where he was at home.

This would have given a real personality enhancing experience for populations which were treated as despicable dirt in Travancore. Just cross over to Malabar and then they are in formidable positions.

However, there is this information from my own ancestral family in Tellicherry way back in the 1950s. A midget-sized, dark and grotesque looking young Christian from Travancore got connected to the household. He managed to infatuate one of the young females who was quite fair and of discernible beauty. From a very solitary perspective of human looks, it is quite inconceivable how he could manage this.

However, from a wider perspective, there are certain information that comes into my mind. The female was an educated Marumakkathaya Thiyya individual. What can an educated Thiyya female do in the social set-up? She cannot work in any of the local native establishment without losing the quality she had acquired via the English education. For, if she ventured for that, she would be quite easily addressed as Inhi and referred to as an Oal.

This is a very vital information. If the right codes of verbal respect are not forthcoming, individuals will refuse to come out of their houses, if they feel that they are of some kind of refinement. In fact, this information could explain the phenomenon mentioned as White Flight in areas in England occupied by feudal language speakers. The very eyes of feudal language speakers, if devoid of ‘respect’ have a very atrophying affect on the ‘not respected’ person.

Now, coming back to the Christian man, even though he was known as Christian, there was no information that his ancestral links could be to some Pulaya or Pariah population in Travancore. This was a wonderful blackout. Actually even now, not many people in Malabar are aware of this. I should mention that this looks quite mean on my part to reveal it.

However, there is another much wider meanness that can be discerned on the Christian Church side of this group. They have kept this as a seal-secret, thereby more or less pushing the English endeavours to oblivion. Even when a birdbrain is currently creating a ruckus online claiming that Britain owes a huge reparation to India for ‘looting India’, this group keeps silence. This is a kind of unforgivable unkindness and ingratitude.

As to my own ancestral family, they did not seem to have much information on the ‘Nasrani’ from Travancore. In fact, they do not seem to have any information that there are various kinds of Christians in Malabar and Travancore. And the converted Christians are not very keen on mentioning their ancestry. There is no pride in their development from utter miserable conditions.

To know the real state of the misery, I need to quote from Native Life in Travancore:

Image

QUOTE 1: The low-caste people who wish to present petitions are thus kept away from the court, and are made to stand day after day in the hot sun, their heads not being permitted to be covered, or they are exposed to merciless rain until by some chance they come to be discovered, or the Tahsildar is pleased to call for the petition.

QUOTE 2: At Karundgapally there is a new cutcherry; but the officials are mostly Brahmans, so that low castes, and even Chogan Christians, must stand at a distance. The Cottayam cutcherry is an old building and very inconvenient, Chogans being unable to enter, or Pulayans to approach very near. The distance required is about sixty yards. Changanacherry standing close to a temple, is worst of all, as Pulayars are not allowed to approach within about 200 yards, and cannot give their evidence with convenience.

QUOTE 3: and that the most oppressive and degrading of caste rules should still be in force, the lower orders being compelled to leave the public roads and retire to the jungle to allow high caste men to pass unmolested.

QUOTE 4: While some masters treated their slaves with consideration, others greatly oppressed them. If a cow gave them milk they must take it to the house of the master. When bought and sold, the agreement specified “tie and beat, but do not destroy either legs or eyes.” For faults or crimes they were cruelly confined in stocks or cages, and beaten. For not attending work very early in the morning, they were tied up and flogged severely. Awful cruelties were sometimes perpetrated. Cases are known in which slaves have been blinded by lime cast into their eyes. The teeth of one were extracted by his master as a punishment for eating his sugar cane. A poor woman has been known, after severe torture and beating, to kill her own child in order to accuse her master of the murder and get revenge. Even the Syrian Christians were sometimes most cruel in their treatment of their slaves. Rev. H. Baker, fils was acquainted with a case in which a slave ran away from his master, but afterwards returned with presents, begging forgiveness. He was beaten severely, covered with hot ashes, and starved till he died.

QUOTE 5: The social circumstances and daily life of the poor low-caste or slave women, who are obliged to labour for their daily support, and sometimes have nothing to eat on any day on which they remain idle, present a direct contrast to the comfort of these just described, as might be expected from the condition of extreme and enforced degradation in which they have been so long kept, and the contempt and abhorrence with which they are universally regarded. Yet they are human as well as their superiors. They work hard, suffer much from sickness and often from want of food, and generally, like all slaves, also form evil habits of thieving, sensuality, drunkenness, and vice, which increase or produce disease and suffering.

QUOTE: 6: A Zemindar was endeavouring to build up a bund, which the waters carried away as often as he made the attempt. Some Brahmans told him he would never succeed till he had offered up on the bund three young girls. Three, of the age of fourteen or fifteen were selected; the dreadful sacrifice was made, and the ground was stained by the blood of these innocent victims. Mr. Chapman showed me a place where some very large earthen vases have been recently discovered buried in a hollow in the laterite. All the natives without hesitation declare that they must have been the receptacles of human victims when this awful practice prevailed. Near each was another and minor vase, in which, it is said, the knife used in the sacrifice was buried.”

QUOTE 7: Slaves were so little valued by the higher classes, that in cases of repeated and destructive breaches in banks of rivers and tanks they ascribed the catastrophe to the displeasure of some deity or devil; and propitiated his anger by throwing a slave into the breach and quickly heaping earth on him.

QUOTE 8: Rajah Vurmah Kulaskhara barbarously buried alive fifteen infants to ensure success in his wars with his neighbours.

Image

If the reader in interested in getting more details of the slavery in Travancore, he can simply search for the word ‘Slave’ in the PDF digital book : Native Life in Travancore.

When these persons improved tremendously due to the English protection and security given to them, and through the concerted efforts of the London Missionary Society, many moved to Malabar. What they saw in Malabar was a huge stretch of land that could provide the much required solace for the totally dismembered lower-castes of Travancore.

Once they arrive here, their traditional names as well as caste connections get erased. They are entirely new individuals. Since they have had many centuries of experience in real hardships (not the hardships faked on Hindi films by rich actors acting as poor individuals), they had the mental and physical stamina to withstand the ordeal. However, compared to what they traditionally experienced, it was not any kind of ordeal. They were literally in a blissful location, even when they were in a forest land in Malabar.

However, it must be admitted that the English administration in Madras did not give them any leeway to occupy the Malabar forests, which were under quite effective forest administration.

But then the information was with the Christian church that there was land ready for occupation. This would be the ultimate solution for their followers. It might seem quite surprising that an ecclesiastical organisation would stoop to cunning. The answer is that in this subcontinent, everyone are cunning. This is an information that the English officials in the subcontinent took a lot of time to imbibe. And way back in England, this information has not entered into the thick-skulls of the native-English politicians.

There is one historical event that seems to point to a cunning endeavour of this Christian Church. When I say ‘this Christian Church’, what is being conveyed is that there are actually a number of different Christian Churches in the location. I am not sure how they fare with each other.

And I must admit that I do not know much about any of the Christian Churches other than things which are quite positive about them. However, in this book, I am not taking that route. Instead I am going through the impressionistic path of understanding what took place.

Image

Many years ago, that is around 1975, when we first moved to Alleppy from Calicut district in Malabar, a very quirky anomaly was noticed by me. I was then just around 10 years of age. The peculiar anomaly was in the railway route. There was no direct rail link to Travancore areas. The trains from Malabar went to Mattancherry Railway Terminus. From there another Railway engine was attached to rear of the train and it was pulled by that engine into another route to Trivandrum.

This itself should have look curious in a small state. However, I was too young to understand the issue. The real reason was that two entirely different geopolitical locations had been conjoined. Hence this anomaly.

However, the quirky anomaly that I have mentioned above was not this. It was that the train did not go through Alleppy. From some other station we got down and went by bus to Alleppy. In those days, the coastal areas of Alleppy were full of closed-down huge warehouses. I used to wonder how such huge business concerns could have closed down.

After a few years, on looking at the map of Kerala, I found that a very devious deviation has been designed on the rail route. From Ernakulum, the railway route turned inwards towards the East and moved through Kottayam. And then after touching Kottayam, the route moved back to the coast and reached Quilon. It is a wonder that even to this day no one in the state has even noticed this anomaly.

With this event, the commercial prominence of Alleppy went into oblivion.

Looking back from an impressionistic perspective, the events are very simple to behold. The Kottayam area has a lot of converted Christians. I am not sure if they are the only Christians there. Whether their exact antagonists the Syrian Christians are also there, I am not sure. However, there should have been very meticulously planned endeavour to make the newly planned railway route to wind eastward to touch Kottayam.

Even though these kinds of manipulations look quite difficult to accomplish, the actual fact is different. The railway planning would be done in some office in Delhi. The officials are generally the usual low-class Indian officials. They are ‘Saar’, ‘Adheham’, ‘Avar’ (all great level He / Him) to the common man. Yet, to their own political or religious or social leaders they are just cringing low-guys. A simple mention of this request to the planning office’s clerk, or section officer, or his higher boss would actually be enough to get the manipulation in action. However, it is quite sure that the Church would have higher officials also in its pocket.

In fact, the Church does sponsor political leaders from its own community. It is not the grand and great quality persons who are sponsored. Instead, cringing sycophants and such persons who are willing to offer their great subordination and subservience to the higher echelons of the religious hierarchy are selected for political leadership. The Church would then spend huge amount for concerted people indoctrination via various media including that of the newspapers and radio, and later the TV and films &c. This much I mentioned without any real evidence. However, I have heard occasional private talks from persons who seem to know these things directly. It is from certain inadvertent chance remarks that such information spurts out.

If the above visualisation of what had happened is true, then it can be said that the Church had very cunningly manipulated the whole planning of the newly-created state of Kerala to accommodate the interests of its members. And no one seems to be the wiser.

Image

Even though the members of the Converted Christian Church are the lower castes, it is a foolish information that they were devoid of intelligence. Actually, in most probably, they were kept in social shackles due to the fact they were too intelligent to be let loose. It is like the issue of the immigrant populations from the subcontinent in England not liking to allow native-English men as their lower employees. The Englishmen and women have too much of an individuality to extend subservience to the feudal-language speakers of the subcontinent. So naturally, they will have to be crushed down.

If these immigrant populations are allowed to grow in economic power, in a century or two, they will have the native Englishmen and women treated like dirt and repulsive beings. If all goes well, in a five or six centuries, the descendents of the native-English populations would have the same looks and physical features of the most lower castes of the subcontinent.

It is the population group that extends the most obvious subservience that will be given a position of power and authority. The one which does not do this will be kept on the floor. It is like the case of the Nayars. They, who offered their everything to the Brahmins, were accorded the supervisory ranks. Those who did not make such offers were kept down. This is how the social hierarchy works in feudal languages.

The Converted-Christian Church seems to have promoted an idea that the whole of Malabar was actually a continuation of the Travancore geopolitical location. It had a sort of agent in Gundert who, I am told, stayed at Tellicherry. He and many others with him must have served as its willing agents.

As to the native-English folks, they were more or less gullible in everything they did. For one thing, Gundert was not an Englishman or even a Briton. He was a German. Germans are the exact antithesis of Englishmen. They and many other (not all) Continental Europeans have piggy-back ridden on the England address all over the world during the colonial times. It is seen mentioned that many Germans when they travelled in the African continent in the colonial times, used to carry a Union Jack with them. This was so due to the formidable reputation that the Union Jack had in the continent.

From various sources, including the Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler, I have come to understand that the German language is feudal. If Mein Kampf is read, the German society that it pictures of those times looks quite similar to the Indian societies of current-day times. Please check my book: MEIN KAMPF by Adolf Hitler - A demystification!

There is a lot of mix-up in almost all the colonial times writings. The word European is seen used many times. It sort of confuses the information. When this word is used to include the native people of England and Britain, the word becomes quite mischievous. For this inclusion of the native-English into this word only enhances the quality of the word ‘European’ and atrophies the words ‘Britain’ and ‘English’.

I think Gundert was given some official authority by the English East India Company / British administration in British-India. This was off course a very foolish item to do. That of diluting English refinement content by inserting others, whose only right to be inside this system seems to be their skin colour. Gullible England took a long time to get a hint that White skin colour does not make anyone an Englishman.

The Converted Christian Church in Malabar had to contend with the local languages. The first was the languages of Travancore. It is seen mentioned that certain lower-caste spoken-languages which were not comprehensible to the others. This issue was there in many locations of the subcontinent. Moreover, their level of competence in Malayalam was also quite low. The above two bits of information has been mentioned in Native Life in Travancore.

However, as of now, it is seen that the best Malayalam is available in the locations where the majority populations might be the descendents of these lower castes. Some kind of inconsistency should be noted in this. The location of the populations which had the worst quality of language competence displaying the best language quality.

Here we should come to a location for enquiring about the language history. It would be quite foolish to take up most of the ‘scholarly’ writings of the current-day academic geniuses. For, many of their writings are in the style of ‘We were the greatest’; ‘We were the highest’; ‘We were the best’; ‘We were the most ancient’; etc., just like Al Biruni had mentioned.

Way back in 1977, when I moved to Quilon, and in 1982 when I moved to Trivandrum, I found that the local language had a lot of Tamil influence, which was not there in the academic textbooks. I did come across families where the ‘respect’ word for ‘respected elder’ brother was the Tamil ‘Annan’ and not the Malayalam ‘Chettan’. With regard to this word, I have found two different Christian groups using two different words for this. The Converted Christians were known to use the word ‘Chettan’ / ‘Chettayi’. While certain others were found to use ‘Ichayan’. In fact, I have found that the Converted Christians who relocated to Malabar area being referred to as ‘Chettans / Chettammaar’.

It is my conviction that words in a language can be studied to trace the routes of ancestral movement of a relocated population. I had mentioned this in some of my earlier writings. However, I have found the same idea having been already mentioned a couple of centuries earlier. I think I have mentioned this somewhere in this commentary.

My first query would be how did the lower castes of Travancore come to possess a language called Malayalam, which was actually not the traditional language of Travancore? How did this language become of so huge verbal content in their hands that it is their locations in Travancore that is known to have the correct quality Malayalam.

However, this question would go into a lot of other confusing elements. For instance, there is the word Mappilla. This word in Malayalam means ‘Syrian Christians’. While in Malabari / Malabar, it means Malabari Muslims.

The Malayalam from Kottayam was strongly promoted by a Christian Newsmedia group. However, this group does not seem to be from the Converted Christian group. For the word Mappilla is there in their family name.

Image

Even though I do not have any information, I feel that English evangelists who lived in the Kottayam areas worked hard to create a content-rich language for the lower caste converts. They had their agent in Gundert. He was there in Malabar, more or less transferring whatever could be had from Malabar to this endeavour.

This issue of language has to be dealt in a slightly more detail, depending soley on the books I have mentioned earlier and on this book, Malabar.

That there had been a traditional language in north Malabar quite different from Malayalam is known to me. Even the words mentioned as Malayalam of Malabar are not the traditional words of Malabar.

The traditional language of north Malabar can be detected in the Tottam chollal (sacramental chanting) done in Muthappan and other connected ancient Shamanistic worships. However, it is mentioned in Travancore State Manual that the traditional language of Travancore was Tamil. Almost all the stone inscriptions in Travancore are mentioned as in Tamil and some in Sanskrit. Even the information on ancient Onam celebration was found in a Tamil inscription. Travancore people did have a slightly darker hue to their skin complexion. This might denote a Tamil population link.

Now, comes the issue of the script used in Malayalam. It does not look like it is a new creation, other than the fact that there have been recent changes inserted into it to suit the conveniences of the typography of the letter-press times. Could this script have been taken from Malabar and inserted in the language which they developed and then named it as Malayalam? Actually the word Malayalam seems to have been the name of the language of Malabar.

It is a very curious suggestion. That the name ‘Malayalam’ was actually the name of the language of Malabar. However, could this name have been taken away to Travancore and made the name of the language that was developed with the active support and endeavour of the Christian church.

The actual Malayalam that was spoken in Trivandrum streets in the 1980s was a very crude one with a lot of Tamil words interspersed inside it. However, these words were not seen in the filtered-out written Malayalam language of Travancore.

The next point that comes to my mind is that there is absolutely no mention of the fact that the language of north Malabar (I do not know about south Malabar) was absolutely different. This sounds quite curious. For, even now, when Travancore people come to interior Malabar areas, they find that there are many spoken words which they do not understand. These things can be brushed off as dialect difference. However, that would simply be sidestepping the issue.

For, there is much more in common between Malayalam and Tamil than there is between Malabari and Malayalam. However, as of now, pure Malabari has vanished. Almost everywhere, the traditional Malabari language has been pushed out by Malayalam, through the daily onslaught of TV, Newspapers, Cinema, school education etc. In fact, when people speak Malabari, others seem to guess that they are uneducated low-class people.

This is a very curious turn of events. For, the language of Malayalam is seen to have been developed for the lower castes of Travancore. How this language seems to have become the language of Malayali higher cultural quality seeks many answers.

However, since I am not an expert in any scholarly academic studies, I have to confine my thoughts to what I have seen in the books mentioned before.

But then it is like the case of the dark-skinned, short-statured, a bit English-knowing, Converted Christian man coming to a household in Tellicherry and infatuating a beautiful female. The framework of a powerful church that had its tentacles all over the land, and beyond was a very powerful platform. He stood on that platform. It is a like a Gandhi standing on a stage / platform and promoting himself in newspapers. It makes even a midget look like a giant.

If all the Sanskrit words that have been inserted artificially or inadvertently into Malayalam are removed, the language of Malayalam would look quite slender. And if Tamil words are also removed from Malayalam, what would remain remains to be checked.

However, if Sanskrit and Tamil words are removed from Malabari language (the original language that must have represented the word Malayalam), it is possible that there would not be much content loss in it. But then, there are Arabic words in Malabari. If these are removed, then the original language that subsisted right from the hoary past would remain. If this language can be studied, then the location from where some of the population groups of North Malabar, i.e., the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas, north Malabar Nayars etc. might be arrived at.

There is another curious item that might be mentioned here. It is about the tribal populations of Wynad. In the year around 1982, when I visited a settler-house in Wynad, I found that the tribal females working there as domestic servants there. When seen from a native-English perspective, the profession of a domestic servant might not seem terrible. However, in the ambience of the local feudal languages, they are addressed as the Nee (lowest level you), and referred to as the Aval (lowest level she). The domestic servant has to consistently address the householder with ‘respectful’ You and He, and She. The problem is that if this oppression is not practised by the householders, the servant-maid might use the degrading words to and about them.

Image


This leads to a social climate wherein the servants are to sit on the floor and eat; Sleep on the floor; and use all the untidy parts of the household and attire.

Image

The wider issue about this kind of social pattern is that this is how the Indian officialdom sees the people. They do not like to offer a seat to the common Indian. As to the common Indian, he is innately trained to accept this kind of behaviour from his government and vernacular school classrooms. If such persons are offered a seat, they would literally be uncontrollable. That is the common understanding.

Now, coming back to the tribals of Wynad, I noticed that they had a language of their own which I could not understand. I think that language has withered away and Malayalam has replaced it. Here the issue is that Malayalam is a very feudal and personality-atrophying language, for the lower-placed persons. The government officials who were sent to ‘develop’ the tribals, invariably used the lower-indicant words of You, He, She etc. to the tribal people. This invariably led to the loss of stature among them. Their male populations literally were treated like animals by the officials.

One official of those times mentioned that they used the method of ‘hybridisation’ to improve them. He was laughing out boisterously. Here again there is a problem. The officials of the state government are not fully higher caste persons. There are many of them from the erstwhile lower caste populations who had converted into Christians. There is nothing to prove that these persons were nicer to the tribal populations, who actually were quite similar to their own ancestors (converted Christians).

There are a lot of simplistic ideas on class and class affinity. The truth is that there is no such thing. Every organised group, which speaks feudal languages, are dangerous to other un-united populations.

Image

For instance, I was told by an old Converted Christian settler in Malabar forest areas (it was by then filled with grand plantations) that in the early years of the mass migration to the Malabar forests (just after the departure of the English rule from the subcontinent), youths among them would organise in the night hours to converge on isolated tribal hamlets. They would poke their hands through the thatched walls of the huts, catch hold of the female legs and pull the females out.

The issue that these kinds of information brings out is that no political philosophy can explain these things in the light of grand ideas of socialism or revolution or class conflict. For, the settler populations were literally the same tribal kind of populations in Travancore who were improved by the London Missionary Society. However, the wider fact is that with the departure of the English rule in the subcontinent, the administration and concepts of rule of law were a mess in Malabar.

In the Madras State, the incorruptible officialdom (officer-level) collapsed and withered away into desolation. The newer officialdoms were what diffused into the English-ruled areas from the various independent kingdoms. This collapse of a grand and efficient administration led to a state of free for all. The Malabar forests were literally taken over by the Converted Christian populations from Travancore State. The newly formed Kerala administration was more or less designed by the fully corrupt to the core barbarian officialdom of Travancore kingdom. The incorruptible Malabar officialdom literally was pushed into oblivion when British-Malabar became Indian-Malabar. It was some kind of satanic alchemy at work. Gold turning into stinking dirt.

However, the converted Christian’s Church had been quite far-sighted. It had been patiently working on a very detailed manipulation of history.

They had to be ready for an eventuality wherein the forest lands had to be taken-over with impunity. For this, a few fake historical settings had to be indoctrinated in a very casual manner.

That Travancore and Malabar historically were one single geopolitical location.

That the languages of both Malabar as well as Travancore were one, and that it was Malayalam.

That the corresponding castes above the Nayar levels and those below the Nayar levels were one and the same.

It is possible that the takeover of the forest lands of Malabar could have been accomplished without the formation or creation of India. For, even before the creation of India, this occupation of forest lands was taking places in a quite manner in certain locations.

Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:52 pm, edited 6 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

23. Keralolpathi

Post posted by VED »

23 #

Now, we come to the book known as Keralolpathi. I do not know much about this other than what has been mentioned in the various books I had mentioned. Viz. Travancore State Manual, Native Life in Travancore and this book, Malabar &c.

Various claims are there that it is a fraudulent book. However, who could have taken so much trouble to write such a book which seems to mention many authentic historical items?

There is a story of Parasurama creating the land of Kerala in this book. However, it is seen mentioned elsewhere that there is no mention of this story in the ancient Hindu writings of the northern parts of the subcontinent. Then who could have conjured up such a story from thin air and for what purpose? What is the wider aim of this story?

The aim is simple. That the land mass of Kerala was one, and that Malabar and Travancore were one.

However, it might be true that a lot of local realities and traditions usually mentioned in higher caste households could have been collected and inserted into this story.

It does seem that the story has been written with serious deliberation. A lot of places have been mentioned. Only a person or groups of persons who have wide and far-reaching links to the various nook and corner of the landscape could have known about these wide-spread and not at all easy-to-travel-to locations. The only organised group which had the resource, man-power and literally acumen to accomplish this deed would be the trained members of the Converted Christian Church.

However, this would lead us to a very perilous location. For, it is said that it was Gundert, the German, who found and transcribed this book. I am not sure what this is supposed to mean. Could it be that he himself personally wrote the manuscript of this book? Or that he had the trained lower-caste Converted Christian members of the church to do the writing for him, which he dictated? If he had done either of this, then it is possible that the original palm-leaf book could have been in the possession of the Church at Tellicherry. If the original is with the Church, then it would be a good idea to make a thorough study of the same.

If there is no original, then it could mean that the book is the handiwork of the members of the mentioned Church. They, in their desperation, would literally do anything to escape from the hell on earth in which they were living in Travancore, till the advent of the evangelists from England.

Image

Image

I have a pdf copy of two books purported to have been written in manuscript by Gundert (archive.org). I do not know why they are in the manuscript form. For, they must have been printed.

One of the books is the Keralolpathi. The other is a book titled ഒരആയിരം പഴഞ്ചൊൽ (A thousand proverbs). I have noticed that at least some of the proverbs found in Malabar by William Logan have been taken from this book. See the Chapter on Proverbs.

On a casual observation, I find that the hand writing of Gundert in the two books seem different from each other. Whether this has any significant meaning I do not know.

There are a lot of unmentioned problems with regard to Keralolpathi. It is kind of promoting a ‘Kerala’. Even though a word ‘Kerala’ is a mentioned in some historical records, there is no scope to believe that it included the whole of current-day Kerala.

Image

There is no way to know if the word ‘Kerala’ has been used in various period of history to denote absolutely different and unconnected geographical locations in South Asia.

As to finding out the historical existence of Kerala from various other places all around the world, there is an item of silliness in it. It is, as I had mentioned earlier, like trying to prove the existence of England by studying the various inscriptions, rock-pillar writings, maritime writings etc. The height of absurdity is that in spite of all this striving to find the ‘Kerala’ word recorded elsewhere, there seems to be no such record anywhere in the location that claims to be Kerala. Even in the various stone-inscriptions in stone mentioned in Travancore State Manual, there seems to be no mention of a ‘Kerala’ which extended from Trivandrum to Manjeshwar.

However, in Keralolpathi, the word ‘Kerala’ seems to have been used an umpteen times. The stories of the kings and kingdoms of the various locations, I think are splattered with little regard for any chronological order or historical logic. Whatever had been heard must have been inserted. All to prove that there was a single country called Kerala.

A lot of credibility has been inserted into the book, by mentioning the Brahmin supremacy in a very contorted manner. However, I think, the history of the location does not give much mention of them. It simply moves into the location of various kings. It might be true that the writers of this book had taken pain to collect as much traditional information as possible from various sources. There must have been very concerted efforts in this regard with at least a small group of persons participating in the endeavour.

There are a number of things that could be gathered from Keralolpathi. One is that a lot of gramams of Malabar, Cochin and Travancore are mentioned. It is obvious that some of the place names have been written from inaccurate hearing. For, the names cannot be made to correspond with any known location. Moreover, even though there might have been some attempt to arrange the names in a north to south manner, the writers obviously did not have enough knowledge about the exact geographical continuity of the locations.

There is a mention of an Anakundi Krishna Rayar. As per this book, Malabar, this name is mentioned in an absolutely wrong historical period.

Keralolpathi is seen mentioned as being written in modern Malayalam. This is a very curious bit of information. The so-called modern Malayalam was then in a evolving form in the hands of the Christian converts of Travancore. Such a thing was not there in Malabar.

However, see this QUOTE: The Kerala Brahmans are said to use Malayalam. END OF QUOTE.

Where did this ‘Kerala’ come from? And what language is this ‘Malayalam’ referring to? The traditional language of Malabar or the newly designed language of Central Travancore?

Mahamakham festival in Tirunavaya Temple is mentioned. However, it is a very well-known function. However, it is seen mentioned that Parasurama had performed the Hiranyagarbham and Tulapurushadanam ceremonies before he celebrated the Mahamakham.

There are various locations in the book Malabar, wherein even when seeming to question the veracity of Keralolpathi, it takes points from it to emphasise the point that there was indeed a country called Kerala which occupied the geopolitical location from north to south.

Image

There is also a continuing jarring note in certain words like: ‘country inhabited by the Malayalam-speaking race of Dravidians’ which is sort of emphasised by this book Malabar in the locations wherein it is very clear that the writings are not the original writings of Logan, or are doctored version of the same. For, the word Malayalam-speaking is mischievous. Travancore was Tamil-speaking area. However, if it was ‘Malayalam’, the original name of Malabari that is being mentioned, then the Travancore part does not come into the picture at all.

There are locations where in Chera or Cheram or Keram are tried to be from the same source. And then the Keram is connected to coconut tree. It is some kind verbal jumbling. The very clear connection of the word Chera has been mentioned earlier. It is an unmentionable connection.

There is a mention of a king called Keralan. And then there is a still more fabulous claim. QUOTE: on account of his good qualities, it is said, the land received the name of Kerala. END OF QUOTE

It does seem that Keralolpathi did influence the thinking pattern of all the people who came to know of it after Gundert made it famous. The three different geopolitical locations, Malabar, Cochin and Travancore seemed to be emerging from a single focal point. For, the natural question and assertion would be, “isn’t it what Keralolpathi says?” This tone is there in many locations in the book, Malabar.

It was one of the greatest kinds of deceptions made possible in the three minuscule geographical locations. Knowledge of this book might have seemed the singular essence of profundity and scholarship. It is clear that the object of the writers had been accomplished.

As to the claim that the land received the name Kerala, it is just fanciful writing. There was no consciousness of a Kerala, in any of the locations, unless this idea was inserted into the mind via education and indoctrination.

The tradition of one Perumal king converting into Islam is there in Keralolpathi. What does it prove? It simply proves that the writers copied the information from the local traditions that must have remained in the upper class households in Malabar.

In one location, there is this QUOTE: This Muhammadan Perumal must have lived subsequently to the seventh century A.D. when the Muhammadan religion was founded, and if, as the text says, Cheraman Perumal was the fifth of his successors, it follows that Cheraman Perumal must have lived after the seventh century A.D., whereas further on it will be seen, the text says, he went to heaven in the fourth or fifth century A.D. All the specific dates mentioned in the text are worthless. END OF QUOTE.

And again, QUOTE: Considering that Muhammad himself was born only in the 7th century A.D., the date mentioned is obviously incorrect, if, as stated, this Perumal organised the country against the Mappillas. END OF QUOTE.

Now does this above assertion stand to uproot the Keralolpathi? No, it simply tries to avoid the pitfalls of the book. By keeping this distance, the fraudulent book can still be made mentioned in a manner that the idea of a single Kerala can still be promoted into the mind of the readers. And through them to the immensity of people.

It is a known thing that even a very brief mention can promote a book, an idea and a person. There is no need to categorically praise a book, an idea or a person in very candid terms. A mere mention at an appropriate location will add to its grandeur.

Look at these QUOTEs: 1. The Brahmans, it is said, next sent for Valabhan Perumal “from the eastern country” and made him king of Kerala. He is said to have consecrated gods and built a fort on the banks of the Neytara river (Valarpattanam river). The fort received the name of Valarbhattu Kotta, and he appointed this as the hereditary residence of the future kings of Kerala.

2. Kerala, it will be noted, had now, according to the text, the restricted meaning of the territory lying between the Perumpula river and Putuppatlanam, that is, the dominion of the Northern Kolatiiris, North Malabar in fact. END OF QUOTEs

The second quote above declares the ‘Kerala’ as being confined to north Malabar. Second point is that, the whole textual description is like reading the doings of the ‘great freedom fighters’ of ‘India’ in the nonsensical pages of the Wikipedia India pages. Every one of them seems to be more or less doing things on which the whole nation seems to be hinging. However, the fact remains that not even a miniscule percentage of the people/s of the subcontinent were aware of their doings or had ratified or given them the due authorisation to represent them anywhere.

In the same way, when this great book is mentioning these great semi-barbarian kings, the fact that goes unmentioned is that there were many other locations which were populated by populations which had nothing to do with them. No mention seems to be there in Keralolpathi about the entry of the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas in north Malabar, the Makkathaya Thiyyas in south Malabar, the reason for them having the same name, the reason why the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas had a disdain for another population bearing their same caste name.

There is no mention about why two different sects of Nayars appeared, one in north Malabar and one in south Malabar. Why there was a repulsion for the south Malabar Nayars among the north Malabar Nayars. There is no mention as to why the Travancore side had a Tamil heritage. There is no mention of the various Shamanistic spiritual worship systems in the north Malabar region. There is no mention of similar shamanistic spiritual worships elsewhere in the subcontinent. There is no mention of the existence of a separate language in north Malabar, quite different from the Tamil traditions and modern Malayalam.

There is no way to understand why the Travancore people had a darker skin complexion, while the northern people/s including many lower castes had a fairer complexion.

Image

As to proving that there was a landmass in the location of current-day Kerala, from times immemorial, there is no need for any such historical studies for that. It is most probable that the at least the north Malabar location had existed from very long past. The oft mentioned history of sea-moving-out and land-forming, could be more about Travancore coastal areas, than about north Malabar.

South Malabar could be of either geological histories. However, I do not have the information to mention anything categorically about these things.

As to Onam and Vishu etc., no mention about them seems to be quoted from Keralolpathi about them in this book Malabar. I do not know more about this.

QUOTE: It is a noteworthy circumstance in this connection that even now-a-days the Travancore Maharajas on receiving the sword at their coronations have still to declare;—“I will keep this sword until the uncle who has gone to Mecca returns.” END OF QUOTE.

It is quite funny that the above claim in this book Malabar has been denied by Nagam Aiya in his book Travancore State Manual:

QUOTE: This statement, founded as it is on Mateer’s Native life in Travancore, is clearly incorrect. The Travancore Maharajahs have never made any such declaration at their coronations, when they received the sword of State from God Sri Padmanabha. The Valia Koil Tampuran (M. R. Ry. Kerala Varma Avl., C. S. I). writing to His Highness the present Maharajah some years ago received the following reply dated 10th April 1891: — “I do not know where Mr. Logan got this information; but no such declaration as mentioned in the Malabar Manual was made by me when I received the State Sword at Sri Padmanabha Swamy’s Pagoda. I have not heard of any such declaration having been made by former Maharajahs.” END OF QUOTE.

Then there is the issue of a Perumal king converting to Islam. It is given in this book, as understood from Keralolpathi, with very powerful supporting evidences. It is quite possible the persons who had compiled the Keralolpathi did collect a lot of local traditions in the upper class households of Malabar. However, there were other sides to the story which they did not hear:

I quote from Travancore State Manual:

QUOTE: Mr. K. P. Padmanabha Menon in a recent article in the Malabar Quarterly Review, denies the statement that the last of the Cheraman Perumals became a convert to Islam or undertook a pilgrimage to Mecca, but believes that he lived and died a devout Hindu. The legend is evidently the result of the mixing up of the early Buddhistic conversion of Bana, one of the Perumals, and of the much later Mahomedan conversion of one of the Zamorin Rajahs of Calicut, who claimed to have derived his authority from the last Perumal. The Hindu account simply states that Cheraman Perumal after the distribution of the Empire among his friends, vassals and dependants, went to Mecca on a pilgrimage and died there a Mahomedan saint.

The Mahomedan account embodied in the Keralolpatti narrates that after the distribution of his kingdom, the Perumal secretly embarked on board a Moorish vessel from Cranganore, and cleverly eluding his pursuers landed at Sahar Mukhal in the Arabian coast, that he had an interview with the Prophet then in his 57th year, and was ordained by him under the name of Thia-uj-uddien — ‘the crown of the faith’, that he married Regiat the sister of the Arabian king and after having lived happily for five years, undertook a journey to Malabar for the spread of Islam, but died of ague at Sahar Mukhal where his remains were interred in a mosque he had himself erected.
END OF QUOTE.

However, in Travancore State Manual, there is more about this:

QUOTE: Sheikh Zinuddin, the author of the Tahafat-ul-Mujahidin, says that there is but little truth in the account of the Perumal’s conversion to Islam. The Arab merchant, Suliman (851 A.D), ‘who wrote with knowledge as he evidently visited the countries he wrote about’, says expressly that in Malabar he did not know any one of either nation (Chinese or Indian) that had embraced Mahomadanism or spoken Arabic.

None of the early travellers or geographers whether Mahomadan, Christian or Jew have left us any record of the legend. Abdur Kazzak who was sent in 1442 A.D. by the Shah of Persia failed in his mission of converting the Zamorin. He too does not mention the legend at all.
END OF QUOTE

QUOTE: The Muhammadan was called Ali Raja, that is, lord of the deep, or of the sea. END OF QUOTE.

The above quote seems to contain a terrific error. It sure seems that the information was taken from a European / English version of events and inserted into the Keralolpathi. The word Ali is a Muslim name. However, does it mean the ‘sea’ or ‘deep’ or ‘ocean’?

The original Arabic meaning of Ali is seen mentioned as ‘high’ or ‘exalted’. How then did this ‘sea’ and ‘ocean’ and ‘deep’ come into the picture to an extent that even the persons who very fraudulently writing the Keralolpathi fell for this wrong meaning?

There is transliteration error seen all over this book. The verbal sound ‘zha’ ‘ഴ’ cannot be written in English. Even the ‘zha’ cannot mention this sound. So, wherever this sound comes, it is seen that ‘l’ is used. In the case of the above Ali word, the actual word might be Aazhi (ആഴി) if one has to accept the meaning as ‘lord of the deep, or of the sea’. Aazhi (ആഴി) does mean sea, deep sea, ocean etc. Since I have not read the Keralolpathi, I cannot say what the exact name is that is given in that book. However, if the word is Aazhi, then it might mean that the writers of Keralolpathi depended on some English or European text.

If one presumes that one can check up with Arakkal kings of Cannanore (Ali rajas), the fact is that usually no family member really knows anything about their ancestors other than after the English administration arrived and started keeping written records. In my own parental families, paternal as well as maternal, there is no information among the current generation about who their ancestors were beyond their great grand families. (It has to be mentioned here that the Arakkal kings were not the rulers of the whole extent of Cannanore district. They held power only in small segment of the Cannanore town. Actually at best they were small feudal lords, who somehow got authority over certain Laccadive Islands. As to the word Raja etc., the fact is that everyone who gets some authority immediately takes up some form of royal title. It is a very effective tool for spreading a feel of dominance over the populace.)

I have even enquired with a certain Nayar family who has a family run temple, which conducts an annual shamanistic festival (Thira and Vellattam). The current-day members of the family have no information about the ancestors who had conducted the temple festivals. There are various complications which more or less makes everything quite hazy.

Image

This ഴ, ഴി being written as ‘la’ and ‘li’ is there almost all over this book, Malabar. This more or less puts all ‘la’ and ‘li’ words suspect. Even the Kolathiri, could very well be Kozhathiri (കോഴത്തിരി). There is the instance of Ezhimala being named as Mount Deli. And there is a discussion in this book with connecting the name of the place to rats. ‘Eli’ means ‘rat’ in Malabari.

See this QUOTE: which the people of the country in their language call the Mountain Delielly, and they call it of the rat, and they call it Mount Dely, because in this mountain them were so many rats that they never could make a village there.” END OF QUOTE.

And then there is this QUOTE: like that which conferred on it likewise the sounding title of sapta-shaila or seven hills, because elu means in Malayalam seven, and elu mala means the seven hills, of which sapta-shaila is the Sanskrit equivalent. END OF QUOTE.

The local word for Seven is Ezhu, and the Tamil word is Elu. The reader can make his or her own understandings of the above ambivalent information.

QUOTE: So the expedition was organised and despatched under the Puntura youths. It is unnecessary to relate the events of the campaign, as they are all more or less of a mythical character and include the mention of the use of fire-arms and cartridges ! ! END OF QUOTE.

It does seem that the persons who wrote the fake history in the Keralolpathi had no information on when fire-arms and cartridges had come to the subcontinent.

QUOTE: This account of Samkaracharyar, which makes him a contemporary of the last of the Purumals, is interesting, because, as a matter of fact, the tradition on the point is probably correct. END OF QUOTE.

It could point to the fact that the writers did get certain things in sync with other historical beliefs.

QUOTE: it is probably an interpolation to suit subsequently existing facts END OF QUOTE. This is actually a very pertinent point. That a fake history book that purports to know ancient history was written by very cunningly drafting the event to arrive at certain later day actualities so as to make the writing seem authentic.

See the effect of this book. See this QUOTE: It cannot be doubted that the first half of the ninth century A.D, was an important epoch in the history of Malabar and of the Malayalis. END OF QUOTE

Even when the book is mentioned as of a dubious nature, it has been able to very quaintly insert the idea of a Malayali population. The word Malabar also is of very confusing content. There is a general tendency to extend the boundaries of Malabar to include Travancore. The cunningness of this idea is then to go back and make Malabar a part of Travancore. The reality that the location of Malabar (north Malabar and south Malabar) was not populated by Malayalis (Travancore people), but by different populations which are connected to each other by various kinds of antipathies, subservience or respect, is not mentioned.

Image

QUOTE: The chief event was the termination of the reign of the last of the Kerala or Chera Perumals or Emperors END OF QUOTE. There is a very definite misuse of the word ‘Emperor’.

Actually the use of the word ‘Emperor’ with regard to many kings of the subcontinent is a misuse of the word. There seems to be not even one king who deserves to be mentioned as an Emperor. Simply overrunning and then handing over the power over the people in many locations to their henchmen is not the quality of an entity that can be called an Emperor.

Image

There are many things a king can do. Like setting up a great administrative set up based on public service exams. A police system with written parameters of authority. A judicial system based on written codes of law. A public healthcare system for the common man. A basic educational system for the common children. A department of roads. A postal system which can be utilised by the common man. Like that there are so many things a monarchy can build. None of the kings in the subcontinent seems to have had any sense about these things. All they had was the terrible duty to enforce the hierarchies. Well, that is true. The languages enforce the hierarchies.

How does one compare a native king of the subcontinent with a monarch of England? Well, there it is not the capacity of the monarch, that really runs the systems. The language is so smooth that all systems run smoothly. Over here, the moment anyone speaks, various kinds of terrors, anxieties, reflexes, urge to backstab etc. get provoked.

When this is the condition of the kings in the subcontinent, what can one say about the Emperors? That they are worse than kings?

It is curious that the monarch of England who literally ruled a global empire was only a Queen of England. However, when her name got associated with the subcontinent, nothing less than the title of an Empress would do. That was the training the subcontinent gave to the native-Englishmen. That a mere ‘Queen’ will not do. There should be an Empress. Otherwise no one would listen to her.

This brings us to another most interesting thing about the history of location here. It is seen that persons who came to acquire some royal power immediately changed their name to some Varma or Veera or something similar. So, it does seem that the title Varma is not actually a hereditary title in many cases, but simply a title artificially adopted by the person to add to his right to rule some small location.

QUOTE: The Brahmans are notoriously careless of history and of the lessons which it teaches. Their lives are bound hard and fast by rigid chains of customs. The long line of Chera kings, dating back to the “Son of Kerala”, mentioned in the third century B.C., in King Asoka’s rock-out inscriptions, had for them no interest and no instruction ; and it is not to be wondered, at that the mention of them finds in the Keralolpatti no place. END OF QUOTE.

The above is a quote with more than one concern. Even though the Keralolpathi has been mentioned somewhere in book as promoting Brahmans, the truth seems to be elsewhere. There is no promotion of Brahmins seen other than in the very beginning of the fake history. The whole history is a silly listing of various rulers, who had nothing to do other than to ‘rule’. This is what I gather from the other books which I have mentioned and from this book, Malabar.

The next point is the use of the words ‘Son of Kerala’. It has been mentioned in another location in this book that the transliteration of the word found in the Ashoka edict is Ketalaputra and not Keralaputra. It is curious that the word Chera’s real meaning ‘rat snake’ is not detected by the writers of this book. But in the case of Ketalaputra, they can detect a ‘Kerala’ inside it.

The reason why Keralolpathi moves into a location where no Brahmins are mentioned could be due to the fact that the writers did not have any information about the Brahmin traditions. After all, the Brahmin caste was quite high for the lower-caste converted Christians, who presumably did the writing.

QUOTE: What is substituted for the real history of this period in these traditions is a farrago of legendary nonsense, having for definite aim the securing to the Brahman caste of unbounded power and influence in the country. END OF QUOTE.

Here again, there is an ambivalent stance. For here the statement is contrary to what has been said before. Here the contention is that Keralolpathi was written with the aim of securing unbounded power and influence for the Brahman caste. There is no hint that the book could have been a totally different invention with a totally different aim.

QUOTE: Parashurama is not found in Vedic literature, and the earliest mention of his character is found in the Mahabharata but with different names. There he is represented as an accomplished warrior-Brahmin, a sage and teacher of martial arts, but there is no mention of him being an avatar of Vishnu. He evolves into an avatar in the Puranas. According to Adalbert Gail, the word Parasurama is also missing in the Indian epics and Kalidasa's works, and appears for the first time in Indian literature around 500 CE. Before then, he is known by other names such as Rama Jamadagnya END OF QUOTE.

No comments.

It is seen that this book was in great demand in the years around 1950. What could be the reason for that?

This is the book that must have been heavily used by the Converted Christian Church to force the creation of Kerala by amalgamating the Malabar District of Madras State with the Travancore-Cochin State.

Why should they do that? The reason is quite simple. The forest lands of the Malabar District of the Madras State had been encroached by the hordes of Converted Christian Settlers from the neighbouring state. It is only a matter of little time before the Madras government would take stringent action for their removal. It was a matter of life and death for these settlers that a new state is formed in which they had greater political say. Once this new state is formed, there is no issue of an encroachment from another state.

QUOTE: The Mahratta account states that Parasu Raman turned the Boyijati (fisherman caste) into Brahmans in order to people Keralam. END OF QUOTE

The Mahratta accounts and such other accounts traditional elsewhere seem to corroborate some of the things in the Keralolpathi. However the above contention is mentioned as not seen in Keralolpathi. Apart from that, the fact that many traditions of elsewhere do corroborate what is there in Keralolpathi does not prove its authenticity. It simply would prove that the writers of Keralolpathi were depending on various contemporary traditions and stories.

The contention that the Brahmins of Malabar and Travancore are the fishermen folks of elsewhere is a contention that cannot be acceptable to many. For, in which case, many peoples in Malabar and Travancore go under the fishermen folks!

QUOTE: They summoned him unnecessarily and he cursed them and “condemned them to lose the power of assembling together in council, and to become servile. They accordingly mingle with Sudra females and became a degraded race.” END OF QUOTE.

Image

I am not going to pick anything out of this tradition, with regard to Brahmins or Sudras. However, the contention of becoming a degraded race by mixing with Sudra families is a very vital point about certain other things. It is related to the social and human design that language codes can arrange. A wrong connection or being placed in a wrong location in a link, would create havoc, if the language is feudal. This is an idea that no one seems in a hurry to deal with. The native-English populations have no information about this.

As to the feudal language speakers, they are aware of this issue in at least a vague manner. But no one is happy to mention this. For everyone are part and parcel of these evil codes. There is no escape visible in sight.

QUOTE: this, it is said, “the men of the port began to make voyages to Mecca in ships, and Calicut became the most famous (port) in the world for its extensive commerce, wealth, country, town, and king.” END OF QUOTE.

This is mentioned in the Keralolpathi with regard to the honesty of the king of Calicut. It is a most insipid statement. There is honesty in many locations in the subcontinent. Many things design it. One is the general attitude of a person not to cheat, whatever be the outcome. That is not very much possible to adopt if the honesty can lead a person to penury. For, along with penury, come the lower indicant verbal code definitions on the person.

However, the king of Calicut has no such concern.

Generally in a feudal language system, people are generally very honest to those who they treat as superior and respected. To those whom they do not feel this emotion, they are dishonest and they do cheat and go back on their word.

Beyond this, there is the general ‘frog-in-the-well’ tone in this claim. That ‘Calicut became the most famous (port) in the world for its extensive commerce, wealth, country, town, and king’.

A small king more or less a dependant on the Arabic seafaring populations. What kind of fame did this port have that the Continental Europeans and the English traders had to search hard to find it? They came not for its fame, but due to the fact that this was where pepper could be bought from. Pepper was an important food ingredient in England and Europe. For, it is the best preservative for keeping meat in an unspoiled condition during the winter months.

The adjective of ‘most famous’ is in sync with the words of Al Biruni, quoted in the beginning of this book.

Now, there a few brief queries in my mind. From where did Gundert get Keralolpathi from? Is the copy with the Church or with anyone else? If so, can the date of its creation be found out using scientific methods?

Then about the language of Keralolpathi. Is it the Malabari language (the original Malayalam) or is it in a language that was developed by the Christian evangelists in Central Travancore?

Then again about who actually did the writing? Was it written directly by Gundert himself, or did he get some scribe to do it?

What about the book of proverbs in Malayalam? Did he write it himself or did he use some scribes? Both the books do not seem to be written by the same person, even though the author names are given as Gundert.

Or could it be that the manuscript copies (in PDF) which I downloaded from archive.org are later day copies?


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:53 pm, edited 5 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

24. About the language Malayalam

Post posted by VED »

24 #

See this QUOTE: The name by which the district is known to Europeans is not in general use in the district itself, except among foreigners and English-speaking’ natives. The ordinary name is Malayalam, or, in its shorter form, Malayam (the hill country). END OF QUOTE

As per this statement, the name Malabar was not known to the natives of the land. It is similar to the word ‘India’. There is nothing to suggest that the word ‘India’ was known to the natives of the subcontinent.

The words ‘Malayalam’ and ‘Malayam’ are mentioned as the name known to the people of Malabar about their own land.

The question then comes about Travancore and Cochin. Cochin being a small location does not matter much. However, what about Travancore? There might be some confusion about in the minds of the traders from afar about these locations. For, pepper could be procured from all the three locations. However, in the case of Malabar, there were two prominent locations. One was Cannanore in north Malabar, and Calicut in south Malabar.

But then the whole of the coastal areas that included north Malabar, south Malabar, Cochin and Travancore, there were a number of small ports from where pepper could be procured. If the nationality of a location can be fixed by the availability of pepper, then all these locations are quite easily mentioned as one and the same, from afar.

However, this is not way to fix a nationality. And seafaring traders’ opinion is not what creates a nation.

Now, look at this QUOTE: ....Malayalam uses in these and all similar cases the verbal participle adichu, having beaten, with the prefixed pronouns I, thou, he, etc. (e.g., nyan adichu, I beat ; ni adichu, thou didst beat ; avan adichu he beat). END OF QUOTE

From a very casual perspective, nothing amiss would be noticed in the above statement. But then, there are actually a few errors in what the statement purports to state. In fact, the statement points in a wrong direction. And the very attempt to connect the hidden verbal codes into the planar language English is also of very questionable efficiency. In this regard, it might be mentioned that the writer of the statement is actually groping in the dark.

The first error is that the word adichu is not the word of have beaten or did beat in the native language of Malabar. It is true that in those contemporary periods, the language of Malabar was known as Malayalam. In that Malayalam, the word for have beaten or did beat might be thachu / thach . This is a claim which I cannot confirm with regard to the whole areas of north Malabar or of south Malabar.

Next is the word: thou. Actually there is no equivalent of thou in either newly-created Malayalam or Malabari (earlier name: Malayalam). This claim is a huge content to explain. I can mention it simply here that the word thou does not affect other words like he, him, his, she, her, hers etc. In this sense, it is a sort of standalone word. Any word form in feudal languages, if mentioned as equal to thou will look erroneous in that the change of indicant levels for ‘You’ will affect all other indicant word forms and much more.

There are other unmentioned items.
Like Avan അവൻ (he) in newly-created Malayalam is Oan ഓൻ in Malabari.
Aval അവൾ (she) in newly-created Malayalam is Olu ഓള് in Malabari.
Njangal ഞങ്ങൾ (we) in newly-created Malayalam is Njaalu ഞാള് in Malabari.
Avattakal അവറ്റകൾ (They) in newly-created Malayalam is Ittingal ഐറ്റിങ്ങൾ in Malabari.

Image

It is true that some kind of similarity can be found in the words. However, since the Malabari language seems to have been more traditional, how come a newly-created language can claim to be more right and correct? But then, there is the other side also. That the newly-created language of Malayalam did absorb words from Tamil. In fact, all these words mentioned in the newly created Malayalam are from Tamil.

Here the incredible bit of information is that the lowest castes of Travancore become the repositories and propagators of the newly-created Malayalam, which obviously is much more refined than the traditional language of Malabar.

In all the books, which I have mentioned, including Travancore State Manual, Native Life in Travancore, Malabar (this book) &c. there is no mention of how this creation of a new language was accomplished. It remains a fact that the lower castes who converted into Christianity did possess the newly created Malayalam.

And it remained their dedicated purpose to promote and propagate this language into Malabar. It gave rise to a very curious social mood. The traditional Malabari speakers of Malabar slowly were made to understand that they were an un-educated low-quality population group. While the people of Travancore were much developed because they spoke the ‘educated-version of Malayalam’. The people of Malabar were understood to speak the ‘uneducated version of Malayalam’.

The Malabari language of Malabar was quite rude and crude, especially to those positioned lower. In Malabari, there was a tendency that I had noticed in around 1970s. It was that any youngsters of any age would invariably be addressed as an Inhi ഇഞ്ഞി (lowest you in Malabari), and referred to as Oan ഓൻ (lowest he/him) or Oalu ഓള് (lowest she / her), even if the person is a stranger or unknown person.

It may be due to the influence of the English evangelists who might have helped develop the newly-created Malayalam, that this kind of crudeness was not there in the newly created Malayalam. The more acceptable Ningal നിങ്ങൾ (middle-level You) and Ayaal അയാൾ (middle level he/she) was more in usage in Malayalam.

However, at the higher levels of communication, Malabari had comfortable word. That of Ningal നിങ്ങൾ or Ingal ഇങ്ങൾ (there is a slight code difference between them). There is no other higher word in Malabari. However, in the newly-created Malayalam, the Ningal നിങ്ങൾ word is highly objectionable, if used to a senior person.

I will leave all this now. For it is leading to another location. Readers interested in this subject can pursue it in my writing : An Impressionistic History of South Asian Subcontinent.

In this book, Malabar, there is a general tendency to impose the language name Malayalam and the population name Malayali. However the urge behind this endeavour is connected to the vested interests of the groups I had mentioned earlier.

QUOTE: Kollam .—This is the Northern Quilon, as distinguished from Quilon proper in Travancore, which is styled Southern Kollam by Malayalis. END OF QUOTE.

What is this ‘Malayalis’? People of Travancore or the people of Malabar? Both did not have much information on the other, other than those who had official powers and travelled here and there beyond the boundaries of the locations.

QUOTE: The Hindu Malayali is not a lover of towns and villages. END OF QUOTE

Here again, the word Malayali is a very cunning insertion. The actual people mentioned in the context is mainly Nayars of Malabar and to some extent the Brahmins and such. However, using this word can again enforce the idea of a Malayali population that existed in Malabar, Cochin and Travancore, in a time when Malabar was part of another country. In fact, in Travancore State Manual, people who came from the Madras Presidency areas are mentioned as from ‘foreign country’.

See the character of this Malayali: QUOTE: His austere habits of caste purity and impurity made him in former days flee from places where pollution in the shape of men and women of low caste met him at every corner ; and even now the feeling is strong upon him and he loves not to dwell in cities. END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE: The chief difference between them, and indeed between Malayalam and all the other Dravidian tongues, lies in the absence in Malayalam of the personal terminations of the verbs. END OF QUOTE.

It is more or less obvious that the Malayalam that is mentioned in this book ‘Malabar’ is not the language of Malabar, but the language of the Converted Christian populations who were slowly entering into the Malabar location. They would have created a feeling that they were creating education by setting up vernacular schools wherein this new language was taught. This would give an enormous boost to their social image. For, they would exist as the ‘educated’ persons in a land filled with persons who did not know their own language.

QUOTE: both—a condition nearly resembling the Mongolian, the Manchu, and the other rude primitive tongue of High Asia. END OF QUOTE.

Could this statement be about Malabari? Or is it a reference of the general rudeness in almost all the established languages of the subcontinent?

QUOTE: it being admitted that verbs in all Dravidian languages were originally uninflected—is derived from ancient poetry and ancient inscriptions, and these did not necessarily correspond with the spoken language. END OF QUOTE

This statement is a very fabulous information about the language of the subcontinent. The poetry and the film songs are of wonderful content and beauty. However, there is no such beauty or content in everyday spoken language.

This is a grand issue. I have discussed this in my book An Impressionistic History of South Asian Subcontinent Part 1 – Chapter 83. The mystical beauty in feudal languages

I will give a very brief idea about this. The everyday spoken language is feudal and degrading to the lower positioned persons. The words do have a jarring effect as they rub on a human being’s psyche to intimidate and crush him down to a midget personality.

However, in poetry, the words are in a filtered form. The presence of the varying indicant word codes does give a lot of words to create a 3-dimensional virtual-world effect in the human mind. Such an effect cannot be created easily by planar-coded English words.

Beyond this the very presence of higher indicant words can induce a sort of Brahmanical effect. That of inducing a kind of divine aura on emotions, words, feelings, persons, and incidences. Actually, a very studied mixing up of the varying levels of indicant words can create an effect that cannot be contemplated in pristine-English.

QUOTE: The most probable view is that the Vedic Brahman immigration into Malabar put a stop to the development of Malayalam as a language just at the time when the literary activity of the Jains in the Tamil country was commencing. END of NOTEs.

Image

This could be some kind of nonsensical contention to confuse the issues. That there was no Malayalam of Travancore (current-day Malayalam) in existence in the ancient world. What existed then in Malabar could be the Malabari languages (which is seen to have been actually called Malayalam in those days. The ancient language of Malabar was the real Malayalam). In Travancore, the traditional language is seen mentioned as Tamil.

QUOTE: It was no less than a revolution when in the seventeenth century one Tunjatta Eluttachchan, a man of the Sudra (Nayar) caste, boldly made an alphabet—the existing Malayalam one—-derived chiefly from the Grantha— END OF QUOTE

This is a location I have no information about. However, could Ezhuthchachan be from Malabar? Could he have simply picked up the script from what was already there in Malabar? But then there is the issue of how he came to be well-versed in the newly-created language of Malayalam of Central Travancore. Or could he have contributed to the commencement of this language by importing certain contents of Malabari languages, and mixed it with Sanskrit and Tamil I do not have specific arguments with regard to all this, other than the fact the there was a language in Malabar, which seems to have escaped the attention of almost all writers who had some connection to the Christian Church. If the Nayar officials of Malabar also missed mentioning it, it might that they also felt the local language of lower castes was some kind of barbarian tongue, while the language promoted by the converted Christians was a more noble one. For, the newly created Malayalam simply brims with Sanskrit words, if used for poetic and other literary compositions.

As to studying about Ezhuthachchan from writings in Wikipedia and such other sources is simply a waste of time, if deeper contents are aimed for. For, all these kind of ‘scholarly’ writing have the tone mentioned by Al Biruni. That, the protagonist is a superhuman.

The next point in the above-quote to be noted is the rabid caste claim. It more or less lends credence to the idea that the Nayar writers who must have written many of the text parts in this book were actually not seeing a nation-state, but a mix of populations, each one of which had its own claims and repulsions.

QUOTE: Mr. F. W. Ellis : "The language of Malayalam poetry is in fact a mixture of Sanskrit, generally pure, with Sen and Kodun Tamil ; END OF QUOTE.

I think this quote actually is relevant only about the newly created language of Malayalam. It might be totally wrong when it is mentioned about Malabari (the original language of Malabar).

QUOTE: This remark, however, applies more to Keralam proper than to Mushikam or Travancore END OF QUOTE.

I do not know what to make of the above statement. In an age when the conceptualisation of a land called Kerala is basically the vested interest of people from Travancore, what is this ‘Keralam proper’, and how come Mushikam and Travancore are not inside it? The writings inside this book seems to go into different directions, depending on who wrote the specific text. Maybe Logan did not get time to go through the immense pages of manuscripts and correct the incongruities.

QUOTE: Mr. Ellis: “There exists in Malayalam, as far as my information extends, no work or language, no grammar, no dictionary, commentaries on the Sanskrit Amarakosha excepted. The principal work in prose is the Keralutpati, which is also said to be translated from the Sanskrit, though the original is now nowhere to be found.”
NOTEs: This was written some time before 1819, the year in which Mr. Ellis died. These complaints exist no longer, thanks to the research of Dr. Gundert.
END of NOTEs.

It seems that the Sanskrit original of Keralolpathi is available. If so, it might be interesting to know more about its antiquity. For, Parasurama’s creation of Kerala is mentioned elsewhere as not mentioned in the Sanskrit works of the northern parts of the peninsula.

QUOTE: Dr. Burnell styles the Vatteluttu “the original Tamil alphabet which was once used in all that part of the peninsula south of Tanjore, and also in South Malabar and Travancore.”
The Vattelultu alphabet “remained in use” in Malabar, Dr. Burnell wrote, “up to the end of the seventeenth century among the Hindus,
END OF QUOTE.

The above again is quite an interesting observation. In that, South Malabar and Travancore are clubbed together as being of Tamil linguistic heritage. This seems to keep north Malabar separate.

There is another hint that might be missed. See this: “among the Hindus”. What is this supposed to mean? Who were the Hindus? Naturally the lower castes did not most probably have any writing experience or learning. The ‘Hindus’ might mean the Nayars and higher castes possibly. Then what about the others like the Syrian Christians, and Jews and Muslims of Travancore? What was their script?

QUOTE: It will be seen from the above account that there is but little of interest or of importance in Malayalam literature, and the scholars who have of late years studied the language have been attracted to it rather by the philological interest attached to it than by anything else. END OF QUOTE.

The quote is ostensibly about the newly-created language of Malayalam. And not about the Malabari. But then, it is a quite a curious assertion. For, a few years back, the Malayalam lobby in the state of Kerala has very successfully claimed and acquired a Classical Language status for Malayalam. It would be most interesting to know what the great classical literary creations that could be attributed to a newly created language, were.

Or it be that Malayalam would try to simply jump upon the ancient heritage of Malabari to assert its claims to Classical Status. For, it is very much possible that Malabari had a history dating far back, at least, to the times when the Shamanistic spiritual worship systems arrived in north Malabar.

QUOTE: There is hardly a page in this present work which in one way or other does not derive authority or enlightenment from Dr. Gundert’s labours and scholarship. END OF QUOTE.

The above-quote is quite curious. In that, it more or less substantiate the doubt that I had. That this book had been influenced by the Converted Christian interests. I have not much information on Dr. Gundert, as to how he collected the various word and verbal information about Malayalam. It is an intuitive feeling that he was very vigorously helped by the converted Christians of Travancore, who had arrived in Malabar. For staying on in Travancore after acquiring good intellectual abilities would be experiencing the heights of abomination for the lower castes. In Travancore, they cannot walk on the road. In Malabar, these very persons can hold responsible and respectable positions as heads of institutions, be teachers, be doctors, be judicial pleaders, be lawyer’s clerks, be government officials &c.

Due to this very issue, the fact that there was another language in Malabar would have been quite conveniently kept aside. Many of the Malabari words could be very casually taken into Malayalam as it went on grabbing words to become a language. Even now, the people of Travancore find that Malabari words as some kind of barbarian sounds.

However the wider fact is that each feudal language creates a very powerful web of hierarchical connections. Outsiders to these links would find an entry into it irksome and a pain. Only in planar languages like English can anyone enter at any point and link to anyone they want. In feudal languages, all links and relationships have a vector component and there are direction valves in all communication. It is like this: A particular person can speak to another man with a lot of freedom. However, the other man cannot do it back. There are codes of ‘respect’ and ‘degradation’ that decides all kinds of links and directions.

Image

QUOTE: Besides Malayalam there is one other territorial language in Malabar—Mahl to wit—the language of the Minicoy Islanders END OF QUOTE.

The above statement is a very cunning dialogue. Even now many Travancoreans when they come to interior parts of north Malabar, find it quite difficult to understand the language. As of now, there is no perfect Malabari even in north Malabar. Almost all persons know Malayalam. For, it is the language of education, newspapers, Cinemas, TV shows, and public speeches. Even this Malabari-Malayalam mixed language, the Travancoreans find it difficult to understand. If this be the case, just imagine the cunningness in simply refusing to mention the local language of the population by a group of people who had entered from outside.

QUOTE: The Jews and Syrians were by other deeds incorporated in the Malayali nation END OF QUOTE.

This ‘Malayali-nation’ mention is again a deliberate attempt at creating a confusion. It is an event not connected to North Malabar or even to South Malabar. It is simply superimposing a historical event in another country on Malabar antiquity.

QUOTE: It will be noted in the historical chapter that a more or less successful resistance, probably with Brahman aid, was made by the Malayalis against the aggressions of the Western Chalukya dynasty, END OF QUOTE.

What is the context of using the word ‘Malayalis’ here? It is like the writings in Wikipedia and elsewhere about ‘Indians’ fighting against the outsiders in the medieval ages. The simple fact there was no ‘Indians’ at the time is simply kept un-understood, in the deliberate attempt to insert an ‘India’ word across the historical ages.

A similar kind of insertion of the ‘Malayali’ word in all sort of ancient incidences is there in this book; suggesting a very concerted effort at promoting a ‘Malayali’ heritage, where there is none.

QUOTE: the idea of an exclusive personal right to hunting privileges in certain limits is entirely foreign to the Malayali customary law. END OF QUOTE.

Here again a misuse of the ‘Malayali’ word. In a land where the place is a continual attempt to keep various populations subordinated, there was presumably no such thing as a ‘Malayali customary law’. As to the Malayali, if a Malabari man is a Malayali, then the Travancore man would be something else, possibly some kind of Tamilian. If a Travancore man is a Malayali, then the Malabari man is something else. In this book, both these different individuals are being desperately clubbed together.

And as the reader can sense in the history section of this book, there was no long period of peace for any steady customary law to get practised. What could have existed is merely very local village customs of rights and privileges, which varies from place to place.

Peace is not an endurable thing in a social system which runs on feudal languages. Unless the various hierarchical levels are very clearly understood and maintained.

QUOTE: Kerala was probably stripped of its northern province by the power and influence of the Western Chalukyas, END OF QUOTE.

The use of the word ‘Kerala’ here is some kind of deliberate doctoring. I can even think that this was inserted in 1951 when the book was reprinted. For, it is quite possible that this was the book that was pushed forward to claim that the Malabar district of Madras State had to be amalgamated with the Travancore-Cochin state. May be if anyone can make an enquiry, it would be found that in all discussions on State reorganisation, this book must have been very prominently used by the Christian Church as well as the SNDP or some other Ezhava leadership. Both stood to gain when Malabar is connected with Travancore.

QUOTE: Here Keralaputra, or as sometimes transliterated Ketalaputra, refers undoubtedly to the king of ancient Chera, END OF QUOTE.

How can a word which is transliterated as something different be corrected to another word to prove something?

QUOTE: The thirty-two Tulu gramams (north of the Perumpula) were it is said, “cut off from all connection (or perhaps intermarriage)” with the thirty-two pure Malayali gramams lying to the south of that river, and a fresh distribution of the Malayali gramams themselves took place. END OF QUOTE

Why should the term Malayali gramams be used in an age when there was no Malayalam or Malayali? Could it not be a very obvious attempt at inserting historical inaccuracies?

QUOTE: Kerala, from Perumpula to Puluppalanam END OF QUOTE

Again a Kerala, before Kerala is born!

QUOTE: This Province was in the previous distribution called Kerala. END OF QUOTE.

It is quite funny. In this book itself, the writer/s had to wander into various locations in the globe to prove the existence of Kerala in the ancient days. The above are all categorical statements meant to stamp into the reader’s mind of a place called Kerala, which had to be recreated.

QUOTE: The name “Kerala" even undergo a change, and instead of meaning the whole of the land between Gokarnam and Cape Comorin it comes at this time to signify merely North Malabar, i.e., Kolattunad, the kingdom of the Northern Kolattiris. END OF QUOTE.

These are all quite funny statements. It is quite doubtful if the word ‘Kerala’ is there in any of the historical record connected to these events. Kolathunad does not mean Kerala. It means Cannanore and beyond to the north, I guess. It is a curious situation that Cannanore and thereabouts had been called Kerala. Even if at any single or more time in history, a place has been named anything does not really mean anything beyond that.

QUOTE: From thence they sail with the wind called Hippalos in forty days to the first commercial station of India named Muziris END OF QUOTE.

Here two different items have to be noticed. One is the use of the word ‘India’. The question would be this: Did Pliny (A.D. 23-79) actually use the word ‘India’? Or some other similar sounding word like ‘Inder’?

The second is the other item. That the first commercial station of ‘India’ was Muziris. These kind of writings are obviously from a very small perspective. There is actually such a tendency all over the subcontinent, even now, to mention local great things as the ‘greatest’ in Asia or ‘greatest’ in the world. After all Al Biruni had noticed this centuries ago. May this Pliny was informed via this kind of reporting.

QUOTE: In one manuscript it is written Celobotras. It is clearly intended for Keraputran or Cheraputran ~ king of Chera. END OF QUOTE

Whether there is an clarity about this not the only issue. The wider issue would be that there would be so many rulers in the location, extending all over the south-western coast. For instance, in the 1700s there were rulers in Trivandrum, Attingal, Quilon, Kayamkulam, Chengannur, Changanasherri, Kottayam (near Quilon), Cochin, Palghat, Beypore, Badagara, Kottayam (near Tellicherry), Cannanore &c. Each one of them could have ancestors with all kinds of names.

If the reader can simply ponder for a few seconds, he or she will be able to know (if it is not already known) that if a person’s parents and ancestors are counted backwards, within a matter of 300 years backwards, this person would be connected to around 20 lakh (2 Million) and more person alive then. The numbers would simply grow exponentially as one goes backwards.

The wider point here is that it would be quite difficult for a current-day person living in Kerala to connect himself or herself to any particular bloodline. For, each person would be connected to an immensity of bloodlines, extending to all parts of the world.

QUOTE: wrote the title of the Chera king as Kerobothros and stated the fact that the capital of the kingdom was at Karoura, which name has been very generally accepted as identical with that of the modern town of Karur in the Coimbatore district END OF QUOTE.

This quote messes up everything again. The mythical ‘Kerala’ is here seen as outside current-day Kerala. It is in Tamilnadu.

Image

QUOTE: Malayalis themselves call the country east of the Palghat gap the Kongunad or country of the Kongus. The Kongu language seems to have been Canarese, and not Tamil or Malayalam, END OF QUOTE.

The mischievous insertion of the word ‘Malayalis’ is again found. Beyond that, there is a sort of mention of Malayalam. Which Malayalam, is again the question. The idea here is simply to mention Malayalam. That is enough. A mere mention has its definite power in indoctrination and publicity.

QUOTE: .... but it is clear in the light of the writings of Pliny and Ptolemy and of the Periplus that the Tenkasi eastern boundary, which describes pretty accurately the Malayali limits now, is of later date than the first to third centuries A.D. The Malayalis have since those dates encroached considerably to the south on the ancient Pandya dominions. END of NOTEs

See the way a local kingdom boundary over here is found out. From some records in some far away locations. And see the mischievous insertion of the ‘Malayalis’ word. There is no basic consistency in the claims. In this book, first the Nayars and possibly the Brahmins are identified as the ‘Malayalis’. Then there is a lot of debate on from where the Nayars might have arrived. Even Nepal location is mentioned.

However, at the same time, when the historical location around 2000 years back of the kingdom here is mentioned, the word ‘Malayalis’ is mentioned. The terribleness of this kind of writing is that at this time Travancore definitely had no ‘Malayalis’. As to Malabar having ‘Malayalis’, the local language of Maabar is not the same as the Malayalam as understood currently.

The wider question is, why is the word ‘Malayalis’ inappropriately used? There is definitely an agenda to promote the idea of a kingdom of Kerala existing from times immemorial. Whatever gimmickry has been done in this book, such a claim has no basis.

QUOTE: After the Ceylon embassy to Claudius in A.D. 44, further embassies from India continued at long intervals to reach the Roman world. END OF QUOTE.

The ‘India’ word is another similar insertion. The subcontinent was never a single nation. Being conquered by various rulers from hither and thither does not make various clusters of populations a single nation or kingdom. The people are different. The languages are different. There was never a single focus of sovereignty, until the English rule came and established a single nation. Even this single nation did not comprise the whole of the subcontinent, even though all the local independent kingdoms wanted to have a close connection with this nation.

QUOTE: The true ancient history of Southern India, almost unrecorded by its own people in anything worthy of the name of history, appears as yet only as a faint outline on canvas. Thanks to the untiring labours of European scholars and of one or two native scholars these faint outlines are gradually assuming more distinct lines, but it is impossible as yet to offer anything even approaching to a picture in full detail of any period or of any state, for the sources of information contained in inscriptions and deeds are extremely scanty, and even in genuinely ancient deeds it is frequently found that the facts to be gathered from them are unreliable owing to the deeds themselves having been forged at periods long subsequent to the facts which they pretend to state. END OF QUOTE.

The above quote is quite interesting. First see the last line. Whatever historical records are in existence, have been ‘forged at periods long subsequent to the facts’. Indeed, this very book is an example of this.

See the words: ‘ancient history of Southern India’. The word Southern India is mentioned in a very casual manner, without taking into account the confusion it ought to create in later days. The southern India mentioned here are the southern parts of the South Asian subcontinent. It can also be mentioned as the southern parts of the South Asian peninsula. How this ‘India’ word came in has to be checked. There is a slight possibility that it is an insertion done in 1951.

But then, it is true that there was a foolish manner of understanding in Great Britain that the whole of the subcontinent was British-India, which it was not.

Now look at the words: ‘untiring labours of European scholars’. This is another total foolishness committed by the native-English and also by the native-British in the subcontinent. The word ‘European’ and the word ‘British’ are not synonyms. They are actually antonyms; especially if the word ‘British’ is taken as ‘native-English’.

Pristine-English is a planar language. And hence pristine-England is a planar language nation. While many nations in Continental Europe, including France, Germany, Spain, Portugal etc. could be slightly or terribly feudal language nations. This is a very crucial point. The way the people react and act in certain crucial situations differ in total opposite manners, in a planar versus feudal language comparison.

In this very book, there are powerful instances that show this difference. And indeed why the English side always prospered while the Continental side withered away when they could actually have won the day, can be connected to this information. I will deal with that later.

QUOTE: from the fact that the Tamil and Malayalam languages were in those days practically identical, it may be inferred that the ruling caste of Nayar were already settled in Malabar in the early centuries A.D. END of NOTEs

There is more than one problem in the above lines. If Tamil and Malayalam were a single language, then it simply means that there was no Malayalam here. And the word to define the population is not ‘Malayalis’, but ‘Tamilians’. However, the basic issue in this cantankerous writing is that there is a basic erroneous foundation that is simply taken as true. That the Travancore and Malabar regions were one and the same. It was not.

That Travancorean heritage in Tamil is okay. However, whether the antiquity of Malabar was Tamil is not established anywhere other than in these kinds of writing with ulterior motives. Two different regions and totally different populations are very cunning being packaged as one and the same.

The second cunning insertion is the words: ‘ruling caste of Nayar’. The Nayars are not seen as the ‘ruling caste’ anywhere in this book itself other than in such baseless assertions. It might be true that some of the kings were from this caste; even though this might be a point of dispute. However, the vast majority might be sort of village level supervisors of the Brahmanical landlords and the henchmen of the ruling families.

QUOTE: It will be seen presently that in the ancient deeds a dear distinction is drawn between the Keralas and the Pallavas. END OF QUOTE.

Was there any ‘Keralas’ in the history of Malabar? Or in the history of Travancore? It might be true that some of the kings might have borne such a name. However, the insertion of this ‘word’ in this book is quite clearly with a definite aim. That is to promote a unification of two unconnected geopolitical locations. The fact is that when the English rule appeared on the subcontinent, a lot of unconnected people and populations found it quite easy to establish a connection. For in the language English, it is very easy for populations of different levels of stature to communicate without any feelings of rancour being aroused.

Image

QUOTE: The Tamil race seems to have spread over the whole of the peninsula and to have split up into three kingdoms — Chera, Chola and Pandya—corresponding to those very ancient and well-known divisions of the Peninsula. END OF QUOTE.

The writing seems to go in circles. It does give the impression that the different pages have been at times written by different persons. Here, in the above quote, the Cheras are Tamilians. Then how come the word ‘Malayalis’ and ‘Malayali kingdom’ is being used for those periods in history in this very book?

QUOTE: it was said that this Indian nation traded to the West with the Romans and Parthians, and to the east as far as Siam and Tonquin. Their sovereign was said to wear a small lock of hair dressed spirally on the crown of his head, and to wear the rest of his hair very short. The people, it is also said, wrote on palm leaves and were excellent astronomers. The produce sent as presents, the trade to East and West, and the manner of wearing the hair, are all so essentially Malayali, that it is difficult to resist the conclusion that the ambassador must have been sent from some place on the Malabar Coast. END OF QUOTE.

‘Indian nation?’ There was no Indian nation at that time. It could have been any of the mutually competing kingdoms consisting of mutually different populations; and inside each kingdom, mutually antagonistic populations.

‘small lock of hair’ is the Kudumi of which Rev. Samuel Mateer had done a detailed chapter in his book Native Life in Travancore. The Kudumi was a mark of caste distinction. Higher caste symbol. So again the word ‘Malayali’ can be mentioned as being used to denote the higher castes.

As to writing on palm leaves, well, that was a general norm in many locations in the subcontinent and may be elsewhere also. For there was no paper available then.

‘conclusion that the ambassador must have been sent from some place on the Malabar Coast’. This is literally the signature glow of self-importance being sort in any and every incident. That, it is us who were the people! The actual fact is that there could have been many similar persons from various locations in the subcontinent. Or it might be true that only one single person managed to do this in the whole of the history of the subcontinent!

The quirkiness will be better understood if a similar type of sentence-making is done by the native-English. ‘Oh, that was us, this was us, only we the English could have done it, &c.’

QUOTE: Contemporary grants do not record that Kerala became at this time tributary to the Western Chalukya king, but in a forged grant of about the tenth century it is recorded END OF QUOTE.

The word ‘Kerala’ is the mischievous insertion, done quite obviously with malicious planning. As to the word ‘forged’, it is like the kettle calling the pot black. This book ostensibly written by William Logan is a classic example of such a record. The only location where it has some elevated standards are the locations where Logan himself did the writing. However, why he did not mention that fact very frankly might be due to him being not a native-English gentleman. He was a Scottish gentleman. May be if one were to study the verbal codes inside Gaelic, more information in this regard might be forthcoming.

QUOTE: It is not improbable that the Chalukyas entered into separate tributary relations with the Kerala ruler at this time. END OF QUOTE

QUOTE: And the isolated position of the Keralas behind their mountains would render it easier to detach them than any of the other combined powers. END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE: The Gangas or Kongus (as Malayalis call them) must have followed their suzerain in his southern raid, and not improbably drove the Keralas inside their mountain limits at this time (c . A.D. 680-96). END OF QUOTE.

Image

QUOTE: It is doubtful whether after this time (early part of the ninth century A.D.) the Rashtrakuta dynasty had any dealings directly with Kerala. The invaders were probably driven back, as Malayali tradition indeed asserts. END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE: There are three ancient Malayali deeds which have excited much interest, not only because of their antiquity, but because of the interesting fact that by them the ancient kings of Kerala conferred on the Jewish and Christian colonies certain privileges which those colonies, to a certain extent, do still possess. END OF QUOTE.

At the time of writing this book, the words ‘Malayali deeds’ and ‘ancient kings of Kerala’ are more or less the version of history that was being superimposed upon Malabar from the Travancore side. And that side had a wonderful agent right inside Malabar: QUOTE: most erudite of Malayalam scholars, Dr. H. Gundert. END OF QUOTE.

Dr. H. Gundert was so erudite a Malayalam scholar that he simply could not sense that there was a language in Malabar which did not need any artificial creation or the inputs from Sanskrit and Tamil. Indeed it is possible that the ancient script of the Malabari language was slyly relocated to Central Travancore with the help of people like him. Otherwise, the Malayalam script must have been created by the Central Travancore Converted Christians, which seems more impossible.

Image

QUOTE: Chera, or to use its better known Canarese equivalent Kerala, was at this time (end of seventh to first quarter of ninth century) a petty empire extending in a southerly direction at least as far as Quilon, and in a northerly direction at least as far as Calicut. END OF QUOTE.

It is an interesting contention that the word Chera was mentioned as Kerala by the Canarese. Could it be true?

And the next item is more perplexing. That the Canarese had no geographical connection with Kerala. For, this Chera kingdom is mentioned as from Calicut to Quilon. That means, it did not include north Malabar.

The wider issue with all these minute histories is that there is practically nothing worth studying in these histories, other than periodic battles and takeovers, and the names of a number of minute rulers. There is no instance of any real administrative set ups, or welfare or education or infrastructural developments mentioned. Similar histories in millions would come out when technology makes a breakthrough and human beings become able to communicate with ants.

For instance, see what all things are coming out of Chinese history nowadays. Some thirty years back, China was like an unknown land. Now that it is connected to native-English nations, (Hong Kong was handed over to China in a bout of absolute idiotism by England, for one), hundreds of minutes information are coming out. Just like in the case of the ants, I just mentioned. If BPO work can then be assigned to ants, they will for sure take away a huge percentage of human wealth.

QUOTE: These three names are, so far as investigations have yet proceeded, the only really authentic names known of the kings or Perumals of ancient Chera or Kerala. And the last named of them is probably identical with the Cheraman Perumal (a title meaning literally the bigman of the Cheras), whose name is in the mouth of every child on the coast. END OF QUOTE.

It takes a lot of verbal power to mention ‘Chera or Kerala’. However, the individuals who conspired to doctor the writings in this book were not persons with mean mental capability. They were literally experts in this art.

Then about the claim: ‘whose name is in the mouth of every child on the coast’. Does not this claim seem to be quite insipid?

QUOTE: Under such circumstances it becomes easy to understand how institutions existed unchanged for centuries, and how some of the influential families (continued when necessary by adoptions from allied families) who ruled the nads in the eighth and ninth centimes A.D. still continued to rule them when the British acquired the country in 1792. END OF QUOTE

This assertion actually points to an ignorance. In a feudal language social ambience, people try to connect to family names and verbal titles that connect them to powerful locations. It helps in dominating others in a feudal language communication.

Apart from that, the various incidences in the history as mentioned in this book itself stands as testimony that in each generation and even inside each family, feuds, mutinies, backstabbing, treachery, usurping of power, forming antagonistic groups etc. are the norm than the exception. However, with the arrival of the English rule, all traditional royal families more or less went into oblivion and the rest of the populations came to the fore, in a very slow and steady pace. This pace turned into a rumble only when the location was handed over to Hindi-India.

QUOTE: Lord William Bentinck wrote in 1804 that there was one point in regard to the character of the inhabitants of Malabar, on which all authorities, however diametrically opposed to each other on other points, agreed, and that was with regard to the “independence of mind” of the inhabitants., This “independence of mind” was “generally diffused through the minds of the people. They are described as being extremely sensible of good treatment, and impatient of oppression; to entertain a high respect for courts of judicature, and to be extremely attached to their customs END OF QUOTE.

This so-called independence of mind is not actually an independence of mind as understood in English. It is simply that people who do not fall in line as obsequious followers, display this tendency. Generally when people learn English they fall out of line. That is only one part of them. The other part is that where the language is very feudal to a particular section of the society, those affected persons are seen as quite reliable, honest, dependable and ‘respecting’ towards those who suppress them. To those who do not suppress them, they do not concede ‘respect’. To such persons, they are not reliable, honest, dependable or ‘respecting’.

There is also a more complicated code work in this. I cannot go into that here.

As to Lord William Bentinck mentioning anything, it is quite possible that many similar wordings can be influenced by their subordinates who are natives of this subcontinent. Some of the writings even may be written by these official subordinates of theirs.

QUOTE: The Kerala Brahmans are said to use Malayalam. END OF QUOTE.

What was that? Malabar Brahmans or Travancore Brahmans? How could the Travancore Brahmans have used Malayalam in the days of yore when the native-language therein was Tamil? If it is Malabar Brahmans, then they might be using what can now be called Malabari.

QUOTE: There can be little doubt that it was at this time (first half of the ninth century A.D.) that the Malayalam-speaking races became consolidated within the limits which they occupy down to the present day. At the time mentioned, as these deeds show, Malayalam and Tamil were practically one language, at least in their written form. From that time forward Malayalam and the Malayalam races began to draw apart from Tamil and the races east of the ghats. Shut in by their mountain walls except at the Palghat gap, the Malayalis became in time a distinct race, and, owing to their excellent political constitution, which on the one hand kept them free from the aggressions of their neighbours, and on the other hand maintained steadfastly among themselves the ancient order of things, there is little wonder that they presented through many succeeding centuries the example of a Hindu community of the purest and most characteristic type. END OF QUOTE.

The term ‘Malayalam-speaking races’ is a very cunning insertion. Which more or less strives to erase the existence of Malabari people.

Again, the assertion that ‘Malayalam and Tamil were practically one language’ actually is about Travancore. There is no evidence that the Shamanistic spiritual chanting of north Malabar that moved across the centuries was in Tamil language.

The sentence that ‘they presented through many succeeding centuries the example of a Hindu community of the purest and most characteristic type’ could be utter nonsense. For inside north Malabar, there was the Marumakkathaya Thiyyas who were at loggerheads with the Makkathaya Thiyyas of south Malabar.

Furthermore there was the north Malabar Nayars who could not bear the Nayars of south Malabar.

Then there were the Brahmins and the Ambalavasis above them, who had their own reason to keep the others at definite social distances.

There were the lower castes who came under both the Thiyyas who the Thiyyas could not bear. This much is about Malabar.

About Travancore there would be corresponding items with regard to the populations therein. This much is a standard attitude all over the subcontinent and in all locations which have feudal languages.

QUOTE: Both Pandyans and Cholas apparently struggled for the mastery, and the latter appear to have driven back the Kongus or Gangas and so freed Kerala, END OF QUOTE

So it appears that the Cholas were to appear as a sort of freedom fighters of ‘Kerala’. What all wonderful claims about a nation or state or kingdom that was yet to be created!

QUOTE: an expedition (probably of Kongus or Gangas) from Mysore was driven back when attempting an invasion of Kerala via the Palghat gap. END OF QUOTE.

The idea of the silliness of this ‘Kerala’ word can be understood if the national attitude of renaming historical place names can be seen being done even now.

For instance, in this book, the place names are like this: Calicut, Cannanore, Trivandrum, Cochin, Quilon, Tellicherry, Badagara, Sultan’s Battery, Manantody etc.

If one were to view the insipid India pages on Wikipedia, it would be seen that all these names are fast vanishing. For instance, Logan is seen connected to Thalasherry, and not Tellicherry. In the case of other names, local vernacular names such as Kozhikode, Kannur, Tiruvanandapuram, Kochi, Kollam, Thalasherry, Vadakara, Sulthaan Batheri, Mananthavady etc. are being seen.

There is always the question as to who gave these modern ‘geniuses’ the right to make changes into words and names that have existed for almost a thousand years, and more, in use all over the world?

It is like the trees in the forests of Wynad district in Kerala. Every day, lorry loads of trees are being felled and stolen. Till the place came into the hands of the ‘Indians’, the trees and the forest have survived. The moment the place was in the hands of the ‘Indian geniuses’, the trees and forests have been ‘changed’. Who gave them the right to make these changes on forest lands that have existed for thousands of years is the moot point.

QUOTE: although the Ballalas took Canara which they called Kerala it does not yet appear that they had anything to do with Kerala proper, that is, Malabar. END OF QUOTE.

Look at the issues here: Canara location is mentioned as Kerala. Then the connecting of the word ‘Kerala proper’ with Malabar. As if it is a foregone conclusion that there was a Kerala, and it was Malabar. And if so, what about Travancore?

QUOTE: Somesekhara Nayakha, the thirteenth of this line of Bednur Rajas, pushed his forces across the Malayali frontier END OF QUOTE

What kind of frontier was that, in an age when the new language of Malayalam was yet to be born? Or could it simply mean the other Malayalam, which can now only be mentioned as Malabari?

Image

QUOTE: The European looks to the soil, and nothing but the soil. The Malayali on the contrary looks chiefly to the people located on the soil. END OF QUOTE.

There are evident attempts to mix up the English with Continental Europeans of whom Gundert was one. And the Malayali of Malabar was the Nayar of Malabar. Or it can be the Brahman and the Ambalavasis. Coule the above statement mean that the Nayar of Malabar were egalitarian? For these people are looking at the people.

It is all quite laughable content. If the comparison is between the native-English and the Brahmans and their supervisor castes, the fact is that the latter were terrible oppressors of human beings. Their very language could hammer down a lower caste person. However, there is also the other side to it. If the lower castes are allowed the upper hand, they would hammer down the upper castes.

In this scenario, the above-quoted statement is just a very insidious attempt to cast some kind of halo on a very sinister social system and claim it to be in some ways superior. The statement has no meaning beyond a very limited context.

QUOTE: This essential difference between a Roman dominus and a Malayali janmi was unfortunately not perceived or not, understood at the commencement of the British administration. END OF QUOTE.

What a perfectly cunning idea to insert a Roman link into the discussion. The issue at stake is the entry of a planar-language social system and it taking command of the social system. This was inserting changes in whole social communication. The old system of human suppression was slowly getting erased. There is no need to compare a Roman dominus and a feudal-language-speaking janmi. However, the native-English side did not understand this point. Their official subordinates were quite cunning. They misrepresent almost all the items which they were asked to explain.

The basic idea that the administration was run by native-English speakers does not seem to have entered the thick skull of the cunning person who wrote the above quote. It was not a Roman colony that was being built.

QUOTE: First, as to the Malayali mode of determining, or rather of stating, the extent of grain-crop lands END OF QUOTE.

The word Malayali and the impression that there was some great system of determining the grain-crop lands. It is most possible that in the centuries of continual strife no great system was evolved other than the quite easy item of keeping a great part of the population as slaves.

QUOTE: It is suggested in the text that Keralam was at this time more or less under the Western Chalukya kings END OF QUOTE.
The word ‘Keralam’ has thus been used everywhere, without any trace of this kingdom Keralam in existence. However, the desperation to promote a ‘Keralam’ is felt all throughout.

QUOTE: In the year that runs for the Kolavalan (or Keralavalan ?) END OF QUOTE

There is haste to connect anything to Kerala.

See these three QUOTEs:
In Malayalam the tree = pilavu ; its fruit == chakka, whence Jack.
after it has been dug by the mamutty or spade
( == custody, protection) and Sanskrit phalam (? Dravidian palam).
END OF QUOTES.

Pilavu is the Malabari words for Jacktree. The Malayalam word is Plavu. It is possible that Malayalam picked up this word from Malabari, or some other language and made a change in it. Or vice versa.

Mamutty might be the Mannuvetty മണ്ണുവെട്ടി in Malayalam. In Malabari, it is generally Padanna പടന്ന and Kaikkottu കൈക്കോട്ട്.

QUOTE: There is still extant a poem entitled the Payyannur Pattola, described by Doctor Gundert as "certainly the oldest specimen of Malayalam composition which I have seen” END OF QUOTE.

Since Gundert cannot be a disinterested person in promoting Malayalam, it is good to consider this information from this perspective.

For it is QUOTE: replete with obscure terms free from any anachronisms END OF QUOTE

Obscure from the perspective of Travancore Malayalam.

And there is this also: QUOTE: The son grows up and is instructed by his father in all the arts of trade and shipbuilding (given in interesting detail, full of obsolete words) END OF QUOTE.

Obsolete words from the Travancore Malayalam perspective, possibly. Even now, many Malabari words are totally incomprehensible in Travancore Malayalam. Even though, vested interests might try to use the term ‘dialect’ to explain away this, the fact is that if the word ‘dialect’ is justifiable, then Tamil can be claimed as a lower quality dialect of Travancore Malayalam. However, that might not be the exact truth.

I am posting here a few quotes from this book, Malabar. It is about the various locations where un-deciphered language / scripts had been located. It may be mentioned that nothing of an extremely grand quality is seen mentioned. Almost all are of very low technological standards from a physical point of view.

Beyond that, the items mentioned here as un-deciphered or un-understood in this book might have changed from that definition over the years. However, the rough idea here is to insert a thought that the history of this location is not so simple as mentioned in Keralolpathi. What is complicated is Keralolpathi itself. As to who wrote it, for what sinister purpose, is an item worthy of intelligent pondering.

QUOTEs:
1. Kunhimangalam - Ramathali narayam Kannur temple - Contains Vatteluttu inscriptions which have not yet been deciphered

2. Kuttiyattur temple - In the gate of the temple is a stone bearing an inscription not as yet read—in characters stated to be unknown

3. Their language is Malayalam, which is usually written in the Arabic character, except in Minicoy where Mahl with a mixture of corrupt Malayalam is spoken.

[My note: There might be more to it. The Malayalam which is mentioned to use Arabic script might be the Malabari language mixed up with Arabic. It is quite curious that the writers of this book are ready to acknowledge the existence of Mahl. However, they act blind to the existence of a language in Malabar which was quite distinct from both the newly created Malayalam of Central Travancore as well as Tamil.]

4. In Edacheri, 5 miles from Badagara, Bhagavati temple called Kaliyampalli temple - There is an inscription on a slab in unknown characters.

5. In Muttungal amsam, Vellikulangara desam, 4 miles north of Badagara, there is a Siva temple. Outside the temple, there is a slab with inscription in an unknown language

6. In Karayad amsam, Tiruvangur desam, 6 miles from Quilandi, there is a Siva temple called Tiruvangur - on a granite rock at the temple there is an inscription in unknown characters

7. Panangod. A ruined and deserted temple, on the eastern wall of the porch of which is an inscription in unknown characters.

8. Ponmeri. In the Siva temple is an ancient inscription on a broken slab in unknown characters.

9. There is a temple said to exist in the Brahmagiri mountains. There are some old copper plate grants in this temple in the Vatteluthu (വട്ടെഴുത്തു) character which have not yet been deciphered.

10. At Putati is a temple known as Arimula Ayyappan temple, on the east wall of the mandapam of which is an inscription, dated K.A. 922 (A.D. 1746), in a mixture of four languages.

11. On the hill known as Nalapat chala kunnu is a stone having an inscription in old Tamil on two sides. It has not yet been read.

12. In Nagaram amsam, in Machchinde mosque, is a slab let into the wall, having an inscription in Arabic, Canarese and an unknown language.

13. Two miles above the Mammalli ferry on the Ernad or south bank of the river lies Chattamparamba. There are many tombs here. The pottery, which is found in abundance in these tombs, is of a very varied character and quite different to anything manufactured in recent times.

14. Walluvanad: The language spoken is Malayalam, except in the case of foreigners. In the Attappadi valley, however, the inhabitants, who are quite ignorant and without any education, speak a form, of Canarese.

[My note: Which Malayalam? Malabari or the newly created Malayalam from Central Travancore?]

15. Pudiyangadi jamath mosque at Tanur: A granite slab on one of the steps of the northern gate bears an inscription. The writing has not yet been read.

16. Deed no. 27 (AD. 1723) -The original is in Vatteluttu character. The copy from which this translation was made was obtained from Kilepatt Teyyan Menon of Walluvanad Taluk, Malabar.

17. Edappal: In front of the temple there are some granite sculptures and also a slab of the same material bearing an inscription in Vattezuthu characters, some of which having now become indistinct, the writing has not been deciphered.

18. Kodakkal: The Triprangod temple - The raised stone foundation of a pillar of the building consecrated to Krishna here bears a long inscription. The writing cannot be deciphered locally.

Image

It may be mentioned that the Keralolpathi might be a fake history book written with some much focused ulterior aims. That of creating a false history, which promotes a ‘Kerala’ image in the minds of the peoples in Travancore and Malabar.

There are other things that come to the mind. One is the fact that there were actually two different astrology versions. One for Malabar and the other for Travancore. Then there is the issue of the KollaVarsham calendars. The name of the Calendar is seen attributed to the Quilon Kollam (south of Travancore) by some. However, it could very well have been connected to the Kollam, north of Calicut. Beyond all this, there is another anomaly. The Kollavarsham calendar year commences from the first of Chingam in the Travancore version. In the Malabar version, it commences from the first of Kanni.

The effect of the imposition of ‘Kerala’ on Malabar had been so effective, that the Malabar Calendar has been pushed into oblivion.

As to the astrological calendar, it would only be intelligent to understand that the signs of the zodiac are actually all mere translation version of some global astrological repository. The names of the Zodiac as seen in both the Malabari as well as the Travancore versions might be the same. It would be interesting to know what is the year-commencing months in the Canara and Tamil astrological systems.

Whether the Keralolpathi does give any explanations for this commencing month dichotomy, between the Malabar Calendar and the Travancore Calendar, is not known to me.

I have not read the Keralolpathi, even though I do have a pdf version with me. I have not had the time to go through it. However, from the general comments I have seen about it, it would not surprise me if it is found that it is the handiwork of the converted to Christian groups. Most probably managed by some Church authorities. Gundert himself might be a collaborator. After all, his aim was to enrich and promote the newly-created language of Malayalam of Travancore. And it would have been a very satisfying event for him to see that the newly converted to Christians from Travancore at last got their richly deserved private lands; after so many centuries of terror, starvation and enslavement under the higher castes of Travancore. They who had been treated as cattle ultimately came to posses land.

However, only the gods can save those they suppressed under them! After all, in a feudal language system, everyone tries to suppress others.

As is evident from what came forth from this book, it may safely be mentioned that this book, Malabar, did not augur good for Malabar. It was indeed this very book that might have been used for the ultimate destruction and demise of Malabar. William Logan was at best quite gullible and also a bit egoistic. For, he has not anywhere categorically mentioned the amount of inputs others had inserted into the book, for which he has taken the credit. However, there is one location where he had great misgiving about the contents. But then, he stops short of admitting the reality, and tries to hide behind another statement:

QUOTE: These views are not to be taken as an authoritative exposition of this most difficult subject, which requires further study and a more detailed elucidation than the author has been able to give to it. END OF QUOTE.

The contents in that chapter are quite obviously belittling the English endeavours. There are statements which categorically mention that the ‘ancient systems of the Malayalis’ were better than what the English administration bestowed.

QUOTE: Mahe was at first a place of considerable importance and trade, but after wards, having fallen so frequently into the hands of the English, the settlement and its trade suffered ; END OF QUOTE

This is a nonsensical writing. Falling into the English hands was much better than falling into the hands of any of the other contenders for power, both native as well as outsiders. It is stated that the town was burnt and the fortification razed to the ground. Actually, this kind of understatements that give a totally anti-English mood is there in this book. It is not a book which William Logan seems to have had much control on. It might be true to say that he was literally taken for a ride by his native officials, who inserted their own insidious agenda into the book.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:56 pm, edited 8 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

25. Superstitions

Post posted by VED »

25 #

As a book on Malabar, there should be some information on the superstitions and belief systems of Malabar. Moreover, there should be some information on the widely practised Shamanistic spiritual worship systems in vogue. However, only very little is mentioned on these lines. It again points to the stranglehold the Nayar caste officials had on this book. There seems to be an aims to simply avoid items in which they had not much leadership on.

The evil-eye is mentioned, off course. The wider side of this phenomenon is that it might not be a simple superstition at all. For, the evil-eye can actually be a fact. For, the language is feudal. There is either dichotomy or trichotomy in the verbal codes. These verbal codes do act and react with the codes of reality in manners which are quite different from how the English verbal codes act with it. For more information on this, the reader is requested to check this book: Software codes of mantra, tantra, witchcraft, black magic, evil eye, evil tongue &c.

Image

Talking about superstitions of Malabar, there was a very striking wizardry ritual in practise in the land. It is the phenomenon of Odiyan.

I am quoting from Edgar Thurston’s
Omens and Superstitions of Southern India.

QUOTE:
A detailed account of the odi cult, from which the following information was obtained, is given by Mr Anantha Krishna Iyer. The disciple is taught how to procure pilla thilum (foetus oil) from the six or seven months foetus of a young woman in her first pregnancy.

He (the Paraiyan magician) sets out at midnight from his hut to the house of the woman he has selected, round which he walks several times, shaking a cocoanut containing gurasi (a compound of water, lime, and turmeric), and muttering some mantrams to invoke the aid of his deity. He also draws a yantram (cabalistic figure) on the earth, taking special care to observe the omens as he starts. Should they be unfavourable, he puts it off for a more favourable opportunity.

By the potency of his cult, the woman is made to come out. Even if the door of the room in which she might sleep be under lock and key, she would knock her head against it until she found her way out. She thus comes out, and yields herself to the influence of the magician, who leads her to a retired spot either in the compound (grounds), or elsewhere in the neighbourhood, strips her naked, and tells her to lie fiat. She does so, and a chora kindi (gourd, Lagenaria) is placed close to the uterus. The foetus comes out in a moment. A few leaves of some plant are applied, and the uterus contracts.

Sometimes the womb is filled with rubbish, and the woman instantly dies. Care is taken that the foetus does not touch the ground, lest the purpose be defeated, and the efficacy of the medicine completely lost. It is cut into pieces, dried, and afterwards exposed to the smoke above a fireplace. It is then placed in a vessel provided with a hole or two, below which there is another vessel. The two together are placed in a larger vessel filled with water, and heated over a bright fire. The heat must be so intense as to affect the foetus, from which a kind of liquid drops, and collects in the second vessel in an hour and a half.

The magician then takes a human skull, and reduces it to a fine powder. This is mixed with a portion of the liquid. A mark is made on the forehead with this mixture, and the oil is rubbed on certain parts of the body, and he drinks some cow-dung water. He then thinks that he can assume the figure of any animal he likes, and successfully achieves the object in view, which is generally to murder or maim a person.

A magic oil, called angola thilum, is extracted from the angola tree (Alangium Lamarckii), which bears a very large number of fruits. One of these is believed to be capable of descending and returning to its position on dark nights. Its possession can be secured by demons, or by an expert watching at the foot of the tree. When it has been secured, the extraction of the oil involves the same operations as those for extracting the pilla thilum, and they must be carried out within seven hours.
END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE from Edgar Thurston’s Omens and Superstitions of Southern India:

"There are," Mr Govinda Nambiar writes, “certain specialists among mantravadis (dealers in magical spells), who are known as Odiyans. Conviction is deep-rooted that they have the power of destroying whomever they please, and that, by means of a powerful bewitching matter called pilla thilum (oil extracted from the body of an infant), they are enabled to transform themselves into any shape or form, or even to vanish into air, as their fancy may suggest.

When an Odiyan is hired to cause the death of a man, he waits during the night at the gate of his intended victim's house, usually in the form of a bullock. If, however, the person is inside the house, the Odiyan assumes the shape of a cat, enters the house, and induces him to come out. He is subsequently knocked down and strangled.

The Odiyan is also credited with the power, by means of certain medicines, of inducing sleeping persons to open the doors, and come out of their houses as somnambulists do. Pregnant women are sometimes induced to come out of their houses in this way, and they are murdered, and the foetus extracted from them. Murder of both sexes by Odiyans was a crime of frequent occurrence before the British occupation of the country." [/i]END OF QUOTE.

In the book Malabar, there is this hint that certain lower castes do inspire terror and fear among the higher castes. However, there are two items in this fear. One is directly connected to the feudal verbal codes, which actually have very powerful destructive power.

However, when speaking from the perspective of superstitions, this is what is there in this book, Malabar:

QUOTE: and some individuals of the lower classes have a powerful superstitious influence over the higher castes owing to their supposed efficiency in creating enchantments and spoils and in bringing misfortunes. END OF QUOTE.

Rev. Samuel Mateer also has made similar mention of how certain lower castes use this intimidation tactic to ward off the terrible suppression let loose by the higher castes.

There is this QUOTE: It may be added that the best educated native gentlemen have even yet hardly got over their objections to photography on the ground that their enemies may obtain possession of their photographs, and may by piercing with needles the eyes and other organs, and by powerful incantations, work them serious mischief. END OF QUOTE.

Actually the above quote is very closely connected to witchcraft, voodoo, tantra etc. Do these things really work?

There is the wider issue that such British writers as Edgar Thurston, Samuel Mateer, William Logan etc. have all missed the core element of the local social systems in the subcontinent. This very core element is that the social system is encompassed by feudal languages. These languages do have powers beyond that of mere conveying of ideas and thoughts.

This is where feudal language might have actual powers quite akin to that of voodoo and such. It is another topic altogether. Readers can refer to the book I mentioned.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:58 pm, edited 3 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

26. Misconnecting with English

Post posted by VED »

26 #

There are a number of locations wherein English words are used as seeming translations for local usages.

See these:

Image

1. Of the hero of the original Tachcholi pat—the Robin Hood of North Malabar— many traditions are extant.

[My note: Actually the Tachcholi pat or possibly the Vadakkan pattukal cannot be compared with the native-English stories of Robin Hood. There is a qualitative difference. In fact, no individual or entity in a feudal language social system can be compared with anything in a planar language social system. Both are in totally different frameworks which have no corresponding elements between them.]

2. This designation may be exactly reproduced by the phrase from the *English wedding service in which the mutual contract of the parties is “for better for worse, for richer for poorer.”

[My note: This is another instance of trying to find commonality between two items which cannot be equated to each other.]

3. probably Commissioner of the Perumal

[My note: The use of the word Commissioner to define a subordinate of a semi-barbarian ruler has its problems. The word ‘semi-barbarian’ is taken from Travancore State Manual, in which V Nagam Aiya has very categorically mentioned the peoples and cultures of the subcontinent pervious to the advent of the English rule as ‘semi-barbarian’.]

4. his officers and ministers

[My note: The use of the word ‘officer’ to define any official in the ancient and medieval kingdoms in the subcontinent as an ‘officer’ is just a display of the stark ignorance of what the word ‘officer’ stands for. In English, an officer is a gentleman. An official in the subcontinent and in the three current-day nations formed in the subcontinent, viz. Pakistan, India and Bangladesh, who uses words like Thoo/Nee, USS / Avan / Aval, Eda / Edi etc. to a citizen of the nation cannot be mentioned as an officer and a gentleman. Mentioning them as officer is a stark misuse of the word. From this perspective, the above-mentioned nations do not have any officers at all in their service, other than for the exceptions to prove the rule.]

5. Ordered with the sanction of the Palace-major Vyaraka Devar,

6. either the hereditary military commandant of the Desam

7. Pandarappad, treasury officials

8. he was, in short, chairman.

9. Hydros Kutti who was, it is said, the Commissioner appointed by Hyder Ali

[My note: 5 to 9 are other examples of this misuse of English words.]

10. I have heard well authenticated cases of Englishmen, who have shot three and four cow bison of a day and have left them to rot where they fell.

Image

This is a very curious location. For, the point is that the Englishmen are seen as having acted quite un-English. However, there is a wider explanation to all this, that is rarely noted down.

Image

Imagine a person from the subcontinent going to England and doing the same. Will it be allowed in England? It is most preposterous idea that such an attempt would be allowed or condoned. Off course, there are items over there that can be mentioned to say that in that nation also such things occur. I will not go into those items here. For, it will only confuse the issues.

The point is that when a native-Englishman comes to the subcontinent, it is the others here who tell them what to do, what is allowed and how they should act. In almost all these cases, the natives of the subcontinent give advices which are in sync with their own mentality.

Image

Image

For instance, there are many photos on display nowadays showing white-skinned persons in circumstances which look quite at odds with an English attitude. That of them, standing along with a tiger they had shot. Or them going in a hand-pulled cycle-rickshaw pulled by a very dried-up person. That of well-dressed English men and women in the midst of very poor looking natives of the subcontinent. There are photos of the poor natives of the subcontinent bowing before Englishmen who are sitting on a very comfortable leaning chair, with the legs stretched out.

If a person looks at these pictures and start creating a huge understanding of how the Englishmen and women behaved in the subcontinent based on these images, he or she will be making a grievous mistake.

Image

These are pictures that actually picture the actual state of the land, into which the Englishmen and women are mere momentary insertions. I will explain this statement.

One of my parents was an officer of the Madras State Civil Service which had been an immediate continuation of the Madras Presidency Civil Service. All the officers of this service then in the 1950s were quite good in English. My parent worked in the Malabar district. The very noticeable difference that these officers had from the later-day Kerala government ‘officers’, was that they generally communicated to each other in English. As to referring to or talking about a common man, who had come to the office or to the officer’s house with any help request was that, the words in English ‘he / him/ she/ her etc. were used. If the Malabari or Malayalam word had to be used, the word of reference would usually be ‘Ayaal’.

Yet, in the case of a lower stature common man, like a labourer, agricultural labourer, financially low agriculturalist etc., even though they are addressed with a decent word like ‘Ningal’, they invariably bent and bow and show all kinds of obeisance and servitude. Even though at times, they are told not to exhibit these kinds of servile behaviours, it is not possible to do a personality enhancement training upon each person. So, in general, the officers do not take much efforts to tell them to stand straight.

For the social training in subservience is part of the feudal language training that is automatically there in the social system.

Now, look at this picture.

It is quite easy to think that it is the English officials who are oppressing them. Actually the truth would be that these people approach the English officials with the full understanding that they would get help without any strings attached only from them. When they display any kind of worshipful-ness, it is actually their expression of pleading for help, in a terrible social system in which each individual is out to suppress another. That is how feudal languages are designed.

In many contrived history books, one might see refined-looking English colonial residences. And along with them, are shown terribly shoddy residences of the poverty-stricken natives of the subcontinent. These kind of picture combinations are deliberate attempts at misguiding.

For, the subcontinent was full of extremely rich and affluent landlords. Their residences are literally unapproachable for the lower classes and castes of the land. The cunning history textbooks never attempt to showcase the terrible differences between the residences of the native rich and the native poor. Actually the native poor are not actually ‘poor’. They are various levels of slaves.

Image

And even the word ‘slave’ would not suffice. For, if the negro slaves of the USA are taken into account, from all perspectives, they are very much higher than the ordinary lower class and lower caste individuals of the subcontinent.

The lower caste / class individuals of the subcontinent are addressed and referred to in the pejorative word level of verbal codes. That is, they are addressed with the lowest You, and referred to with the lowest he/him, she/her. Once a person is thus defined at the bottom end of a hierarchical social ladder, their very sight, touch, seeing etc. become items of acute repulsion and inauspicious.

They are not allowed to sit on a chair or to eat at a table. In all reference to them, a verbal code adjective of ‘despicable dirt’ would get encoded. In fact, if anyone arrives at this level of subordination under a feudal-language speaker from the subcontinent, within a few generations, the individuals would look terribly degraded. (Let the native-English population of England beware, and take appropriate pre-emptive steps to forestall this eventuality!)

However, each level would strive to get someone under them. For, that would provide an upward thrust in social buoyancy.

Image

Apart from all this, when viewing the old colonial pictures, there are certain more information that have to be borne in mind.

One is that inside British-India, everything was perfectly administered as per written codes of law. However, only around half of the subcontinent was British-India. The rest were independent kingdoms. These independent kingdoms stuck close to British-India due to the fabulous connection to England it provided. Most had alliance treaties with the British-Indian government. A British-Indian resident was posted in many of the kingdoms to advice the kings on various items. It was as a sort of a representative of the British-Indian government in a semi-barbarian kingdom.

Yet, the kingdoms were independent. They had their own traditional customs, social systems, officialdom (most of them corrupt to the core), police, judiciary etc. They allowed many things which would not be allowed inside British-India.

In fact, inside British-India, even Christian missionary work was prohibited. Inside Travancore, this was allowed.

Apart from all this, there is this fact also. British-Indian government was an English government. Yet, there were people from Irish, Scottish, Welsh nativity and even Continental Europeans working in the government apart from a huge percent of natives of the subcontinent.

To that extent, the government was not English fully.

To add to this error, all White-skinned persons inside the subcontinent were very easily identified as British. And the British were very cunningly identified as Europeans. However, the fact remains that in most of the big battles fought against the British inside the subcontinent, a major chunk of the soldiery were Continental Europeans. In fact, it might be very easy to mention that most of the ‘freedom fights’ inside the subcontinent against the British rule, were fought by Continental Europeans. Not only in the Battle of Plassey, but even in the fights by the Mysorean rulers Hyder Ali and Sultan Tippu, there were a lot of Continental Europeans.

Why these Continental European ‘freedom fighters’ are not mentioned or celebrated inside Pakistan and India is a very funny query, that can be asked. For they antedate most of the current-day mentioned ‘great freedom fighters of India’. If this point looks quite odd, then it might be mentioned that most of the so-called ‘freedom-fighters’ were not from British-India. Hyder Ali was from Morocco. So naturally his son Tippu was also not Indian or British-Indian. Gandhi was not from British-India. Travancoreans cannot be mentioned as freedom fighters, against the British-rule. For, their kingdom was not ruled by the British.

Arab supporter Mappillas of Malabar were not fighting for the ‘freedom of India’. Their actual loyalty was to the king of Egypt.

See this QUOTE about how Hyder Ali made use of the European regiment which fought on his side :

QUOTE: The Europeans inspired the Malabars with a new terror by this exploit ; and Hyder, to increase it, spread a report that he expected many thousand men from Europe ; he added that they were a cruel people and devourers of human flesh, and that his intention was to deliver all the coast to their outrages. The rage and fury by which his small handful of French were urged on to revenge their murdered countrymen gave much force to the belief the wretched inhabitants were disposed to afford to his reports. Wherever he turned he found no opponent, nor even any human creature ; every inhabited place was forsaken ; and the poor inhabitants, who fled to the woods and mountains in the most inclement season, had the anguish to behold their houses in flames, their fruit-trees cut down, their cattle destroyed, and their temples burnt. END OF QUOTE

The above is a sample of the ‘great’ ‘Indian freedom fights’.

Many persons from Continental Europe did piggy-back ride on England inside the subcontinent. And the British officials were quite foolish not to pick them out and throw them out of their areas of administration. In fact, Gundert who is celebrated by many academic scholars was a German. He should not have been allowed to be anywhere near to any English administrative systems.

When viewing pictures showing White people in very cantankerous postures, where is the evidence that they are British or English? And if they are British or English, what of the location where the photo was taken? Was it in British-India or in an independent kingdom in the subcontinent? And if they are from British-India, what about the possibility that they were being misguided into such awkward behaviour by their own staff-members from the sub-continent and by other local chiefs?

A very powerful example can be mentioned in making many of them Saabs and Memsaabs. These are feudal ennobling words used in Hindi. It is not something brought from England. I have seen many local rascals use this example to mention that the English were feudal oppressive people. Actually, these words are pressed upon the local people by the local staff members of the English administration. However, when the administration is in such lousy feudal language like Hindi, this is the only way to communicate with a government officials. As of now, the common Indian is a Thoo while the Government official is an Aap. And no one dares to complain!

English administration was pro-English language. Not supportive of any low-class human degrading language like Hindi &c. of the sub-continent.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 12:59 pm, edited 8 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

27. Feudal language

Post posted by VED »

27 #

As I have mentioned a few times earlier, the native-English officials did not understand the trigger-codes inside the local feudal languages. The very concept of feudal languages is very difficult for a native-Englishman to grasp. Actually the whole lot of terrors, repulsions, negativities &c. and such other more obscure items like evil-eye etc. are very intimately connected to the verbal codes inside feudal language. I have already done some writing on this in this book.

The problem that the native-English faced without knowing it, was that even their most loyal and reliable native-of-the-subcontinent subordinate would be having his own mental repulsions and terrors, which could influence what suggestions and information he can provide them. A single word can change a person’s demeanour. This is actually what the native-Englishmen face here.

It is not a change of word from ‘good’ to ‘bad’ or anything like that. It is simply changing a word like ‘You’ from the highest one to the next level down or even to the lowest level. Like changing ‘Saar / Thaangal (highest you) to Ningal (middle level you ) or to Nee (lowest level you).

The native-English would make a deal or a contract or a commitment with someone from the subcontinent. He is found to be reliable and honest. But then, on his way back somewhere, someone uses a different form of He / Him or You / Your etc. The moment this indicant word level changes, he is a different man.

It is simply like this: A man addressed as a Ningal is suddenly addressed as a Nee. He is different person with different mental trigger points. These are things on which the shallow subjects called Psychology and Psychiatry have very little information.

QUOTE taken from elsewhere: Hwen Thsang’s first impressions of the people inhabiting northwest of the subcontinent were recorded as follows, “The people are accustomed to a life of ease and prosperity and they like to sing. However, they are weak-minded and cowardly, and they are given to deceit and treachery. In their relations with each other, there is much trickery and the little courtesy. These people are small in size and unpredictable in their movements. END OF QUOTE.

Actually, the very opposite of these observations would also be true. It depends on the frame on which the person is connected to, his own personal stature relative to others, and the relative stability of the indicant words attached to him.

Now, let me take some quote from this book, Malabar.

QUOTE: It was, in fact, not a village establishment at all, and instead of "bringing the Collector more immediately into contact with the people, it only served to lengthen the chain, already too long, of officials between them. END OF QUOTE.

Establishing an English administration in a feudal language society is a very tough job. It is like this: An ordinary labourer goes into the local revenue office and says to the revenue officer: “Mr. Rajan, Can you please tell me when I can get my tax papers?”

From an English perspective, this statement is quite decent and polite. However, if an ordinary worker were to say these words in the same spirit of personal dignity, either the revenue official will go unconscious or he will go off his rocker.

QUOTE: Sthana Mana avakasam END OF QUOTE (Rights connected to social stature and position).

Actually, there is no right to equal status before the law in the feudal languages of the land. This right to equality before the law is there only in the Constitution of India written in English. When this Constitution of India is translated into the language of India, the Constitution itself is degraded. For everything it professes goes illogical.

Image

How can an Avan /Aval (lowest he / she) be equal to an Adheham /Avar (highest He / Him)? This very simple question cannot be answered by the Constitution, the moment it gets translated into the human-degrading feudal languages of India.

Sthanam means position. Manam means status. Avakasam means rights.

This connects to the Rights or privileges that accrue to one, as per one’s Status connected to one’s Position in society or officialdom.

QUOTE: Each amsam or parish has now besides the Adhikari or man of authority, headman, an accountant or writer styled a Menon (literally, superior man), and two or more Kolkars (club men or peons), END OF QUOTE.

It was actually a misdeed to give powers to these native Adhikaris. They were the repositories of feudal suppression using verbal codes. In fact, in Edgar Thurston’s’ Castes and Tribes of Southern India, it is seen recorded that the lower castes individuals at times did use some kind of abusive words to the higher castes. Then the Adhikaris would come with a few henchmen, drag the accused to a remote hut and have him thrashed soundly. After that he would be tied up for a few days in the hut.

What was the abusive word he must have uttered? Just a lower indicant form of He/ Him or She/Her or You / Your to a higher caste man or addressed him by mere name. Higher caste means technically ‘officialdom’.

[Even now, the Indian officialdom has to be mentioned in the higher ‘respected’ form of word codes. Otherwise he or she is done for. The official cannot be addressed by name in India. The common man can be addressed by mere name and abused by lower level indicant codes. No one sees a crime in this, even though the Constitution of India holds this as a crime of the first order. ]

When the English rule was getting stronger, it is true that the lower castes took it as a sign that they were becoming more free. It was a very dangerous idea. And the English administrators did not really understand what was happening.

QUOTE: Even in modern English some persons of the verb retain archaic fragments of the pronominal signs (e.g. lovest, loveth) ; but in modern Malayalam every trace of these signs has disappeared. END OF QUOTE.

This is the level of utter nonsensical language study that was going on. The Nayars and their higher castes never informed the native-English that there were more deeper things in the local languages than silly grammar rule issues.

QUOTE: The Vedic Brahmans (Nambutiris) were, of and are still it may be added, the last persons in the world to approve of educating the commonalty, for that would have tended to take from themselves the monopoly of learning they so long possessed. END OF QUOTE.

This is a very powerful statement. However, it is not a revelation about the Vedic Brahmans or any other higher castes. This is the general character of all persons who live in feudal languages. It is a well-known item that if the lower-placed populations are allowed to get the knowledge and skills of the higher placed people, the lower-placed populations will improve beyond any level that they can naturally arrive at. Once they reach the top, a vertical flipping will occur in the verbal codes. The Avan will become Adheham. Then this new Adheham will fling the old Adheham down to the dirty ditch where other ‘Avans’ are stuck.

This is the currently seen attitude of the newly financially improved classes of India. They are full of words degrading the English and the British. For, they think that they have arrived at the Adheham levels above their countrymen. They naturally want to try the same verbal trick over the native-English also.

QUOTE: For indigenous Brahmans there are three Sanskrit colleges, two of which — Tirunavayi in Ponnani taluk and Pulayi in Kurumbranad taluk—are in Malabar, and the third is at Trichchur (Tirusivapperur) in the Cochin Native State. END OF QUOTE

The issue of there being such exclusive institutions need not be taken as some kind of apartheid. There are other connected issues. Like the fact that even if the other castes are allowed in, they would not have much interest in the studies from scholastic point of view. They would only study from a very materialistic view of getting some money-earning job from this studies.

Beyond that, there is the issue of lower-caste persons generally being more prone to be demeaning in words, ideas, usages etc. if they are allowed a position of equality. For, there is no way a position of equality can be created in a feudal language society.

This is due to the fact that each person is either on a tower or a hole, in the verbal codes. A person in the hole cannot be placed on top of the tower. For, it is not an issue of a single entity being pushed up. A huge number of individuals, words, strings, and many other heavy web of nets would all be connected to this person. It is a complicated scenario.

Please read : An impressionistic history of the South Asian Subcontinent for more information on this.

QUOTE: as usual among Malayalis when a man has risen a bit above his fellows in good or in bad qualities, something of superstitious awe attaches to the place of his dwelling. END OF QUOTE.

It is quite curious that the native-English administrators did not get this information that the higher man is the man who has been conceded the divine-level verbal codes. In Malayalam, even Prophet Muhammad is mentioned as Nabi Thirumeni. Does pristine-Islam allow that?

QUOTE: “The subject of caste divisions among the Hindus is one that would take a lifetime of labour to elucidate. It is a subject on which no two divisions or subdivisions of the people themselves are agreed, and upon which European authorities who have paid any attention to it differ hopelessly. The operation of the caste system is to isolate completely the members of each caste or sub-caste ; and whatever a native may know of his own peculiar branch, he is, as a rule, grossly ignorant of the habits and customs, or the origin, of those outside the pale of his own section of the community.” END OF QUOTE

The observations are great and very profound. However, the machinery that works this human repulsion was not understood. The explanation can be seen in the feudal language codes.

QUOTE: “The later Aryan colonists evidently saw that if they were to preserve their individuality and supremacy, they must draw a hard-and-fast line between themselves, the earlier and partly degenerated Aryans, and the brown and black races of the country, and hence probably we get a natural explanation of the origin of caste.” END OF QUOTE.

Though the above contention does have the feel of profundity, it is actually nonsense. The caste system is actually the solidification of social layers created by the repulsions and attractions created by feudal language codes.

QUOTE: Jati itself, like all other Malayalam words beginning with “j”, is a foreign word and expresses a foreign and not a Dravidian idea. The root of the word is the Sanskrit “jan” and it simply means “ birth.” END OF QUOTE.

May be this is a curious observation about Malayalam words that begin with ‘j’. After all Travancore Malayalam was created using Sanskrit words in abundance. However, the other part that connects the creation of caste with the entry Sanskrit can be nonsense. Caste-based layer formation is encoded in almost all the feudal languages of the subcontinent. Sanskrit is a feudal language. These codes will be there. However, Tamil is also a feudal language.

May be if one were to check Japan, one might be able to find some kind of caste system there also. If the language is feudal, then mutually repulsive and highly demarked social layers will form automatically.

Speaking about the feudal content in Tamil, the Tamil cultural leader Periyar E V Ramaswamy, on one occasion, referred to the Tamil people as barbarians and the Tamil language as "language of barbarians". Now, these defining words could be due to the terrific codes of human degradation and suppression in the Tamil language. However, if Tamil is barbarian, the next contention is that Sanskrit is also equally barbarian.

If Sanskrit is beautiful, Tamil is also beautiful. However, beauty is not the issue here. What is being focused upon is what these languages do to the social system and the people therein.

These languages splinter up the social system into a vertical array of populations. Each one of the layers would try to keep the lower castes at a lower distance, and would look upon all their endeavours to improve, with terror.

QUOTE: And first it may be noticed that the Malayalis distinguished two kinds of pollutions, viz,., by people whose very approach within certain defined distances causes atmospheric pollution to those of the higher castes, and by people who only pollute by actual contact. END OF QUOTE

There is more to this information. Actually in feudal language social systems, there is no need even to approach or touch. A simple calling by name of a higher person by a lower person is enough to finish off the higher person.

A simple mention of an IPS (Indian Police Service –royalty of the police administration in India) female officer by an Indian police constable (in Indian languages, they are known as police shipai) as an Aval, can literally erase a lot many superior features in the IPS female. If she comes to know of this, she could go homicidal if she is mentally fit.

QUOTE: But it must be remembered that of individual freedom there was very little as every person from his cradle to his grave was hemmed in by unyielding chains of customary observance. END OF QUOTE.

These customary observances are encoded in the verbal codes inside the feudal languages.

QUOTE: The people must have been a very law-abiding and docile race if such simple formalities sufficed to govern them END OF QUOTE.

This is again some crank nonsense by some native-writer. The people in the subcontinent are neither law-abiding or docile. The historical events mentioned in this very book stands testimony for that. However, there are terrific command codes and routes of communication encoded in the languages. Only the most impertinent person would dare to disobey them.

For instance, there is an IAS officer’s cabin, with a notice No Entry. No sane ordinary man would dare to disobey this restriction. For, the IAS is part of a huge structure of human hierarchies. It is foolish to think that a simple No Entry is the exact code that works. There are more powerful ones in the background.

QUOTE: But indeed custom, when once it has become law, arrays the whole community in arms against the law-breaker, and is perhaps the safest form of law for a semi-civilised State. END OF QUOTE.

These are all writings by or influenced by the native-man of the subcontinent. There is first of all no written law before the advent of the English rule. As to custom, well, it is true that a single wrong indicant word by a lower class man can ignite the wrath of the higher castes. They will literally beat him into a pulp, even if he is claims to be a great Swami or Guru of the lower castes. Unless there the English rule is there to protect that man.

Image

QUOTE: Accordingly, when Da Gama sent Nicholas Coelho on shore with a message to the Zamorin asking him to sanction trade, the authorities tried his temper by making him wait, thinking this to cause a break with the Portuguese; but being warned by a Castilian whom they found in the place, he exercised patience. END OF QUOTE.

Actually this is a very visible character of human behaviour in a feudal language set-up. It off course, depends on many factors. This is also a typical character displayed by the Indian officialdom. However, this mental character is not limited to the officials. Almost all persons who think and speak in feudal languages in the subcontinent do display this feature. That of delaying things to impose a feel of power and majestic demeanour. The other side or individual is literally made to suffer the delay and thus forced to plead.

QUOTE: On 15th March, one Kunhi Ahamad, a nephew of the pirate chief of Kottakal, who was generally known as “Cota Marcar,” was captured with a boat’s crew of his men by the English boats employed in stopping the exportation of pepper from Cannanore to Calicut. It did not appear that he was piratically engaged at the time, so he resented the treatment and taking opium, ran amuck. END OF QUOTE.

Here the English officials may not have actually understood what really happened. The crew of the English boats involved in patrolling against pepper smuggling, would most probably be the Nayars. There would be a slight possibility of them being Thiyyas labour class also. Either of them, when they get someone in their custody would very naturally use the Inhi (Nee) word (lowest You). The other side leader would find it quite an uneasy and unsettling scenario. Actually anyone with some prominence would go berserk if questioned with the Nee word and referred to with an Oan (lowest he / him in Malabari).

Even though the terrific contents of this issue is there even now, the native-English have no information on this. When some native-English youngster goes berserk on being subjected to such verbal codes, instead of investigating the exact signal that created the terror, the native-English youngster is send to jail. The other side which actually placed the bomb is let loose to place more explosive on the native-English soil.

QUOTE: but from an official neglect to send the order to a picquet of 150 men stationed at, the extraordinary distance of three miles, five hours were lost END OF QUOTE.

This is about a major error that entered into Sultan Tipu’s strategy. In many ways, these kinds of errors will be enacted in plenty on the side of any feudal language army. For, minute instructions will not move to the right point in time. Everywhere there is the incessant checking for verbal and physical ‘respect’. If an individual on the route of the passage of this information is not of the right lower or higher stature, there will be slowing down or total block of flow information. This is one of the reasons why the native-English side always won the last battle in every war.

Even the Scots or the Irish or the Welsh side will not be error free. In fact, in all these feudal language speaking sides, there will be an accumulation of errors.

QUOTE: Warren Hastings pertinently remarked that the proper place for the plenipotentiaries to have arranged terms with Tippu would have been at the head of Colonel Fullarton’s force instead of which they went as suppliants to Tippu’s camp at Mangalore. END OF QUOTE.

There is an astronomically huge content in the above quote. In feudal language social systems, it is very dangerous to go to the other side for conversation or fixing an agreement etc. For, the other side will have the verbal advantage.

Moreover, there is something more. Extremely affable hospitality is used to lure the other side to come and see this side’s prowess. The visiting side is made to get extremely impressed.

Image

This is the way the French side fooled George Washington to become a traitor to his country and his king. But then this George Washington was a silly person, with a lot of personal animosities and ambitions. A dullard at best.

Image

There is another similar fooling I can remember. It happened when the Japan surrendered to the US forces. It was a very sound action for the Japanese. If they had surrendered to the Russians, there would have been mass molestation and mass slaughter of people in Japan. However, when the surrender was to the US, it was managed very cunningly.

Usually feudal language nations like China, Japan, Russia, Germany, Spain, Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma etc. would care nothing about the enemy’s stature. They would be treated like dirt.

If it was any of the feudal language nations capturing Japan, the Japanese royal family would have been molested first and foremost. Then they would have been tied up and displayed like some animals, if they are allowed to live.

However, in the case of the US, it did not do anything like that. US officials simply went to Japan and were offered the best of the royal hospitality of the Japanese Royal family. The US officials would be exposed to the very powerful ‘respect’ code hierarchy there. It would impress them.

And they were impressed just like the fool Washington. The whole of the US economy was literally handed over to Japan to nibble away at ease. And even now, no one in the US is aware of this grand cunning.

QUOTE: Tippu had, unfortunately for himself, by his insolent letters to the Nizam in 1784 after the conclusion of peace with the English at Mangalore, shown that he contemplated the early subjugation of the Nizam himself. END OF QUOTE.

If a native-Englishman were to read the above lines, he would not understand its contents. The word ‘insolent’ would not make much of an exact sense to him. Actually the whole history of the subcontinent is contained in this word and a few others.

It is the matter of addressing. You could be Aap in Hindi or Thoo. It can be Ingal in Malabari or Inhi. It can be Thaangal in Malayalam or Nee.

The word-form which is selected declares a lot of other things, like who is the superior and who is the inferior. The real terror is in the subordinates of the addressed king being keenly interested in the word used. For, as per this word, their loyalty can also shift.

Do any of the formal histories mention these things? Actually even the minute event called the Opium War between the foolish Chinese king and a few English trading ships was ignited by this issue.

I think I have very clearly explained this issue in my book: SHROUDED SATANISM in FEUDAL LANGUAGES!

QUOTE: On July 23rd Major Petrie, under orders from Colonel Robert Bowles, commanding the troops in Malabar, marched from Calicut to the Dutch frontier with a small force of infantry to obtain a peaceable surrender of the Dutch settlement. But the Governor refused to give up the place, and Major Petrie had then to wait till a siege train could be brought up. The Supervisor (Mr. Stevens) proceeded in person to Cochin in the beginning of September to endeavour to arrange matters with Mr. Vanspall, and a conference ensued, at which it was agreed that the surrender should take place. But next day the Governor changed his mind and the negotiations were suspended. END OF QUOTE

It is about a very curious situation. The Dutch government gives an order to give up the Dutch fort to the English. But the Dutch governor in Cochin refuses to do so. Why?

The Dutch governor presumably can understand the local language. It is an extreme defect. He will know that the moment he relinquishes his leadership, the word ‘He’ in the local language would shift from Adheham to Ayaal and even to Avan, if there are no appropriate props to hold it up. It is a terror. For when the word-code changes, everything changes, everywhere. He would not budge, unless terrorised by something of more gravity.

QUOTE: The reason assigned by the criminal for attacking the inspector was that his wife’s gingelly-oil crop had been over- assessed. END OF QUOTE.

Not really. The ‘inspector’ is the actual criminal. He is having official power and is a native-man of the place. The moment a bit of power is given to a native-man here, his first endeavour would be to address anyone who he can terrorise or torment with the Inhi / Nee word. Even in front of others, including wife and children, he would do it. Only an insane man would remain unconcerned. Sane men would go berserk if they are of refinement and dignity.

Image

Check what Adam Purinton did in the USA.

QUOTE: Mr. Thomas Lumsden Strange, a Judge of the Sadar Adalat, “whose former long service in Malabar and intimate acquaintance with the people and their peculiar habits and feelings eminently qualify him for the task, while his employment in a different sphere of late years saves him from the influence of any prejudice or bias,” was accordingly selected “to be Special Commissioner for enquiring into the Mappilla disturbances, their causes and remedies.” END OF QUOTE.

The actual fact is that this Mr. Strange has not even an iota of clue on the hidden verbal codes which get erased when translated into English. It is not surprising that most of his assertions were half-baked. He did not understand anything.

QUOTE: but fourteen for whom any personal cause of provocation was discoverable. In seven instances land has afforded the presumed ground of quarrel,” and in the other seven cases the provocatives “were mostly of an equally unreal nature.” END OF QUOTE

The solid fact is that this Mr. Strange did not get even the smallest idea of what the provocations were. All his profound ‘discoveries’ were totally bereft of information on the exact verbal codes that triggered the terrible anger. The verbal codes would be just a very minute inappropriate or unacceptable indicant level form for words like You, Your, Yours, He, His, Him, She, Her, Hers &c. These tiny sounds are connected to a huge content of other verbal codes which more or less design the social structure and routes and valves of communication.

QUOTE: I have given the subject every attention, and am convinced that though instances may and do arise of individual hardship to a tenant, the general character of the dealings of the Hindu landlords towards their tenantry, whether Mappilla or Hindu, is mild, equitable and forbearing. END OF QUOTE.

This is the kind of foolishness that was arrived at. In feudal languages, the suppression is not by rude sounds or terrorising words. It can be delivered by very soft sounds and affectionate tones. A mere Inhi / Nee, and eda /edi is enough to maintain the catching hold. However, no one will have complaints until the English social restructuring arrived. Once a docile subordinate gets to know that in another language system he is not an excrement, things change.

It is like the conversation I had with an ex-Indian soldier. He was a respectable man in his native village, of around 45 years old. He mentioned great things about the Indian army. I simply asked him if he had any occasion to see the British army at close quarters. He said, he had been part of the Indian UN peace-keeping contingent in Sudan in Africa. There had been a British regiment nearby.

I asked him what his impression was about the English Officer-Soldier relationship. He pondered on it for a few moments. Then he face turned terribly contorted. He first said that the English army world was completely different. But within a few more moments, his words became quite bitter. He started using expletives about Indian army officers.

This is the issue. The Indian soldiers are very obedient and disciplined; until they chance to see the English army at close quarters. Then they find that they had been treated at the excrement part of the Indian languages.

These are things which this Mr. Strange had no idea about. No one from his subordinates would inform him all this.

QUOTE: started for the house of a Cheraman (slave caste) lad who had some years previously become a converted to Islam and had subsequently, much to the disgust of the Mappillas of the neighbourhood, reverted to Hinduism END OF QUOTE

Image

This is an incident that has direct links to the feudal language codes. Look at this illustration:

A police constable writes for the Civil Service exam and gets selected for the IPS (India Police Service officer). He is posted far-away from his home state, where everything is different.

He now has a lot of IPS friends. He addresses them with Nee / Thoo etc. (lowest and most intimate level of you).

However, after a couple of years working in the far-off location, he finds that he cannot bear the mental stress anymore. He resigns. And comes home. He appears in an exam for a constable’s job in the local Fire Force. He gets the job.

Now, there is a huge and colossal issue in the language codes. He can address the IPS officers who were his friends with a Nee. For he has build up a friendship with them. However, he is now at the bottom of the hierarchy. Literally a peon-level (Shipai-level) man.

His continued existence becomes a source of sheer mental trauma for the IPS folks who had been his former friends. In fact, if he were to exhibit his companionship in front of others, they would be on the verge of homicide. These are things beyond the ken of a common native-Englishman.

[The reader must note this kind of events do not happen at all. It is like the entry of the English rule. It is not something that would happen in the subcontinent, in a usual circumstance.]

Image

The same is what happened in the case of the Cheruman (very lower castes, diminutive individuals) who converted to Islam. The moment he is a Muslim, he rises up to the top of the social system. For, there is no higher layer in Islam. His companionship now is at that level. However, he does the unthinkable. He goes back to this slave-level. Naturally in the verbal codes, he might continue his fleeting moments of higher status. For instance, standing in his slave level, he might use the word Avan or Aval about the Muslims. It is a case of verbally dragging the others to his stinking level. Actually in the virtual code vision and design vision that exists behind reality, the other persons would be relocated to such stinking depths. It can be felt emotionally.

The real provocation can be seen in this information:

QUOTE: The Mappillas of the neighbourhood had been in the habit of taunting him with his lapse from Islam, and he in his turn had made free use of his tongue in returning their taunts. END OF QUOTE.

May be the slave-cheruman would have said ഇഞ്ഞി പോടാ! It is now a very lower placed person who is making free use of his tongue. This is an issue that cannot be understood in English. It is that, a senior police officer degrading a socially high stature man with a Nee (lowest You) is one thing. It is a totally different proposition if the senior police officer’s menial servant also uses the Nee word to the socially high stature man. The affected man will go totally homicidal, if he has any bit of self-dignity left in him.

QUOTE: Socially the cultivators are subjected (particularly if they are Hindus) to many humiliations and much tyrannical usage by their landlord. END OF QUOTE.

The exact tyrannical humiliations are encoded in the verbal codes.

Image

QUOTE: With settled homesteads and an assured income to all who are thrifty and industrious—and in these respects the Mappillas surpass all other classes—it is certain that fanaticism would die a natural death. END OF QUOTE.

It is a very foolish observation. First of all it is not fanaticism that is provocative. Fanaticism is only the rallying ideology used for accruing inspiration. The provocation is in the language codes. When the provoked side becomes more affluent, they use better strategy to avenge the insults that would be boiling within them.

QUOTE: Without comfort, and with education, discontent would only be increased. END OF QUOTE.

This is a slightly more intelligent observation. In that, simply improving the internal mental stature of a person without a corresponding elevation from the subordination to others, will only induce more hatred. In fact, the degrading verbal codes inside a feudal language are very terrifically repugnant to anyone who improves in mental stature.

QUOTE: The unit of the Hindu social system was the family, not the individual END OF QUOTE.

This is a correct observation made without any profound understanding. However, it is not about a Hindu family. It is about all families which are structured upon feudal languages. All individuals are made to fall in line with a particular regimentation of ‘respect’ focused on certain individuals upwards. Downwards, there are powerful words of degrading positioning. However, if the system is mentally acceptable, then there is no issue. It becomes a string of honouring the persons above and showing affection to those below. To the docile lower-positioned person, it is a cosy location of subordination. However, to a person whose mental stature is higher than his assigned position, it can be position of revolt and mutiny.

It is a complicated scenario. For, in each level of subordination, other persons who are not necessarily inside the regimented hierarchy might try to dominate by degrading verbal codes. This is one of the reasons for the ambience of continual infightings within these families.

Even in the case of the much-mentioned Pazhassiraja, this was the real provocation. He was made subordinate to a henchman of his uncle who was the real king. This is an incident that requires more words to explain. I will do it in the relevant section where this man is discussed.

QUOTE: a time when, looking at the high prices obtained for their produce, the cultivators one would have thought had every reason to be satisfied—there occurred the first of the Mappila outrages reported on by Special Commissioner Strange in 1852. END OF QUOTE.

This was definitely a very erroneous understanding of events as mentioned earlier. The provocation for Mappila outrages against the Nayar and Brahmin sections of the population had more to do with feudal languages, than with any religious issues. The converts to Islam were from the Cheruman caste and such other very low castes and also from Makkathaya Thiyyas. The Brahmins, the Ambalavasis and the Nayars would be used to addressing them as Nee/ Inhi and referring to them as Avan/ Oan and Aval / Oal (all of the lowest indicant word level).

This itself would be a terrible provocation for the Muslims. However, when these Muslims address the other side by mere name, or address them as Avan/ Oan and Aval / Oal, it would have an explosive effect on the higher castes. They will react with vehemence. These two triggers are what set-off the Mappila outrages in south Malabar and to some minor extent in north Malabar.

QUOTE: The men are the laziest, and it was with great difficulty that they were got to do some cooly work during the periodical visits of the officers to the island. END OF QUOTE

This is another terrific information that is misunderstood. In a feudal language social ambience, persons who have some kind of self-respect will not be willing to work under others, in such kinds of work in which they might be addressed in the pejorative forms of words for You, Your, Yours, He, His, Him, She, Her, Hers &c.

However, their wives can be made to work. For, they are used to a lower profile in the verbal codes.

There is absolute lack of information on the wider aspects of this issue. When feudal-language speakers set up businesses inside Great Britain, the native-English people will definitely feel the shudder that lower indicant words evoke. In fact, these words will literally rework and erode all the higher human qualities that the native-English have gathered over the centuries.

There is a specific information on feudal language entrepreneurism that is not known to the native-English side. In almost all feudal language business enterprises, the boss wants someone who can be addressed and referred to in the lower indicant word level, as his subordinate. This is a very crucial bit of information that is not known in England and in all other native-English nations. And it is a very significant issue, which can literally reshape the social landscape of all native-English into terrible levels.

Native-Englishmen and women will display signs of mental trauma and instability if this is allowed to proliferate inside the nation.

QUOTE: The sailor class arrogate to themselves the reputation of being the best malumis (pilots), but this pretension is ridiculed by the other islanders. END OF QUOTE

This is another refection of feudal language social design. Individuals are under stress to promote themselves through some kind of bluff and lies. This is a simple means of improving their vital indicant word status in the society. However, others might be able to see through it.

QUOTE: The generality of the people are poor, all the wealth and influence being confined to a few of Karanavar class who keep the others well under subjection END OF QUOTE

This is the standard social design in all feudal language nations. However, in certain nations like Japan etc., the abundance of wealth that the nation has accrued by a cunning close connection with the US, this poverty might not be visible in the general dressing standards. For all kinds of infrastructural sophistication would be there. Yet, the social divide and suppression will be there, in a non-tangible manner.

As to the conditions in the newly-created nation of India, the above-statement is illustrative of the current-day realities. The officialdom has cornered all the wealth and facilities of the nation. The ordinary man is maintained as a lowly individual. He cannot even address a government official as an equal or with a pose of self-dignity.

Image

QUOTE: The men exact great reverence from the low-caste people whom they address, and are most punctilious in this respect. They in everything endeavour to make it appear in their conduct and conversation that all the excellences are the birthright of the Nambutiris, and that whatever is low and mean is the portion of the lower orders of society END OF QUOTE.

This wonderful observation might be Logan’s own words. However, the wider fact that this is how feudal languages arrange ‘respect’ and loyalty does seem missed. In fact, in feudal languages, the more the lowly-placed individual is oppressed, the more would be his reverence and love to the ‘respected’ higher person. The depth of this observation is not there in this book. For instance, in the location where the outrages of Pazhassiraja, there is a mention of how the lower-class followers of his mentioned his name in deep reverence. The secret of this ‘reverence’ is in the feudal language codes. If the lower-order had been given some ‘respect’ in return, their ‘reverence’ would vanish.

See this QUOTE: I observed a decided interest for the Pyche (Palassi) Rajah, towards whom the inhabitants entertained a regard and respect bordering on veneration, which not even his death can efface. END OF QUOTE.

This is the error that the native-English did in the subcontinent. The more they improved the lower classes and all classes, the more was the loss of ‘reverence’ towards them.

QUOTE: Mr. A. MacGregor. the British Resident in Travancore and Cochin, who had been for several years Collector of Malabar: “First, as to the essential nature of Malabar Mappilla outrages, I am perfectly satisfied that they are agrarian. Fanaticism is merely the instrument through which the terrorism of the landed classes is aimed at.”END OF QUOTE.

It is a terrible foolishness. For, it is already stated that Mappillas were becoming more rich. See this QUOTE: “The land is with the Hindus, the money with the Mappillas," observed3 Mr. Strange END OF QUOTE.

If anyone had mentioned that the error is in the language codes, it is doubtful if anyone would have believed it. For example, in my own very old book March of the Evil Empires; English versus the feudal languages, I have mentioned thus about what would come to happen in the US when feudal languages spread inside it.

QUOTE: Ordinary, peaceful persons would react violently to alien disturbing cultural signals, which are disturbing, and at the same time difficult to understand...............and cause much distress to the individual persons; and can in a matter of time, cause domino effect on many other areas, causing strange happenings of technological failure, inefficiency, conflict, hatred, events that may be described with shallow understanding as racially motivated, decent and peaceful persons acting with unnatural violence etc. END OF QUOTE

Yet, even now, there is no takers for this very profound foretelling.

QUOTE: With settled homesteads and an assured income to all who are thrifty and industrious—and in these respects the Mappillas surpass all other classes—it is certain that fanaticism would die a natural death. END OF QUOTE.

Actually when a lowly-placed person who has been bearing the hammering of the verbal codes for long, slowly improves his social status, a new brooding emotion would start boiling in him. That of seeking vengeance for the long years of brutal verbal assaults he and his family had suffered. These kinds of emotions are not there at all in pristine-English.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 1:00 pm, edited 5 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

28. Claims to great antiquity

Post posted by VED »

28 #

The tone and timbre of this book in various locations is not that of any British man, English or Celtic. In most of the locations, it is the voice of the Nayar population/s in their desperation. It is evidently a very terrible time for them. In that, they do understand the higher quality of the English administration. But have deep misgiving about what is going to happen.

The age-old social structure which had been designed by a feudal language system is going into disarray. However, what is going to take its place is not necessarily a planar-language English social system. The old system will breakdown and allow the total tumbling down of hierarchies. However, the social design will not change into that of England, as designed by a planar language. What will come about would be a levelled-up social structure in which all kinds of hierarchies and lowliness would exists in a hidden form, inside the communication code, with newer persons or groups of persons on top.

This is the total opposite of what was there in England. In England, there were class hierarchies in a statutory form. But still the language codes did not define anyone as a stinking dirt. That is there is no lesser-You than an ordinary-You.

Before going ahead, let me just have a look at the claims of the Nayar folks.

QUOTE: this “Parliament ”.....—-this all powerful influence tending always to the maintenance of customary observances—....... END OF QUOTE

Oh, the great Nayar Parliament which existed from times immemorial! The claims if accepted should re-route all Political Science studies to Malabar in seeking out how democracy was discovered in Malabar, much before Magna Carta was even contemplated upon.

QUOTE: But Mr. Graeme made the great mistake of thinking that the desam and the tara were synonymous, and so in his scheme of amsam establishments, the real civil organisation by the Karanavar or elders of the people was ignored, and in its place authority of various kinds was conferred on some only of the men who had been the local representatives of the ruling chieftains of Malabar. The mistake was of importance because it diverted attention away from, what had been the ancient organisation, and placed the real power in the hands of only one man out of several who had previously acted together in a body in the kuttam or assembly of the tara. END OF QUOTE.

Image

The whole paragraph above is a pack of lies. No group of persons in the subcontinent were or are interested in the welfare of the sections which come under them. In fact the very concept of improving a lower section population means allowing them displace the population or individuals above them. That is the way the language codes are placed. When an Avan (lowest he /him) develops into the level of an Adheham (highest he / him), the Adheham goes down into the level of an Avan. This is the most dangerous information that has been very cunningly secluded from the native-English.

It was only the native-English rule that had no qualms about enhancing the mental and physical quality of the lower populations. However, they were foolish. They frankly did not know what they were doing. As of now, the very population/s which have improved through their intervention have no qualms about mentioning ideas to displace them, even from England.

Off course, it is a land where history is forged. There is this much mentioned opinion about Al Biruni:

QUOTE from elsewhere: Al-Biruni was critical of Indian scribes who he believed carelessly corrupted Indian documents while making copies of older documents. END OF QUOTE.

The word ‘Indian’ itself is some kind of a corruption inserted by some ingenious genius. It would have been more appropriate to mention the exact word which Al Biruni mentioned. And even if the word ‘Indian’ is actually there, it is not about a nation or a country or even of a geopolitical region actually. It is only about a particular population/s, who existed in the midst of a number of populations inside the subcontinent. Brahmins do not represent any other population. In the same way, each caste of people represents only themselves.

QUOTE: Nothing strikes the fancy more strongly in the old Hindu world stories than the picture presented of fighting men killing each other in one field, while the husbandman peacefully tilled the one adjoining, and the Brahman sat silently contemplating creation under a neighbouring sacred tree. Busy each in their own spheres, it mattered very little to them how it fared with others having other and distinct functions. END OF QUOTE.

The words ‘Indian’, ‘India’, Indians’ &c. do not have any meaning, if the above quote is ratified. For, each population is not bothered about others, inside the subcontinent.

QUOTE: On the other hand, of course, the sharing system in a pure Hindu State is well known and exists to the present day, and extends to all classes of the community, no matter how humble or how despised their callings may be. END OF QUOTE.

This is a very cunning statement. There is no sharing of any goodness in the subcontinent or in any other feudal language society. Simply check the state of the people in Travancore. Check Slavery in the Indian Subcontinent (chapter excerpt from Native Life in Travancore by Rev. Samuel Mateer.

QUOTE: “By eating of this rice they all engage to burn themselves on the day the king dies, or is slain, and they punctually fulfil their promise.” END OF QUOTE.

These are claims which cannot withstand any kind of scrutiny. Check the Nayar courage in the various battles. Even in Travancore State Manual, it is mentioned as of dubious quality. It is quite obvious that all these words are not from Logan.

QUOTE: This festival was called the Mamakham or Maha Makham which means literally big sacrifice. It seems to have been originally the occasion for a kuttam or assembly of all Keralam, at which public affairs were discussed and settled. END OF QUOTE.

The above statement is an extremely ridiculous one. The Mamankam is seen described in detail as a very foolish amassing of people to witness some kind of barbarian ritual. Only utterly foolish people would indulge in these kinds of activity in which many people are simply hacked to pieces.

What kind of discussion of public affairs is supposed to take place there? The amassing of such a huge number of people (around 30,000 Nayars, it is claimed) would test the meagre infrastructural facilities at the temple premises. The place would stink due to the issue of low-quality toileting and sanitary facilities. Beyond that there would be huge issues of drinking water and food preparation. Beyond that there would issues connected to accommodation and sleeping. Apart from all this, there would be issue of security of the individual households in the locality and on the routes to this place.

And what about the hundreds of wounded persons?

Armed persons in groups moving through a path is generally considered totally dangerous to the household and females in households. These are known items. And there are locations in this book, Malabar, where such terrors are hinted at. However, it is quite funny that there is no direct mention of these things. The general atmosphere of molesting that happens during a raid or a pillaging party entering a village is mentioned in Travancore State Manual. The dying words of King Rama Rajah, the Dharma Rajah, who died on a believed to be inauspicious day. The barbarianism of wars, all wars is clear in them. Imagine a land that moves one war to another, with regular periodicity.

QUOTE from Travancore State Manual:

“Yes I know that to-day is Chuturdasi, but it is unavoidable considering the sins of war I have committed with Rama Iyan when we both conquered and annexed several petty States to Travancore. Going to hell is unavoidable under the circumstances. I can never forget the horrors to which we have been parties during those wars. How then do you expect me to die on a better day than Chaturdasi? May God forgive me all my sins” [/i]END OF QUOTE.

It might be true that all wars are horrible. However, think of the state of living in a land where these kinds of insecurities were frequent events over periodic intervals.

QUOTE: He is also credited with having introduced the study of sciences into the Malayali country, for the Malayali Brahmans were, it is said, ignorant of sciences up to this time. In this, he was assisted by a person styled Udkayatungan, also called the Chetty (foreign merchant), who endowed the teacher of science, Prabhakara Gurukkal, with land sowing 5,000 kalams (bushels) of seed. END OF QUOTE.

The wider problem with this claim is that there are very many information in the Shamanistic spiritual traditions (which the Brahmins abhor) and in the Vedic texts. Both these traditions are not native to Malabar or Travancore or even to the subcontinent. The Vedic scriptures are connected to some geographical locations in the north-central Asia. Whether it is owned by the north-Indian ‘Aaryans’ or by the German ‘Aryans’ is not known to me.

Image

As to the Brahmins of Malabar, Tamilnadu, Canara, Travancore etc., it is quite doubtful if they also have any deep information on what the exact technological ideas are therein. Simply having the ability to chant a mantra does not mean that the chanting population created the technology or understands it’s working. It is simply like someone knowing to use a computer.

As to the bloodlines to the Vedic people, it would be very negligible and slim. If one calculates backwards, every living human being in Malabar or Tamilnadu or Travancore will be connected to literally millions of people who were alive some 7 to 8 thousand years back on this globe. Those people naturally, if they are technically skilled, would be connected to all the ancient populations in Asia, Africa, Continental Europe, South American Continent, North American Continent and even to Great Britain.

As to South Asia having special link to Sanskrit, it is actually very much less than the link this location has to English. In fact, in my own childhood, I do not remember knowing or hearing about anyone who was well-versed in Sanskrit. Naturally there would be such persons, but they were not the common crowd. Simply some scholars or others who strove to learn the language. That does not give them any Sanskrit antiquity.

Now, the claim in the above quote has certain other implications. The land is known for inserting claims into ancient documents. Even the Keralolpathi is very apparently a forgery. So, it is only a matter of time before all modern scientific knowledge would be very quaintly ‘found’ in ancient palm-leaf books! Just imagine a population who could not create a writable paper claiming various scientific skills and information.

However, in this regard there is this much also to be mentioned. Ancient knowledge is actually seen to be a diffused version of some grand knowledge repository. For instance, see the Zodiac sign names in Malabari and Travancore astrology. Both might be using the same names. And these names would in many cases be quite near in meaning to what is used in Western Astrology.
Kanni – Virgo
Thulam – Libra (Common balance is the symbol) etc.

May be if one were to check the astrology of the ancient Mayans also, there might be some similarities. Simply knowing astrology does not mean that it is the ancestor of that person who created the knowledge. These kind of senseless claims are those of total insipid low-quality populations. There is actually a very sensible caricaturing given to this attitude by a famous Malayalam writer, Vaikom Muhammad Basheer. One of his book characters had the name Ettukaali Mammoonhju. He had been featured as placing a claim on everything that he can.

Image

Another thing worth mentioning is that it took a great lot of effort on the part of the English officials of the English East India Company to find out the various ancient textbooks in Sanskrit. They went on noting down books which had been hinted at or mentioned or referred to other ancient books. Most of these books were found out from various nook locations in the subcontinent in some ancient landlord household. In fact, if this endeavour had not been undertaken, the books would have been lost to posterity.

And now the cantankerous claim is that all these books are part of the antiquity of various populations who actually had not even an iota of connection with these.

QUOTE: In the country of Malabar are twelve kings, the greatest of whom has fifty thousand troops at his command ; the least five thousand or thereabouts END OF QUOTE.

Twelve kings in the minute geographical location of Malabar! Well, that itself should show that incessant daily confrontations between these tiny rulers.

And fifty thousand soldiers? Well, these kinds of claims from ancient records of some writers have been collected and prominently mentioned. However in all the wars and battles inside Malabar that the English Company has very carefully recorded, most of the fights had only a few hundred or thousand fighters on each side. Only when Hyder Ali and Sultan Tippu came into the picture did the attacking side seem to have higher number. Even then, they were confronted not by tens of thousands of Nayars! Tens of thousands of Nayars simply fled at the sight of the enemy.

QUOTE: "Just as Cabral was preparing to leave Cochin on 10th January 1501, a fleet belonging to the Zamorin, carrying one thousand five hundred men was descried off the harbour. END OF QUOTE.

See just one thousand five hundred men. Even this figure can be doubted. People tend to exaggerate. It is like this. Many years ago, one man told me, “Some five hundred women are working there.’ This is ‘five hundred’ is a usage to convey the meaning of ‘immense’. In my total naivety, I asked him, ‘Five hundred women?’

He then told me, ‘We simply say thus just to convey the idea that a lot of women are working there. There must be some thirty or thirty five women working there.’

QUOTE: “Now when the season for setting out had arrived, the Emperor of Hindustan appointed one of the junks of the thirteen that were in the port for our voyage. END OF QUOTE

lbn Batuta’s writings are generally very local information more or less what his mind was impressed with. As to an Emperor of Hindustan being there has to be taken with a pinch of salt. It is like the claim of an Emperor of Calicut. As a solitary traveller, his impressions are what he directly saw in a locality, I should presume.

See his words: QUOTE: Every vessel, therefore, is like an independent city. Of such ships as these, Chinese individuals will sometimes have large numbers; and, generally, the Chinese are the richest people in the world END OF QUOTE.

For the above statement to be of any credibility, he must have seen the world. I get a slight feeling from a cursory perusal of his book that he is a just a solitary traveller who made fabulous historical recordings. However, his adjectives should be taken from his background as a solitary traveller, who faced a lot of hardship on most of his journey.

Image

As to the Chinese being the richest in the world, it is only about the rich Chinese man he is referring to. Not to the immensity of Chinese servants who worked for this rich man. Since China is presumably a feudal language nation of a very terrible kind, it is possible that even now, there would be a huge percent of population over then who live like the slaves of south Asia. Not like the Negro slaves of USA, who in those days, more or less, had the looks of the super rich of Asia.

Even lbn Batuta, despite his great wanderings, do not seem to be aware of the terrific issue of feudal languages, as opposed to planar languages. After all, he had never visited England, in spite of all the claims of his having great world knowledge and experience.

QUOTE: The greatest part of the Muhammadan merchants of this place are so wealthy, that one of them can purchase the whole freightage of such vessels as put in here, and fit out others like them. END OF QUOTE.

Even though there is no way to check the veracity of the above statement, it could be true. In feudal language social system, the rich are super-rich and the poor super poor. Apart from that, the statement seems to prove that the trading wares inside each ship were not of such fabulous value. For a single rich man is seen to be able to buy everything in all the ships in port.

QUOTE: “No one becomes king by force of arms,” he observed, and seemed astonished at the fact. END OF QUOTE.

It is all very local information connected to tiny locations and very small bits of time-period. All feudal language nations do have problems with setting up placid conventions, if there is a multitude of population groups. In a homogenous population, feudal languages will arrange all members in a very tight and immovable slots in varying layers.

QUOTE: The Raja exacted tribute from Ceylon, kept a corps of three hundred female archers, and it is said he had not hesitated to challenge to battle the Raja of Vijayanagar. END OF QUOTE.

Even though these female archers might look grand in both Hollywood as well as Bombay Film world films, what their exact demeanour would be depending on the level in the feudal languages codes. And what is the purpose they would serve which a set of male archers could not do is also a moot question.

Image

It is like claiming that a woman can climb coconut trees. What is it that would be proved if this statement is mentioned as some kind of achievement? For, the men-folk who dared to do this endeavour ended up in depleted social status.

Usually in current-day India, females with some personal quality will not go and join as a police constable. An Englishman or woman would not really understand why this is so. It is something to do with the language codes which define not only men and women in any particular profession, but would also define their verbal relationships.

As to his daring to fight the kind of Vijayanagar, it is again a local bluff to impress his own people. In a different location in this book, Malabar, there is a QUOTE thus:

for it is said that the king of Bijanagar has 300 sea-ports, every one of which is equal to Kalikot, and that inland his cities and provinces extend over a journey of three months.”

The question here is how would the bluff be called? Only if the Vijayanagar king marches to Travancore, which he would only do if he is so egoistic and foolish. For Travancore is a small place at a considerable distance. As to Travancore marching to Vijayanagar, it would be a march with no prospects of return. For at that time, the English East India Company was not there to lend support to Travancore.

See this QUOTE: After that its decline was rapid owing to the interference of the Portuguese with the Muhammadan trade, and it has never since then recovered its position, as Cochin, its rival, under Portuguese and Dutch influence, has, with its greater natural facilities, always hitherto had an advantage. END OF QUOTE

Tiny Calicut was propped up by the Egyptian king. When the Egyptian trade was demolished by the Portuguese, Cochin went on to higher levels. However, it is funny that after the arrival of the English, there is no grand historical nonsense such as this one:

QUOTE: the Chinese even came from the far East in their gigantic floating hulks. END OF QUOTE.

May be the Chinese took fright!

These kind of insipid statements will be swallowed hook, line and sinker by many. However, the fact remains that a few shiploads of English sailors could defeat a city army in China, within a matter of a few hours, in what is now known as the Opium War. Technically China was very big compared to miniscule England and also much more powerful. Yet, when it came to human interaction, the Chinese ditched their own side. After all, who would like to be subordinated to feudal-language-speaking barbarians?

QUOTE: ! In the time (literally, year) of Perumal (Cō, king, or Gō) Sthanu Ravi Gupta, who now rules gloriously for many 100,000 years, treading under foot hostile heads, END OF QUOTE.

This is from a Deed connected to Travancore kingdom. Why a Travancore Deed has been mentioned in a book on Malabar has its own answers. I will not move into that. The claim that this king Sthanu Ravi Gupta, now rules gloriously for many 100,000 years is more or less quite evocative of the real standards of the local antiquity.

QUOTE: For, coming fresh from the country east of the ghats, where the ryots had been accustomed for generations to be a down-trodden race, he seems to have mistaken altogether the character of the people with whom he had to deal. END OF QUOTE.

This statement is meant to convey that the people of Madras area (current-day Tamilnadu) are quite docile and meek. It is all half-baked information. The fact is that Tamil is a very feudal language. People who get subordinated generally are made to exist as some kind of docile subservient persons. For, that is the way to manage the social communication issues.

In Malabar, the Nayars have a number of populations under them. So, they are not the subordinated population here. In the language codes, this will be a major factor for deciding various verbal codes in regard to both the populations.

QUOTE: There must have been considerable intercourse between Persia and India, for in the middle of the sixth century a learned Persian —perhaps a Christian—came to India to get a copy of the Panchatantram. END OF QUOTE.

There is a cunning insertion here. It is not an innocent one. A Christian came and collected a great book from ‘India’. Many persons would later on add on to it, and say the Christians, the Jesuits, the Missionaries etc. came and took out ‘our’ great ‘knowledges’ to the West.

The fact might remain that it was the English officials who worked hard to find the lost books of the subcontinent. It is doubtful if the present day populations have any historical link to the ancient books.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 1:01 pm, edited 6 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

29. Piracy

Post posted by VED »

29 #

It is true that there have been pirates who had been Englishmen. It is just that when English ships move to long distances, they come across enterprises that are not English in character. But then, when they become part of that world, they change.

However, an Englishman doing any such thing would be quite noticed and mentioned many times in many locations. In fact, there is a mention of one Englishman running an arrack trading business in the interior location of Madras Presidency, seen mentioned. His name is mentioned. However, there would be many other local people who did the same kind of peddling. But that would not evoke the same level of notice. And, it would be quite unwise to try to define pristine-English native character based on this information.

As to current-day England, the native-English population are living amongst feudal-language speakers. They are like the old good quality Anglo-Indian populations of in various locations in the subcontinent. Their easy affability was misinterpreted by the others, after the departure of the English rule. During the English rule, their easy affability had a sound logic. For, they were displaying a quality of refinement in the midst of a semi-barbarian feudal-language population. However, the moment the English rule departed, their easy affability became the definition of low class softness. Their women folk were quite easy defined with the lower indicant word ‘Oal ഓൾ’ / Aval അവൾ. From this word platform, it is easy to address them as Inhi ഇഞ്ഞി / Nee നീ. Their refinement was mentioned as the affability of sluts.

The same thing is currently happening to the native-English population, and they are not aware of it. That is the grand tragedy. In a spontaneous way to shield themselves, the men folk will become tougher and rude, and the women folk would turn masculine. The traditional grace of the native-English would get wiped out.

Image

Now coming back to the pirates, there is this QUOTE in this book, Malabar.

QUOTE: He then sailed for the West Indies, was arrested in America by one of the noblemen (Lord Bellamont) who had helped to fit him out, was tried, condemned, and hanged in chains at Tilbury (23rd May 1701), and his property becoming forfeit, was presented by Queen Anne to Greenwich Hospital. This severe example did not, however, prevent others from following in his footsteps, END OF QUOTE.

The issue with this kind of quotes is that in modern times, there is a tendency to define England from the deeds of the misanthropes there. These deeds do not define England.
However, when we come to the South Asian Subcontinent, the scenario changes. This is due to the total roughness of the language codes and the rudeness it induces on the people.

QUOTE: Kottakkal.—At the mouth of the Kotta river, was a famous resort for pirates in former days. They made prizes of all vessels not carrying the pass of the Kadattunad Rajah, their sovereign, who was styled the lord of the seas END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE: Then, again; ships which came ashore were annexed by the chieftain of the locality. Moreover, a more piratical custom than this even was observed, in ancient times at least, for thus wrote Marco Polo respecting the kingdom of “Eli” (ante, p. 7) : “And you must know that if any ship enters their estuary and anchors there, having been bound for some other port, they seize her and plunder the cargo. For they say, ‘you were bound for somewhere else, and ‘its God has sent you hither to us, so we have a right to all your goods.’ END OF QUOTE.

These kinds of behaviour are the standard behaviour of the upper classes of the subcontinent. Their lower classes also join them in their spirited endeavour. It is part a display of loyalty, and part a chance to get a share of the booty. Imagine the plight of the women who had travel from Calicut to Tellicherry via sea! Travelling by sea was easier than by land, in those days due to the fact that there were no proper roadways across the huge number of mutually competing ‘rulers’ on the pathways.

QUOTE: And they think it no sin to act thus. And this naughty custom prevails all over these provinces of India, to wit, that if a ship be driven by stress of weather into some other port than that to which it was bound, it is sure to be plundered. But if a ship come bound originally to the place they receive it with all honour and give it due protection.” (Yule’s Marco Polo, II, 374.) END OF QUOTE.

The concept of Sin is not much there in the spirituality of the subcontinent, I think. Even the most pious person who is a government official has no qualms about taking a bribe or extracting a bribe by terrorising a man. Telling lies to a subordinated man or cheating him or breaking a word of honour given to him, is not an item of any special consideration. It is just a plane fact of life.

Only in English would these things seem like dishonourable acts.

QUOTE: The custom of taking ships and cargoes wrecked on the coast continued down to recent times, for the English factors at Tellicherry entered into engagements with three of the country powers for exempting English vessels from such seizure. But it was a custom which the Malayali chieftains broke through with extreme reluctance. The kings of Bednur were the first to grant immunity in 1736- 37, and thrice afterwards ratified it ; then followed the Kolattiri prince, on 8th May 1749, ratified in 1760; and finally the Kadattunad Raja granted similar immunity in 1761. END OF QUOTE.

The English Company was slowly changing the landscape from a semi-barbarian one to a better civil society. However, it took a lot of time. And at the end of it all, an insane idiot in England gave the land back to the same people, to make it semi-barbarian and then totally barbarian.

When speaking about piracy which was done with the total cooperation of the local small-time rulers, there is a wider matter being missed. It was the total helplessness of the common populations, mainly the lower castes. A simple lower-most You, He, She, (ഇഞ്ഞ്, ഓൻ, ഓള്) is enough to erase all rights to dignity, self-respect and right to social stature. For these people, the very movement from one place to another in a secure ambience would have arrived only when the English Company brought down the powers of the lower thugs, who were the higher castes and classes.

But then, if the truth be mentioned, the higher castes also suffered from terrible problems. For the lower castes were not angels. They, if not properly subordinated, were rude and insulting. Their very glance at the higher caste women would be totally profane and degrading, if they do not acknowledge their subservience. The Brahmin women would not budge out of their agraharams (Brahmins’ only villages).

QUOTE: From thence they sail with the wind called Hippalos in forty days to the first commercial station of India named Muziris (ante, p. 78), which is not much to be recommended on account of the neighbouring pirates, who occupy a place called Nitrias nor does it furnish any abundance of merchandise. END OF QUOTE.

What a way to praise a location! India’s first commercial station is unapproachable, due to pirates. And what about the word ‘India’? Could it really be ‘India’ or something like ‘Inder’, ‘Indies’ &c. In the 1950s, when the whole administrative systems founded by the native-English came into the hands of the Indian / Pakistani bureaucrats, they must have felt a huge freedom to do what they wanted with anything in their hands. For, they had no qualms about anything going spoilt. They had got everything free.

QUOTE: He then proceeds to describe the pirates of Melibar and of Gozurat, and their tactics in forming sea cordons with a large number of vessels, each five or six miles apart, communicating news to each other by means of fire or smoke, thereby enabling all the corsairs to concentrate on the point where a prize was to be found. END OF QUOTE.

What a wonderful leadership and purposefulness! Maybe some Indian professor in some US University would be able to prove that it was actually these ‘Indian’ pirates who had discovered Morse code and other Telegraphic codes. It is possible that he would pull out of his pocket some palm-leaf book, in which Morse code is very clearly written in ancient Sanskrit. Well, off course, Samuel Morse stole it from this ‘great’ ‘Kerala’ scientific book!!!

QUOTE: Meanwhile the coast pirates were busy, and in 1566 and again in 1568 those of Ponnani under Kutti Poker made prize of two large Portuguese vessels. In one of these ships it is said no less than a thousand Portuguese soldiers, “many of them approved veterans,’’ perished either by the sword or by drowning. Kutti Poker’s adventurous career was however cut short in 1569, for after having made a successful raid on the Portuguese fort at Mangalore, he fell in with a Portuguese fleet as he was returning south off Cannanore, and he and all his company “received martyrdom.” END OF QUOTE.

The above incident would be piracy only partially. For, a fight between the Arab side and the Portuguese side for the monopoly of the pepper trade was an ongoing event. Even though Kutti Poker might be mentioned as a sort of great ‘Indian freedom fighter’ for the nation that was going to be created much later, the fact remains that he was only fighting for the interests of his own team and that of the Egyptian King.

QUOTE: “And he (the Zamorin) and his country are the nest and resting place for stranger thieves, and those be called ‘Moors of Carposa,’ because they wear on their heads long red hats ; and thieves part the spoils that they take on the sea with the King of Calicut, for he giveth leave unto all that will go a roving liberally to go ; in such wise that all along that coast there is such a number of thieves, that there is no sailing in those seas, but with great ships, and very well armed ; or else they must go in company with the army of the Portugals.” — (Eng. Translation. END OF QUOTE.

The hint that the king of tiny Calicut was in partnership with Muslim pirates can be taken to be true to some extent. However, that was the way the subcontinent was before the arrival of the English rule. It is seen that the King of Badagara was actually a sort of king of pirates. It was all terrible times. Woe to the women folks who got into the hands of a group which did not have ‘respect’ for them!

Image

For ‘respect’ in feudal languages is a shield. Oru ഓര് is protected. Olu ഓള് is molested.

Even King Marthanda Varma of Travancore, when he wanted to go on a pilgrimage to Rameshwar, asked for a Sepoy regiment of the English Company to accompany him and lend him and his family security. That was the land and the times.

QUOTE from Travancore State Manual by V Nagam Aiya: In 1784 the Maharajah proposed a pilgrimage to the holy island of Ramesvaram not only as a piece of religious duty but also to acquaint himself with the manners and customs and the methods of administration followed in the neighbouring countries. His Highness was accompanied by a large retinue and was escorted by a few companies of sepoys belonging to the English and some officers of the Nawab, as he had to travel through the countries of the Poligars, a set of rude and lawless chieftains. END OF QUOTE

If this be the case of a king, imagine the terrors that lay upon an ordinary family. If they are of low caste, they cannot even travel on the road.

QUOTE: and in the half way is Cottica, which was famous formerly for privateering on all Ships and Vessels that traded without their Lord’s Pass.” END OF QUOTE.

That was about the Raja of Kadathnad (Badagara).

QUOTE: and two English vessels driven ashore in Canara had been seized and plundered and no redress had been given END OF QUOTE.

That was the deed of the Bednur Raja of Canara. Anyone in distress is not helped but looted and physically attacked.

QUOTE: Labourdonnais had despatched one of his ships to Goa for provisions, etc., and on 10th December news arrived that the Mahratta pirate, Angria of Gheria, with seven grabs and thirteen gallivats, had surrounded and after a long day’s fighting, from 7 a.m. till 6 p.m., had taken her, although she had 200 European soldiers and mariners on board. She was deeply laden with rice, wheat flour, and arrack, and she had besides between 300 and 400 slaves on board intended for the French Islands. END OF QUOTE.

Even though, any insipid local historian might feel that this attack on French ships were some kind of freedom fight, the fact is that there was no one to do any policing on the High Seas.

Beyond that there is another fact that might be seen. That the French did continue with the slave-employment even when Great Britain had categorically demanded that slave-trade should be stopped. As to the French catching the ‘Indians’ as slaves, it might not be true. For there were millions of people in the subcontinent who were defined as slaves. They were the commodity of the local landlords who would sell them to anyone they wanted. The lucky ones were bought by the French.

QUOTE: This important capture seems to have inflamed the imaginations of the coast pirates generally and to have incited them to renewed activity, for the records during the next two years are full of notices of them and of their exploits END OF QUOTE.

It is true that in current-day India, there is a general tendency for everyone to try the same business which was found to be quite profitable. So, it is not a surprise that a lot of people entered into the business of piracy. Almost all the coastal kings would give their support to this enterprise. Yet, it must be mentioned that generally the seafaring folks are kept at a distance by the higher castes. This might be due to the general lower caste quality of the seafarers. The only exception to this might be the Muslims. This was because there was no caste division among them, even though there are slight repulsion in the case of marriages, with certain professions like the barber, the butcher &c.

The second item for remark is the way the English Company maintained a record of everything in their Log books. This Log book becomes an extremely accurate history. Because it is not written with any clandestine aim of befooling the later people. The Company officials were writing them for their own use as a diary of events.

QUOTE: After the monsoon of 1742 the pirates were again busy. Coompta was looted by Kempsant. In January 1743 Angria with 7 grabs and 11 gallivats appeared at Calicut and fired about 100 rounds at the shipping, driving some of them ashore. On the 13th this piratical fleet was off Mahe. In February the Company’s armed gallivat “Tiger” under Richard Richards, succeeded in capturing one of Kempsant’s gallivats and three small vessels. END OF QUOTE.

Here we see the fabulous record of the native-English when England was pristine-England. That Britannia rules the waves!

QUOTE: Angria also took another French ship, and appeared off Calicut in March, causing a great panic there and causing people to desert the place with their families and valuables. END OF QUOTE

See the funny part. When the great ‘Indian freedom fighters’, after capturing a French ship arrived on the Calicut coast, the people of Calicut ran for their lives.

QUOTE: In April several encounters occurred between the pirates and various English ships and the “Tiger” gallivat on the voyage between Bombay and Tellicherry. The “Tiger” was kept busy in looking after the Kottakal pirates to the south likewise. END OF QUOTE.

In the current-day Indian history, the ‘Kottakal pirates’ are mentioned as ‘freedom fighters’. Their location is near to Badagara. They are Mappilla seafaring people. The actual fact would be that they are local supporters of the Egyptian pepper trade, supporting the Calicut king. How much the Nayars and other non-Muslim populations liked them is a debatable point. In all trade issues, a very antagonistic attitude has been there between the Nayars and the Mappillas. In fact, this was what actually spoiled what could have been the beginning of a great trade relationship with Portugal for Calicut. For, it was very clearly evident that the Calicut king had been reduced to some kind of an imbecile by the mutually competing attitude of the two separate power centres under him. His words of commitment had no value.

In fact, it was quite obvious that he was not in command.

QUOTE: In January 1744 a Portuguese frigate was engaged for two days and two nights off “Pigeon Island” with 7 of Angria’s grabs and 17 gallivats. She would likely have fallen a prize, for all her masts had been shot away, had not the Company’s vessels above named, under Commodore Freeman, come to her rescue ; two of the piratical grabs were hauled off from this encounter in a sinking state. END OF QUOTE

Continental Europeans literally have piggy-backed ridden on native-English accomplishments and reputation. Here it is seen that the English ship had to come to the rescue of a Portuguese ship under attack of the pirates.

QUOTE: In July the Kadattunad Raja (the King of the pirates) asserted his right to the wreck of a French brigantine, which went ashore to the south of Mahe. END OF QUOTE.

No comments!

Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 1:02 pm, edited 5 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

30. Caste System

Post posted by VED »

30 #

There is a general talk about the caste system prevalent in the South Asian Subcontinent. Actually it is a very clever technique to deflect all focus from a terrible content in the subcontinent. This terrible content is the feudal language codes in the communication software (language) over here. This is an open secret which is maintained in a huge bit of secrecy.

If this information comes out, then it would become very difficult to mention anything about the native-English racism. For, it would soon evolve that the native-English are still being gullible idiots. For, they are being degraded into some kind of abominable dirt by the immigrant sections, and still they are none the wiser.

There was a shooting of a Telugu speaker in the USA. I did try to explain the provocation. However, the Telugu side over there went on ridiculing my explanations. Some of the words they used were pure profanity and expletives. However, by the next morning their association had made a declaration that the Telugu people in the US should refrain from speaking in Telugu in the open areas. Yet, still the idea was not mentioned in detail. So that the understanding that came out was that the ‘racists’ in the US will not like another language there. However, that was not the real issue.

See my words in the comment: QUOTE: I think this move was provoked by my own conversation on Youtube with the Telugu people in the US.

Image

My last posts was thus:

QUOTE:
Since you have used a lot of insulting words, I am replying ignoring all them. I know you would feign not to understand what I am saying. However, may be some others might get to read the information.

A person in a feudal language, goes to a police station, and uses a lower grade You, Your, Yours, He, Him, His &s. to the police official therein. In Hindi, I understand it is Thoo, and in South Indian languages it is some kind of Nee word.

As far as I can understand the situation, the man who came in and used such words would be beaten to a pulp by the policemen. Not many persons in India would find fault with the policemen, for it is colloquially understood that other man had used provocations that cannot be humanly borne.

I am only saying that all the civil provocations in the US might need to be re-investigated from this angle.

When such provocative triggers are pulled, the persons who do it should understand that they are capable for igniting homicidal mania.

However, the excuse that the other side (Native-English) cannot understand the degrading would be a lame excuse. It is like saying that one can commit a bank robbery if one is not found out.
END OF QUOTE

However, it is not correct to finish off the matter with a one-sided slyness. The issue of feudal languages spreading disarraying in a refined native-English nation has to be properly investigated.

All similar violence in the past in the US has to re-checked. If the feudal language speakers have actually pulled the verbal trigger in their hands, then the other side cannot be blamed for the violence they are seen to have done.

QUOTE: The Hindu Malayali is not a lover of towns and villages. His austere habits of caste purity and impurity made him in former days flee from places where pollution in the shape of men and women of low caste met him at every corner ; and even now the feeling is strong upon him and he loves not to dwell in cities. END OF QUOTE.

This pollution is connected to the feudal languages. And it is real. It is like a constable addressing an IPS officer as a Nee. There is no need to touch or come near. The harm is done.

QUOTE: Inferior castes, however, cannot thus speak of their houses in the presence of the autocratic Nambutiri. In lowliness and self-abasement they have, when talking to such an one, to style their houses “dungheaps,” and they and their doings can only be alluded to in phrases every one of which is an abasement and an insult END OF QUOTE
It is the English rule that brought in dignity to the lower castes. If the English rule had not come, there are many possibilities that could have happened. I will deal with that later.

QUOTE: Length of time has fossilised minute changes, and new castes have grown up. These also, from an ethnic and social point of view, remain one and the same caste.” END OF QUOTE.

Actually what has been fossilised is not caste per se. It is the fossilisation of the slots and layers designed and created by the feudal language codes. It is the fossilisation of verbal slots.

QUOTE: The committee (Madras Town Census Committee) accepted, without question, the divisions of the Hindu community into (1) Brahmans, (2) Kshairiyas, (3) Vaisyas, (4) Sudras, and (5) Out-castes END OF QUOTE.

May be this is the beginning point of the error. May be not. The first four castes might be from the Brahmanical religion.

However, the outcastes are what is what matters here in Malabar. The Sudras or the Nayars in Malabar might not also really be from the Brahmanical religion. However, in the case of Marumakkathaya Thiyyas of north Malabar, Makkathaya Thiyyas of south Malabar, Malayan, Vannaan, and such other lower castes, and Pariah, Pulaya etc. very low castes, they are definitely not from the Brahmanical religion. In most probability, they might be the populations enslaved by means of verbal codes by the Hindus.

The English Company naturally made a grievous error. They clubbed the enslaved populations along with the enslavers. However, the words enslaved and enslavers also do have problems. In many case, it might not be a case of enslavement. Instead it would be shackling of populations who if let loose would push out the others and occupy the commanding locations. This again is an information that has not arrived in England. The immigrant populations who are feudal language speakers have been let loose in England. It is a most dangerous situation over there.

QUOTE: These Brahmans had a monopoly of learning for many centuries, and doubtless this was one of the ways in which they managed to secure such commanding influence in the country. END OF QUOTE.

The above is also a foolish statement. It is not learning actually that helps maintain the commanding layer. It is the cunning use of verbal codes in such a way that the other side has no other go other than to go under. These are very powerful information, which all native-English nations have to bear in mind.

QUOTE: But it must not be supposed that the teaching which the Nambutiri Brahmans receive is wholly religious. The study of the different sciences seems to have descended in particular families, and astronomy in particular has had great attention paid to it, and the knowledge of it is fairly exact. END OF QUOTE

It might be true that the Brahmins might have had learning in the Sanskrit-based knowledge of yore. What exactly are there in the Sanskrit text is not known to me. It is possible that it might contain some hints of ancient mathematics etc. However, whether a complete construction of mathematics starting right from the fundamentals has reached into our times seems doubtful.

After-all, the Brahmins themselves do not seem have been the discovers of any of the ancient knowledge systems. At best, they were the people who had some ancient ancestral links with the people who created the Vedic textbooks. How who made it or the machineries they used, are not known as of now, I think. And whether these ancestors were the discoverers or the servants of the discoverers is also a moot point. For the staff members in any scientific organisation would naturally pick up a lot of information on what is going on in the organisation.

The Brahmins are merely the chanters of ancient verbal codes and software codes. It is like a computer professional using a Computer or writing a codes in any software language. He is not the creator of the computer or the software language. He can merely work on them. That is all.

QUOTE: There can hardly be a doubt that the high degree of civilisation to which the country had advanced at a comparatively early period was due to Aryan immigrants from the north, and these immigrants brought with them Aryan ideas of method and order in civil government which became the law of the land. END OF QUOTE.

This is an utter nonsensical statement. In this book, in the history section there is no location that can stand testimony to this nonsensical statement. Aaryan ideas, if at all they are great, have not sowed any kind of fabulous method and order in civil government. The state of the subcontinent till the advent of the English rule has been categorically mentioned by V Nagam Aiya in his Travancore State Manual.

QUOTE from Travancore State Manual: “It is the power of the British sword,” as has been well observed, “which secures to the people of India the great blessings of peace and order which were unknown through many weary centuries of turmoil, bloodshed and pillage before the advent of the Briton in India”. END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE: If this reasoning and the facts on which it is founded are correct, then it follows that the origin of the caste system is to be sought, not so much in any ethnic circumstances of blood connection as Dr. Cornish suggests, as in the ordinary every-day system of civil government imported into the country by Aryan immigrants, and readily adopted by the alien peoples among whom the immigrants came, not as conquerors, but as peaceful citizens, able by their extensive influence elsewhere to assist the people among whom they settled. END OF QUOTE.

Image

This is a very cunning misrepresentation of events. The entry of feudal language speakers would be quite a peaceful one, if seen from the perspective of physical arms and munitions. However, they have one terrible powerful concealed weapon. That is the dangerous feudal language codes. Once they ensnare another human being inside these codes, he or she is as good as enslaved or imprisoned, with no other person seeing the chains that lock him or her. And when he or she dares to fight it out, his or her very countrymen will catch him or her as a criminal and put him or her in jail. It is a most perplexing and paradoxical situation. This is exactly what is happening in native-English nations.

QUOTE: There they saw each member of it told off to perform certain clear and distinct functions. END OF QUOTE.

It is a very foolish understanding of events. These kind of nonsensical statements come forth due to the fact that the native-English do not know what is inside feudal languages. The writer of the above statement is most probably a higher caste man of Malabar. Feudal languages see to it that a person enslaved as a toilet cleaner gets his whole soul, body and family tainted in dirt as defined by verbal codes. He cannot get rid of this enwrapping dirt, unless the native language changes to pristine-English.

This is the vital information that is not mentioned at all. This book Malabar is a repository of cunning misrepresentations and misinformation. Some of them are deliberate. Some are inadvertent. And yet, some are due to lack of understanding.

QUOTE: It is unfortunate, however, that such an essentially European classification of occupations has been adopted in the census returns, for it is only confusing to suppose (as the Madras Town Census Committee supposed) that castes naturally ranged themselves at first under the heads adopted in the census tables of Professional, Personal Service, Commercial, Agricultural, Industrial, and Non-productive.

Some of these divisions are right, but others are not merely wrong, but misleading. What ought to have been done was to have adopted the four great divisions into which the Hindus themselves say they were originally divided, viz.

(1) The sacrificers (God-compellers) and Men of Learning ;
(2) The protectors and governing classes ;
(3) The traders and agriculturists ;
(4) The servile classes ; and to have added to this a fifth class of apparently later origin— -
(5) The mechanics and handicraftsmen ; and all other classes now existing would have fallen under a separate class of—
(G) Miscellaneous.
END OF QUOTE.

There is cunning mischief in the above words. And it is clear that the words are from the vested interests of the higher castes. For they were seeing in front of their eyes a new kind of classification of human beings, that did not connect or shackle them to their traditional castes. Beyond that the words ‘European’ is another attempt at creating confusion. What was being brought in were the social ideas of English. Not of Irish or Gaelic or Welsh. Or of Continental Europe.

QUOTE: In approaching a Nambutiri; low-caste people, male and female, must uncover to the waist as a token of respect. END OF QUOTE

Here comes the real power of the a social set-up designed by feudal languages. As of now, there other similar enforcements connected to current-day dressing standards.

QUOTE: And first it may be noticed that the Malayalis distinguished two kinds of pollutions, viz,., by people whose very approach within certain defined distances causes atmospheric pollution to those of the higher castes, and by people who only pollute by actual contact. END OF QUOTE.

There is nothing ‘Malayali’ about this. Modern Malayalis had not yet connected fully to Malabar. As to the pollution that is caused by proximity and contact, it is there in the feudal language codes. Even a mere seeing can cause dangerous shift in codes connected to reality and to human body, depending on the social level of the person who beholds.

QUOTE: Of the Malayali castes the most exclusive, and the most conservative, and in the European sense, nearly the most unenlightened is that of the indigenous Malayali Brahmans called Numbuthiris, If they did not introduce caste, as a political institution, into the country, they at least seem to have given to it its most recent development, and they are its staunchest upholders now. They seem to have embodied in the Sanskrit language rules of life regulating their most trivial actions, and at every step their conduct is hampered and restrained by what, appear to European eyes absurd customs. END OF QUOTE.

There is a cunningness that might easily escape notice. It is the word ‘European’. There is no ‘European eye’ here in this. It is only the English or British eye. Even the French language is feudal. While English is planar. It is from the English perspective that there are absurdities here. Not from French or German.

QUOTE: It is only the poorest of them who will consent to act as priests, and of these the highest functionary in a large temple is condemned to three years of celibacy while holding office END OF QUOTE

There evidently are many unsavoury items connected to being or installed on the top.

QUOTE: Nambutiri females conceal themselves from prying eyes in their walks abroad is usually styled the “mask umbrella” and is with them the outward sign of chastity. END OF QUOTE.

It is like a young lady IPS officer who walks on the streets in her civil dress. Even they constables, without knowing who it is can mention her as an Oal or Aval (lowest she / her). At this level of referring, their glances will be quite profane, and their words quite degrading. Here, again, the word ‘degrading’ cannot be understood in English. For, there is nothing in English by which one can find a corresponding levels of degrading.

QUOTE: In the latter also, in outlying parts, both men and women are still afraid to avail themselves of the privilege of using the public roads. In passing from one part of the country to another they tramp along through the marshes in mud, and wet often up to their waists, rather than risk the displeasure of their lords and masters by accidentally polluting them while using the public roads. They work very hard for the pittance they receive; in fact nearly all the rice-land cultivation used to be in former days carried on by them. The influx of European planters, who offer good wages, END OF QUOTE.

This is the real fact of the caste system which was crushed by the English administration in a very slow and steady manner. In Rev. Samuel Mateer’s Native Life in Travancore, there is a very detailed discussion on the slavery in Travancore. The slavery in Malabar and other locations in the subcontinent will not be much different.

As to the use of the word ‘European’, it is a mischievous use. In Native Life in Travancore, and such other books also, this erroneous usage is there. It might be true that the presence of such persons as Gundert etc. might have caused this. For, when the English administration became strong in the subcontinent, many Continental Europeans did sneak in, using their white-skin colour to establish a collaboration and equal status, which was actually just skin-deep.

Image

QUOTE: It is said that the difficulty of providing for their woman is the chief obstacle to their complete release from their shackles. The women must have dwellings of some sort somewhere, and the masters provide the women with huts and allow their men to go to work on plantations on condition that they return in good time for the rice cultivation and hand over a considerable portion of their earnings. END OF QUOTE

It is a strategic technique used for shackling the lower caste males. They need a secure place to keep their women folk. However, there is no escape from this shackling. The moment they try to break free, their household becomes insecure. There is nothing to compare in this with the Negro slavery in the US. For, there the language is planar English. Here is it is feudal languages of the most terrible kind.

QUOTE: Conversion to Muhammadanism has also had a most marked effect in freeing the slave caste from their former burthens. By conversion, a Cheruman obtains a distinct rise in the social scale, and if he is in consequence bullied or beaten the influence of the whole Muhammadan community comes to his aid. With fanaticism still rampant, the most powerful of landlords dares not to disregard the possible consequences of making a martyr of his slave END OF QUOTE.

This is very significant statement. This statement contains more than one bit of information. Among the Muslims, there are no layers similar to that of castes. So the moment a Cheruman converts, he is on the one and only layer available. So the hammering effect of the lower indicant words is lessened to a very feeble level. It shows in his personality development.

Moreover the Islamic brotherhood that he has joined into would come to his protection when he is in need of it.

The other item is that this conversion would be a terrible item for the Nayars and their higher castes. For, individuals who traditionally had to display very visible ‘respect’ and reverence would be seen to be acting as if they are equals. The indicant words they use for You, He, She &c. would show marked lowering in ‘respect’. The higher caste would find it difficult to communicate with them without being hard and rough. There is enough inputs for the Mappilla outrages in South Malabar.

QUOTE: On this, nothing more was done just then, except that the Government issued orders on 12th March 1839 “to watch the subject of the improvement of the condition of the Cherumar with that interest which it evidently merits, and leave no available means untried for effecting that object.” END OF QUOTE.

The unmentioned greatness of the native-English rule.

QUOTE: The appointment of a Protector of the Cherumar was sanctioned but never carried out, and various industrial and educational schemes organised for their benefit failed because of their lack of industry in the one case, and their lack of application and adaptability in the other. END OF QUOTE.

Social engineering is not that easy as such. Improving the lower classes and castes is like trying to pull out people trapped in the lowest floors of a building that had fallen down in an earthquake.

Even though they are alive and healthy, pulling them would not be easy due to the huge weight of the various other floors above them. What is required is a lot of patience, effort and perseverance. Only the native-English had this. However, the pulled out persons were not of the kind who bore any gratitude.

QUOTE: But a partial crossing was effected at another point, and a curious incident, possible only in Indian warfare, occurred, for a band of Cherumar, who were there busy working in the fields, plucked up courage, seized their spades and attacked the men who had crossed.

These being, more afraid of being polluted by the too near approach of the low-caste men than by death at the hands of Pacheco’s men, fled precipitately.
Pacheco expressed strong admiration of the Cherumars’ courage and wished to have them raised to the rank of Nayars. He was much astonished when told that this could not be done.
END OF QUOTE.

It is not easy to understand the hidden codes in the communication system which hold everything in tight containers. The non-tangible links and relationships encoded in the verbal codes can be disturbed only by very powerful and cataclysmic events, which are very difficult to happen. Like for instance, an IPS officer being demoted to a peon or police constable.

QUOTE: “Before he quitted the country, Hyder by a solemn edict, declared the Nayars deprived of all their privileges ; and ordained that their caste, which was the first after the Brahmans, should thereafter be the lowest of all the castes, subjecting them to salute the Parias and others of the lowest castes by ranging themselves before them as the other Mallabars had been obliged to do before the Nayars ; permitting all the other caste to bear arms and forbidding them to the Nayars, who till then had enjoyed the sole right of carrying them; at the same time allowing and commanding all persons to kill such Nayars as were found bearing arms. By this rigorous edict, Hyder expected to make all the other castes enemies of the Nayars, and that they would rejoice in the occasion of revenging themselves for the tyrannic oppression this nobility had till then exerted over them. END OF QUOTE.

This is a part of history which the birdbrain who is now in England campaigning for a reparation from Britain for ‘looting India’ should bear in mind. The question of what would have happened if England had not ruled ‘India’ is the query that is being asked. The simple answer to this birdbrain is that he and his family members would have been reduced to the lowest of the castes in the location. Pushing down a population is easily accomplished by the forced change of words of addressing and referring. This is a phenomenon about which the native-English have no idea at all.

Image

See this illustration:

The Nayar man says to his slave caste man: You come here.

The slave caste man says: Why do you want me?

In this above conversation, there is nothing to note in English.

However, in Malabari (the original Malayalam), ‘You came here’ will be ‘Inhi come here’. Inhi is the lowest you.

The slave man ask: ‘Why do Ingal want me?’ Ingal is the highest You.

However, when the castes are flipped, the conversation would become:

You come here: Ingal come here. (Highest You come here.)

The slave caste man asks: Why do Inhi want me? (Inhi is the lowest you).

When the You word forms change, there is a full-scale flipping of positions. The lowest You would crush the other person. The highest You would make the other person exalted and powerful.

The birdbrain and his household would have been converted into some kind of stinking dirt.

QUOTE: About this time a hill tribe called Malasars (Mala—hill, and arasar - lords) in Palghat having inopportunely disturbed a Brahman festival by intruding into the circle for the relics of the feast, the Palghat Achchan caused the headman of the tribe to be decapitated. END OF QUOTE.

This was one of the terrible issues that the English administration faced. That of higher castes people taking law into their own hands, when it came to punishing the lower castes. They claimed it to be their traditional rights.

QUOTE: The second class or Malumis are sailors and are engaged in exporting the produce of the island to the mainland in the Karnavar's odams ; some of them also possess fishing boats and small odams of their own, in which they make voyages to the coast, and this has excited the jealousy of the Karnavar class, who look upon them as interlopers and rebels. There is thus ill-feeling between the two classes END OF QUOTE

This is with regard to one of the Laccadive Islands. The economic empowerment of the lower castes is a terror. Because it can lead to them becoming less ‘respectful’ and more rude in their use of verbal codes.

QUOTE: The upper classes do not seem to be wanting in intelligence, but they are very indifferent to education, whilst the lower classes from the state of the subjection in which they are held are rude and ignorant. END OF QUOTE.

This is again from the Laccadive Islands. Education per se has no meaning in this social system. What is essential is the higher position in the verbal codes. Technical skills and knowledge will not give this higher position. For instance, the carpenters are technically highly skilled. However, it is best to keep them in the lower slots in the verbal slots. Otherwise, they would overtake their social higher-ups.

QUOTE from
Forbes, once an Angengo official, documented some of the local practices in his Oriental Memoirs. He writes that one Attingal queen ordered the breasts of a female servant be cut off because the woman had appeared before her dressed in a bodice given her by her English mistress, in defiance of the local custom. This was common on the entire Malabar coast. END OF QUOTE.

Actually in the verbal codes, it is like an Indian police constable wearing the uniform of the IPS officers. A great degrading in attire is good for imposing the lower grade words on the lower positioned persons. It helps in enforcing command and discipline in a feudal language. If the servant looks like a high quality person, it would be quite cumbersome to use the degrading verbal codes Inhi / Nee on him. Without this degrading, he cannot be allowed to continue as a servant.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 1:03 pm, edited 6 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

31. Slavery

Post posted by VED »

31 #

Now we arrive at the location of slavery in the subcontinent. It is a very curious situation. The whole social system worked on a foundation on indentured or bound-to-the-soil slaves. It was so common an issue that it was not seen as noteworthy at all. In many ancient traveller writings, there is mention of slaves in a most casual manner, as if they are part of the furniture.

The state of being a slave is not a statutory one as one would understand how it was treated in the US southern states. Over here it is more or less maintained by the language system, which in turn created the powerful layers and slots of the caste system. So that each downward layer or caste is a sort of slave to the higher layer/ layers.

From this perspective, the Brahmins are the highest slave-masters. However, that is not the full truth. In that many of the downwards layers would not have any complaint on being in subservience to the Brahmins. For instance, the Nayars were totally willing to allow their women folk for the cohabitation of the Brahmins, if and when they came home. The Nayar male would exhibit all kinds of reverences to the Brahmin Nambhuthiri. And the Brahmin in turn would bless him.

The Brahmins gave the Nayars the rights over the many lower castes under them. So, it was not an enslavement totally for the Nayars. For, they were to become the supervisors and the masters of the lower castes. They had full rights over them to the extent of even maiming or killing them.

This social consciousness in the Nayars continued till the advent and empowerment of the English rule in Malabar, both in north Malabar as well as in south Malabar. In the kingdom of Travancore, also there were Nayars. However, they continued it for much longer, because that kingdom continued to exist as an independent kingdom till it was taken over under military intimidation by India.

See this QUOTE from Native Life in Travancore: A good deal of controversy has taken place on the subject in the public prints, and a society for the reform of the Malabar laws of marriage (and inheritance) has been formed at Calicut by the leaders of the Nayar community, especially those educated in English. END OF QUOTE

It might be true that there was no such corresponding event in Travancore. For there, subservience to the Brahmins was part of the system which gave the Nayars the authority over the lower castes. However, in Malabar, subservience to the Brahmins was a wasteful attitude which was not going to give any more returns. It is like being obsequious to an IPS officer by a constable, after the demise of India.

QUOTE: The questions of slavery and the slave trade attracted the early attention of the Honourable Company’s Government. So early as 1702, the year in which British rule commenced, a proclamation was issued by the Commissioners against dealing in slaves. A person offering a slave for sale was to be considered as a thief. The slave was to be forfeited and the person offering him for sale was to be fined five times his value. The purchaser was to be similarly treated. The houses of suspected slave traders were to be well watched and entered and searched on the smallest suspicion, and the traders caught in flagrante delicto were to be handed over to the Rajas to be dealt with.

This proclamation was, however, directed chiefly against the practice, then prevalent, of bands of robbers carrying off by force from their houses the children of “the most useful inhabitants, the Tiyars and other cultivators.”
END OF QUOTE.

The most valid truth is that the English rule crushed slavery and the practise of slave selling in the subcontinent. However, there are many writings that try to prove that the English rule did sell slaves. It is all nonsense. Beyond that there are attempts to confuse the issue with mixing up the theme to the deeds of Continental European groups such as the French, Dutch &c. and then cast the blame on the English rule.

Image

QUOTE: on the 23rd December of that year the Principal Collector received orders desiring “that the practice of selling slaves for arrears of revenue may be immediately discontinued.” END OF QUOTE.

The English rule took time to slowly remove slavery. And who is there to appreciate the actions? The people of current-day India would find it very awkward if they were asked not to use the pejorative form of addressing and referring to and about their house servants. If they are asked to allow them to sit on a chair and eat from the household dining table, they would go wild with anger. To explain the actions of the English rule to these kinds of people would be a waste of effort. For, they have no interest in the lower classes improving. However, to place a blame on the English colonial rule, they would not miss an opportunity.

QUOTE: The matter in this and other ways reached the ears of the Court of Directors, and in their despatch of 12th December 1821 they expressed considerable dissatisfaction at the lack of precise information which had been vouchsafed to them regarding the cultivators in general, and in particular said : We are told, indeed, that part of them (an article of very unwelcome intelligence) are held as slaves ; that they are attached to the soil and marketable property.

You are directed to obtain and to communicate to us all the useful information with respect to this latter class of persons which you possibly can; the treatment to which they are liable, the habits of their masters with respect to them, the kind of life to which they are doomed, the sort of title by which the property of them is claimed, the price which they bear and more especially the surest and safest means of ultimately effecting their emancipation.

We also desire to know whether those occupants, 150,000 in number, cultivate immediately the whole of the lands by their slaves and hired servants, or whether there is a class of inferior tenants to whom they let or sub-let a portion of their lands. If there is such an interior class of lessees, you will inform us under what conditions they cultivate, what are their circumstances, and what measures, if any, have been employed for their protection
END OF QUOTE.

A most wonderful attitude!

QUOTE: On 16th November 1836, the Government ordered the remission in the Collector’s accounts of Rs. 927-13-0, which was the “annual revenue” from slaves on the Government lands in Malabar, and the Government was at the same time “pleased to accede to the recommendation in favour of emancipating the slaves on the Government lands in Malabar.” END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE: Government issued orders on 12th March 1839 “to watch the subject of the improvement of the condition of the Cherumar with that interest which it evidently merits, and leave no available means untried for effecting that object.” END OF QUOTE

QUOTE: Their freedom was not, however, to be proclaimed, and the measure was to be carried out in such manner “as not to create any unnecessary alarm or aversion to it on the part of other proprietors, or premature hopes of emancipation on that of other slaves.” END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE: The Directors on learning what had been done "entirely approved” of the measures adopted, and requested the Government to consider how to extend similar measures to the slaves of private owners, and urged the necessity of carrying out the measures with "extreme caution”. This was contained in the Directors’ despatch of 17th August 1838, and in penning it they evidently had before their eyes the fear of being heavily mulcted after the West Indian fashion in compensation to owners if any overt act was taken towards publicly recognising a general emancipation of slaves. END OF QUOTE.

The above are some of the quotes that stand testimony to what a private trading company was doing for the emancipation of a huge number of slaves in a far-off land. Actually if they had not even bothered nothing would have gone wrong from their trade. On the other hand, there was the brooding fear that if they acted too fast, the Nayars and their higher castes would unite to crush down the foreign power which was enforcing egalitarianism in a land where the language codes do not support egalitarian ideas.

QUOTE: Women in some taluks fetched higher prices in order to breed slaves. END OF QUOTE.

Actually in the new nation of India, no one is really bothered if anyone is sold or bought. Almost all persons are quite selfish. There are immense locations in India where people do not even bother to notice the terrible poverty all around. It is not possible to interfere. For the languages are hierarchical. They cannot go and simply converse as it would be possible in English. There are verbal hierarchies to be enforced in all conversations, if one should not get bruised by indicant word forms.

QUOTE: “Any person claiming a slave as janmam, kanam or panayam, the right of such claim or claims will not be investigated into at any of the public offices or courts.” END OF QUOTE.

This was one more step to saving the slaves from the ‘Indians’.

QUOTE: there is reason to think that they are still, even now, with their full consent, bought and sold and hired out, although, of course, the transaction must be kept secret for fear of the penalties of sections 370, 371, etc., of the Indian Penal Code, which came into force on 1st January 1802 and which was the real final blow at slavery in India. END OF QUOTE

English government made slave-trade a prohibited item. However, from the above-statement it is hinted at that the ‘Indians’ did try to continue their slave-trade in a clandestine manner. That of dealing in contraband.

Image

QUOTE: It was apparently these letters of Mr. E. B. Thomas which eventually decided the Board of Directors to send out orders to legislate in the matter, for in their despatch of 27th July 1842 they first sent orders “for the entire abolition of slavery”, and in a second despatch of 15th March 1843 they called the special attention of the Government of India to the question of slavery in Malabar where the evils, as described by Mr. E. B. Thomas, were so aggravated “as compared with other portions of India”. END OF QUOTE

The reader has to note that the evilness of slavery in Malabar is mentioned as more terrible than other parts of the subcontinent. If the birdbrain who is demanding reparation from England is asked to compensate for the thousand of slaves his ancestral household had kept in confinement, it might wipe out the entire financial acumen of his entire family members. That is the truth.

QUOTE: The Government of India thereupon passed Act V of 1843. On the passing of the Act, its provisions were widely published throughout Malabar by Mr.Conolly, the Collector, and he explained to the Cherumar that it was their interest as well as their duty to remain with their masters if treated kindly. END OF QUOTE.

There is terrible pathos in the above statement in the offing. For this very Mr. Conolly, much beloved Collector of Malabar was hacked to death by a few Mappillas in their rage at the government interference when the Mappillas were wreaking vengeance on the Nayar and Brahmin overlords. This is the typical issue. The English rule did its best for the peoples of the subcontinent. However, the people learn from schools and colleges that they were ‘looters’ and other evil deed doers.

The same way, the Mappilla murderers had no other way to understand the government deeds to control the communal clashes. It is noteworthy that a lot of enlightened Muslims stood by the English administration and lend support to catch the Mappilla miscreants.

See these QUOTEs:

and Major Dow was deputed to the Mappilla districts, and a cowl of protection was issued in favour of the Kundotti section of the Mappilla class, who had been oppressed by the Nayar landholders. END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE: The Mappillas of this latter district undertook to assist the British to maintain their hold of the province, but when it came to the push their hearts failed them. END OF QUOTE

Now back to Mr. Conolly.

QUOTE: He proclaimed “The Government will not order a slave who is in the employ of an individual to forsake him and go to the service of another claimant; nor will the Government interfere with the slave’s inclination as to where he wishes to work. END OF QUOTE.

It was not wise to create a totally destruction of the social system. Changes had to be brought in slowly. There was the issue of a person’s wish also.

QUOTE: The number of days in this case is fourteen, but as they cannot at certain seasons afford to be idle for fourteen days together—for fourteen days’ idleness very often with them means fourteen days’ starvation END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE: The Cherumar are supposed to be so styled because of their low stature ((Cheru = small) but low feeding produces low stature, and it is very possible that the slave caste constituted the aborigines of the ancient Chera kingdom (vide p. 147 ). END OF QUOTE.

Even though food is a very important ingredient for body growth, the suppression via feudal-language pejorative codes does induce certain suppression in the physical growth. It is a complicated issue and cannot be dealt with here. However, there is a wider issue in that in a feudal language ambience, it is best to see that the under-classes are under-fed. It is then easier to manage them. For it might be more easier to extract ‘respect’ from midget-size human beings than from individuals with very good physique.

QUOTE: With one merchant you will see one or two hundred of these carriers, the merchant himself walking. But when the nobles pass from place to place, they ride in a dula made of wood, something like a box, and which is carried upon the shoulders of slaves and hirelings. END OF QUOTE.

This is the richness of ancient ‘India’ that is proclaimed by the modern day jingoist of the subcontinent.

QUOTE: The Commissioners likewise prohibited the slave trade carried on extensively in children by Mappilla merchants with the French and Dutch ports of Mahe and Cochin respectively. END OF QUOTE

It appears that some of the Mappillas had trade connections with the Dutch and the French. And that was in slave trade. But in these kinds of information, it need to be noted that only a few Mappillas would be involved in this. Not all.

QUOTE: They also framed regulations for the custom house collections, prohibited the export slave trade and dealing in gunpowder, warlike weapons and stores END OF QUOTE

English attempts at bringing in a civil administration in the semi-barbarian land.

QUOTE: and the breaking up of the system of serfdom since the assessments were fixed must have had a much greater influence on agriculture in Wynad than it had elsewhere, because in Wynad there was but a limited class to take the places of the slaves who chose to leave their ancient masters and work for hire on the European coffee-estates. END OF QUOTE

The serf system was broken by the arrival of the English rule. There are issues here. One is the pain and anguish of the landlord class when they find that their ‘respectful’ and subservient class of slaves turning into rude competitors with no more ‘respect’.

Image

Second is the new right that the serfs had gained to choose their employers. The wider item to mention here is that as the serf moved out and their next generations came, they were very cunningly told that it was the English administrators who had enslaved them. This was made possible with the entry of the earlier feudal classes into the business of ‘communist revolutions’.

It would not be surprising to see that the so-called ‘communist’ ‘revolutions’ and even ‘freedom fighters’ are from the class of feudal lords and enslavers. Many of them are so cunning that they have pasted the whole tragic content of the history of the location on the English rule. And they, who were the original oppressors, from whose hands the English administration saved the lower classes, have become ‘great leaders’. At least a few of them have very quietly sent their children into the native-English nations.

QUOTE:
ADIYAN. Is literally slave both in Tamil and Malayalam, and in the Northern Division of Malabar it is applied to the real slaves, but in South Malabar it means generally vassals. Under the old system, where every Tiyan was under a kind of vassalage to some superior, to some patron, to a Tamburan as he is commonly called, the patron was bound to protect him and to redress any petty wrongs he might sustain, and the client or vassal acknowledged his dependent state by yearly presents, and was to be ready with his personal services upon any private quarrel of his patron. This kind of dependency gave the patron no right of disposal of the person of his vassal as a slave, nor did it acquit the dependent individual of a superior obligation to the Raja or his representatives, the Desavali, and Neduvali, upon a public emergency.
END OF QUOTE

Whatever right is mentioned or not mentioned, the fact is that due to the hammering power of the pejorative word codes in the local feudal languages, the Adiyan and his family members were literally living on the whims of their landlord. They could be beaten to a pulp and even hacked to pieces and killed. There was no law or policing mechanism in the land to prevent all this, until the advent of the English rule.

QUOTE: Cherumar: Slaves in general. It is supposed to be derived from cheru = soil, and makkal children : children of the soil, or sons of the earth. Others say from cheru, small, and makkal, children, indicating that they are to be treated as young children by their masters. END OF QUOTE.

From an English perspective, the feeling that might come forth on hearing that they are being treated by the master as his own children, might be that of some kind of affection. However, the greater lie in this sentence is that the Cherumar are placed at the lowest indicant word codes. So that a Cheruman adult would be treated like an infant in terms of intelligence. It is a very powerful degradation. However, no one in the subcontinent is really bothered. That is the solid fact. After all, it is another person. Who cares if he is ill-treated?

Even the ‘great’ ‘social reformers’ of the land do address and refer to their menial staff with the most degrading pejorative codes of addressing and referring. No one sees any problem in this. They treat them like dirt. No one is bothered. They make them sit on the floor. No one is bothered.

And when cinemas produce fake story films of the English rulers who had ‘treated the people like dirt’, these very individuals understand that it is the Englishmen who had ill-treated them. So much is the fraudulent nature of history studies in this nation of India.

QUOTE: Is a fee which is given to a kind of headman among slaves for watching a large tract of rice-land and protecting it from cattle. END OF QUOTE.

It then becomes the headman-slave to see that all the other slaves do exhibit their subservience to the landlord.

QUOTE:
KANAM. I think, is generally supposed to mean mortgage or pledge, must be construed to be the thing or consideration for which the mortgage or pledge is given, and it seems applicable only to lands, timber trees, and slaves.
END OF QUOTE

See the connection and the grouping. Land, timber trees and slaves. All sellable commodities. And the wonder is that formal history does not even take time to detect the slaves of the subcontinent, who literally lived like dust on the soil. The focus of formal history is on the cunning Negro slaves of the US, who have improved beyond the wildest dreams of their ancestor barbarians of Africa. Still they have only complaints. However, there are some complications in this understanding also. I cannot go into that here.

QUOTE: KUDI. A pair ; applied to a slave and his wife in speaking of their price. END OF QUOTE.

It would be quite funny to see that in the modern age, it is the landlord class of yore who have transformed into the revolutionary leader class in Malabar.

QUOTE:
KUDICHILLARA: Tax on houses, shops, warehouses, and implements of the profession of blacksmiths &c.
END OF QUOTE.

No comment other than that even taxation had discriminatory terms in the local feudal language.

QUOTE:
PANDAKKAVAL. A watching fee, consisting of the crop of a certain portion of the field, which a slave receives from his master for his trouble. Kaval is watching and Pandal is the awning or cover under which the slave sets to watch.
END OF QUOTE

The slaves were literally left to bear the rain and the wind. It was just a like a watch dog kept outside the house. What it suffered and experienced was not given any thoughts. If other dogs bite it also, it is treated as an issue among animals.

QUOTE: Adimappanam was the yearly payment of 1 and 2 fanams which every Adiyan was obliged to pay to his Tamburan or patron, END OF QUOTE

Even the slaves had to pay a tax it seems. However, this might not be the bound-to-the-soil slaves, but the slaves who had been entrusted with some land, I think.

QUOTE: Dried fish and hides are occasionally exported to Ceylon, where the majority of Anjengo Christians go to work on coffee estates. END OF QUOTE.

The above-event is an illustration of how the slaves escaped from the hands of their traditional tormenters. However, in modern Indian history study, the description might be thus: ‘The British used to sell slaves into their plantations in Ceylon and elsewhere. One can see such Indian people in many such places all over the world, including South Africa.’

The minute understanding that these people were the slaves under the ‘Indians’ who escaped to other lands when the English administration was set up, never appears in the minds of the geniuses who write formal history in India.

QUOTE: We also have given to him (the right of) the feast-cloth, house-pillars, all the, revenue, the curved sword (or dagger), and in (or with) the sword the sovereign merchant-ship, the right of proclamation, the privilege of having forerunners, the five musical instruments, the conch, the light (or torch burning) by day, the spreading cloth, litter, royal umbrella, Vaduca drum, the gateway with seats and ornamental arches, and the sovereign merchant-ship over the four classes (or streets), also the oil-makers and the five kinds of artificers we have subjected to him (or given as slaves to him). END OF QUOTE.

This is a sample of the rights given by the small-time rulers to people from outside who come as rich merchants and other powerful entities. What it means in the feudal languages, is the right to address and refer to a huge percentage of the local population in the pejorative word forms. This is an idea not at all understood by the native-English.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 1:05 pm, edited 7 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

32. The Portuguese

Post posted by VED »

32 #

Before looking at the events connected to the Portuguese attempts at consolidating their power in the subcontinent, there is need to understand what went wrong in the very beginning itself.

Calicut was a small kingdom with a harbour facility. What made it important for the Arabian merchants who came across the Arabian Sea from the Middle-east locations was pepper. This pepper they transported through the north African trade routes to the Mediterranean Sea. From there it was taken to the Venetian trade centres. The Venetian merchant took over the cargo from there and sold it in Continental European markets and those in Great Britain.

I am not sure if the Arab traders were allowed to directly sell their wares inside Europe. In most probability not. It is basically common sense. That if these traders are allowed inside, they would take-over the internal trade also. However, as of now, native-English nations seem to have lost all common sense. Their nations are in the direct hands of ingenious feudal-language speaking businessmen. It is only a matter of time before they takeover everything. For they come to posses both ends of the trade and commerce. The only hope for native-English nations is to suppress the democracies which have run totally amok and get rid of all feudal-language speakers from inside their nations.

Calicut more or less subsisted on the trade and support of the Arabian merchants. Calicut as a kingdom would be only a small place with a king who would be more or less a strongman who can keep at bay the various rebellions against him from various nook and corner of the place, including that from inside his own household.

QUOTE: indeed there exists a tradition that in 1489 or 1490 a rich Muhammadan came to Malabar, ingratiated, himself with the Zamorin, and obtained leave to build additional Muhammadan mosques. The country would no doubt have soon been converted to Islam either by force or by conviction, but the nations of Europe were in the meantime busy endeavouring to find a direct road to the pepper country of the East. The arrival of this Portuguese expedition aroused at once the greatest jealousy in the Moors or Muhammadans, who had the Red Sea and Persian Gulf trade with Europe in their hands, and they immediately began to intrigue with the authorities for the destruction of the expedition. END OF QUOTE.

It cannot be said for sure if a compulsory mass conversion to Islam would be conducted. It is possible that the local Muslims would not like to do that. For, if that is done, they would be more or less giving up their own advantage to the others, including to their own serving slave castes. But then it is possible that higher castes would have been taken down and made some kind of very lower castes, if such a thing were to happen. Luckily for them the Portuguese from Continental Europe arrived.

Image

QUOTE: Accordingly, when Da Gama sent Nicholas Coelho on shore with a message to the Zamorin asking him to sanction trade, the authorities tried his temper by making him wait, thinking this to cause a break with the Portuguese; but being warned by a Castilian whom they found in the place, he exercised patience END OF QUOTE.

This was the culture and efficiency of the kingdom. More or less like the current-day Indian officialdom.

QUOTE: The king (of Calicut) was sitting in his chair which the factor” (who had preceded Da Grama with the presents) “had got him to sit upon: he was a very dark man, half-naked, and clothed with white cloths from the middle to the knees ; END OF QUOTE

It does seem that the ‘factor’ had compelled him to sit on a chair. Though the ‘very dark man, half-naked and clothed’ to the middle of his knees’ description would look quite a bit let-down description, the real power of the man would be in the terrific hammering content in the words in the native-language.

Image

QUOTE: The interview would probably have had the desired result, but the Moors had meanwhile been busy bribing the Chief Officer of the Palace Guard, an official of great power, END OF QUOTE.

This is a typical behaviour pattern in the subcontinent. Things are worked from elsewhere. The direct approach actually hides a lot of hidden approaches. It might be good for native-English nations to know these things. When feudal language speakers arrive in native-English nations, this is the ways things are accomplished. Be they are from Italy or Germany or Japan, or Spain or India, or Pakistan or Sri Lanka or Bangladesh or Korea.

Beyond all this, the term ‘Chief Officer of the Palace Guard’ does not really reflect the semi-barbarian quality of the people. It is like mentioning an Indian government official as an ‘officer’.

QUOTE: the Chief Officer went before the king, charged Da Gama with breaking faith, and suggested that the Moors should be permitted to take the ships and appropriate the goods for the king’s use. The king agreed to this, but the jealousy of the king’s Brahman and of his Treasurer had been aroused at the Chief Officer’s having it all his own way. and first the one and then the other interfered and pointed out that the Portuguese had so far done no harm, and great discussions thereupon arose. END OF QUOTE.

This is the typical manner in which things work out, unless one comes in with power. Decent and logical level of conversing and getting things done is not possible with feudal language speakers. However, at the other end the Portuguese side also might be feudal language speakers.

QUOTE: The hostages demanded to be put to death by the king if Da Gama were to be slain, and their demands were backed up by both the Treasurer and the king’s Justice out of envy at the rich presents offered by the Moors to the Chief Officer of the Palace Guard. END OF QUOTE.

A trade negotiation becomes a mess of intrigues. However, for the Arabian side, who were supported by the local Mappilla traders, this was a life or death battle to retain their precious trade. They could foresee the disaster in the offing. A route to a very remote, semi-barbarian geographical location had been discovered by competing business entities.

QUOTE: Having thus revenged himself, Cabral sailed for Cochin, protesting that in Calicut the people could not be trusted, and that truth and honour were alike unknown, it appears, on the other hand, that Cabral was hasty and perfectly regardless of the sacrifice of human life, being quite ready to slaughter Moors and Nayars indiscriminately, with or without provocation, and with no expectation, of doing any good. END OF QUOTE

There is something to be said about the above claims. The people of Calicut cannot be trusted, but then the people of Cochin can be trusted? Well, the way the social machinery works inside feudal language societies is like this: If honoured and ‘respected’, (i.e. Adheham, Avar, Saar, Anugunnu &c. all highest He / Him) the others are generally quite truthful, trustworthy and honourable in commitments. If a person is placed in a location of no respect (i.e., Avan / Oan), he can expect no honesty, and no commitment from others. That is the truth.

QUOTE: Meanwhile extraordinary preparations were being made in Egypt to equip a fleet to drive away the Portuguese, whose interference with the overland trade had deprived the Egyptian ruler of his chief source of revenue. END OF QUOTE.

So it is the Egyptian ruler who stood behind the scenes. Then, it would be good deed to declare him as the first freedom fighter of India. For, just behind him is the Moroccan, Hyder Ali who might like to place a claim on this. Then comes the French, who more or less fought in many of the ‘freedom fights in India’ against the British! They were there in the Battle of Plassey, actually the only fighting side that really fought against Robert Clive’s natives of Madras. So, it seems that the French were the freedom fighters of India, while the soldiers who arrived to fight for Robert Clive from Madras were the foreigners. This the real insights of modern Indian academic history.

QUOTE: The Portuguese spared the Christian houses, shops and churches, but they looted those of the Jews and Moors. END OF QUOTE.

This is a very curious twist of international history. The Jews and the Muslims on one side, while a Continental European nation against them. However, look at this:
QUOTE: About the time of Da Gama’s death, the Moors, with the Zamorin’s approval, made an onslaught on the Cannanore Jews and Christians, the reason alleged being that the Moors had resorted to various tricks for adulterating the pepper, etc., brought to market, and some Jews and Christians had been specially selected to discover such tricks and mete out justice to the offenders END OF QUOTE.

There is this also at another location:

QUOTE: “As the Jews had favoured their enemies the Dutch, the Portuguese considered it necessary to punish them to prevent the recurrence of such conduct, and therefore immediately on the siege being raised, they plundered Jews’ Town of almost all it contained, attempted to destroy the synagogue, END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE: But the Portuguese captains had obstructed the carrying out of the order, and, perhaps, they had some excuse for doing so, as several Calicut Moors under cover of this permission used to carry on trade. END OF QUOTE.

The issue at hand was that of the Mappilla traders from Calicut running a prohibited trade using the permission. But then there is more to it. The Portuguese side also was running on feudal languages. In such languages systems, unless there is a very powerful and very clearly understood regimentation, people would tend to step on each others’ toes. Each endeavour would end up with individual tripping on others, so to say.

QUOTE: The combined fleets then returned to Cannanore and quarrels immediately ensued between the two viceroys. END OF QUOTE.

This is a very typical sign of feudal language presence.

Image

QUOTE: To his sorrow, however, he found that his countrymen had in the interval been associating indiscriminately with the natives, and had abandoned themselves to vice and crime. END OF QUOTE.

No comment.

QUOTE: His zeal was, however, disparaged by slanderers among his own officers, and the King of Portugal began to take alarm at his increasing renown. END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE: But meanwhile the slanderers’ tales had been listened to and Albuquerque’s supersession had been decreed END OF QUOTE.

Ah! Here we come to exact exhibition of what a feudal language does. When Robert Clive became world famous, his immediate superior did not get the creeps. The monarch did not get disturbed. However, the Portugal experience seems to be apparently different.

I do not know Portuguese language. So I am writing from presumptions.

In the native feudal language of the Malabar, there is the He word. It can change from Oan (Avan) (lowest he / him) to Ayaal (higher he / Him) and then to Oar (Adheham) (highest He / Him). When a lower positioned person’s fame grows, this verbal change would happen. It would then go on reaching a heights that one by one each level of his superiors would stand demolished in the verbal codes. These verbal codes actually contain the codes of command and obeisance.

It is a very creepy experience for the superiors. That a good quality subordinate becomes a terrible foe, the moment he displays his calibre and quality. The others in the social system, by merely changing the ‘he/him’ word form can tumble down his superior into a state of nonentity. Even the king seems to have got the creeps when Albuquerque became successful. This is the exact way the feudal language machinery works. England had a different machinery.

QUOTE: From this time forward the Home Government displayed great jealousy and suspicion in regard to the acts of its Indian administrators, and frequently cancelled their orders. This treatment naturally produced indifference in public affairs, and resulted in every one connected with the administration striving to amass wealth without caring much how it was obtained. END OF QUOTE

The people back at home not understanding the social culture, the feudal language issues, and the exigencies of administrating a small location in South Asia was a problem which the English administration in British-India also faced. However, the planar nature of pristine-English made a serene ambience wherever the native-English set up colonies. In the case of the Portuguese, the feudal content in their language would create havoc, instead of a placid mood.

QUOTE: Sailing to Goa, Sampayo there seized him, put him in chains, and sent him to Cannanore, where, in turn, the garrison honourably received him END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE: In October 1529, Sampayo’s successor (Nunho D'Acunha) arrived with orders to send Sampayo in custody to Europe, and this was at once done when Sampayo boarded the Viceroy's ship at Cannanore on the 18th November. END OF QUOTE.

See what a feudal language is creating. The Portuguese are again at each other’s throat.

Image

QUOTE: Moors in North Malabar began hostilities, and these continued till, in 1559, they made the usual submission and agreed to take out the hateful passes.
END OF QUOTE.

The problem in understanding the ‘hate’ is there in English. The issue is that the work of dispensing the passes would be most probably by some low-level native-of-the-subcontinent employee. The moment a local man gets some power, he would immediately start using the lower grade indicant words to the traders and others who approach him for the passes. It then becomes a real torment to get a pass. It is like going to a government office in current-day India, for the majority population.

QUOTE: and it is alleged they were utterly unscrupulous as to what became of the crews. END OF QUOTE

In many ways, this is reminiscent of the attitude of current-day Indian officials. However, there is another side to this feeling. It is that they also cannot bear the torment of insolent behaviour from the common public, when they try to be nice and refined. The Portuguese would have had the same bad opinion of the common person of the subcontinent, as the current-day Indian officials have. In fact, most of the Indian officials hate the common man in India.

QUOTE: Zein-ud-din, who is, however, a not altogether disinterested witness, says that they massacred the crews by cutting their throats, or tying them up with ropes or in nets and throwing them overboard END OF QUOTE.

It was trade at its very basics. That is, trade is war, when there are feudal-language speaking participants in the trade. This understanding seems to have escaped the notice of all native-English nations, as they go around promoting Japan, China, Korea etc.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 1:08 pm, edited 3 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

33. The Dutch

Post posted by VED »

33 #

It is possible that the Dutch language is comparatively of a lesser feudal content than German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. This is my own summarisation based slightly on the fact that they were more sane and soft in many of their historical activities when compared to that of the German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. It must be admitted that I do not know much about the Dutch, or even about the mentioned other four nations, here.

[Note 2023: As of now, my soft feelings about the Dutch stands a bit compromised. That is after I did commentary on Native races of South Africa written by GEORGE W. STOW]

It is just a gut feeling, that this is so. May be it is due to the fact that they could collaborate with the English people to create a wonderful nation in South Africa. But off course, the totally insane political philosophy of democracy has literally given it back to the barbarians of Africa. It is not that all the blacks of Africa are barbarians. But that, the languages there might be quite barbarian and feudal. So, only those who are totally barbarians will come up on top of those social systems, which use those languages.

The Portuguese attempt at creating a favourable trading relationship with the tiny, semi-barbarian Calicut failed due to the innate feudal language issues of the land. No commitment was worth anything here. The moment another personage with some social weight comes and speaks to the person who has given the promise, everything changes. The man who is a Saab / Saar/ Thamburan, in one location, the moment he is an Avan / Nee in another location, becomes a totally different man there.

By the time the Dutch arrived, the codes of interaction had already been decided. It was treachery that was the code that was in place. Each of the tiny semi-barbarian kingdoms vied against each other.

QUOTE: This event was almost contemporaneous with another which influenced the fate of India in general and of Malabar in particular, for in 1580-81 Holland, one of the seven “Northern United Provinces,” declared its independence of Spain. END OF QUOTE

Events in faraway Continental Europe were affecting event in a remote location on the globe.

Image

QUOTE: In 1597 two Dutch ships succeeded in reaching India, but the one was destroyed off Malacca by a fleet of six Portuguese ships END OF QUOTE.

There was desperation to find a route to the semi-barbarian land where pepper was being grown. Yet, the Continental Europeans were also semi-barbarian, in that many had some kind of erroneous languages. However, a long-time proximity to England did give them an aura of glow and difference.

QUOTE: It was this protection of the Cochin Raja against the Zamorin which involved the Dutch in so much profitless expenditure in Malabar. END OF QUOTE.

It is undeniable that the Dutch did their best to protect the Cochin kingdom from being overrun and occupied by both the Calicut king as well as the Travancore king.

QUOTE: directly he arrived he saw the necessity of curbing the rising power of Travancore if the Dutch were to retain their hold of the trade of the country and not allow it to pass into the hands of the English, who were backing up the Travancore Raja. END OF QUOTE.

There were totally insane activities all around. It was only the English Company that took up the stance that it is best to avoid warfare and try to get on without a fight. This remained their policy till the last. However, the greatest paradox was with regard to this policy. They were forced to fight to protect the kingdoms that allied with them. And ultimately, one by one, the kingdoms came into their control, through the falling down of their attackers.

The French government policy that commanded all French trade divisions to attack English trading locations in all locations all around the world also led to this. For, whenever the French coaxed a local king to attack the English-side, the king and his supporters, the French, invariably lost the fight. This led to the taking over of the land by the English Company. It is true that the French were one of the greatest ‘freedom fighters’ of ‘India’.

QUOTE: “Without sufficient troops to hold their own by force, surrounded by native states outwardly friendly but secretly hostile, attacked by the Mysoreans, and awaiting instructions from Batavia, Moens’ position was a very difficult one. A common danger, it was true, bound the Cochin and Travancore States to the Dutch, END OF QUOTE.

The backstabbing cunningness of the native kings was a feature of the land, since times immemorial. In a feudal language social system, a person is most dangerous when he is displaying most affable friendliness and hospitality. That is how they stab in the back. This point seems to have escaped the attention of all the policymakers in all native-English nations.

QUOTE:
The Muhammadans had invested Chetwai, the garrison of which place sent a message to Cochin, representing that they could not hold it much longer, so Governor Moens now determined to attempt its relief. Provisions and ammunitions having been packed in casks, 189 men embarked in the ship Hoolwerf, having some small boats in tow for the purpose of landing the men and stores. On the same afternoon, November 11th, they arrived before Chetwai, but the surf being high, the wary Muhammadans had the satisfaction of perceiving that they delayed landing until the next day.

Image

“A chosen band of Sirdar Khan’s troops was told off, and in the dead of the night placed in ambuscade close to the beach where the landing was most likely to be effected, and in silence awaited the disembarkation of their prey.

“The morning dawned, and the Dutch having examined the shore, could see no vestige of an enemy, all appeared perfectly quiet, and they congratulated themselves on surprising Hyder's troops. The landing commenced, the first boat upset, but the troops waded to the beach with their loaded muskets wet, and their ammunition of course spoilt. Suddenly the ambuscade rushed out, and finding advance impossible, the Dutch retreated in good order to the beach ; but their boats were gone, and the terrified native boatmen were pulling quickly away from the scene of strife. Some of the detachment were killed, and the remainder obliged to surrender themselves prisoners of war.

"The Europeans were disheartened and abandoned the attempted relief whilst the Muhammadans were greatly elated and the fort of Chetwai was compelled to capitulate on the 13th, one condition being that the garrison should be permitted to retreat to Cranganore, a promise which was of course broken. The prisoners were plundered of everything, even to their very clothes, and with the women, children and slaves, were sent to Calicut.
END OF QUOTE.

The Dutch were dealing with a population that they could not understand. There is treachery in the very air of the land. The verbal codes are terribly treacherous. However, how this is so, and what it is supposed to mean, are not easy to convey to them.

There is no sense of commitment among the native populations, unless they are bound by powerful codes of ‘respect’ versus ‘degradation’. The degraded populations will show deep loyalty to their higher man who they ‘respect’.

Another thing that must be noted here is that there is no honour in any commitment given to a fallen man. The moment he surrenders, he is questioned with the Nee word and referred to with the Avan word. That means he can be literally beaten up into a pulp. This attitude is sharply in contrast to the native-English style of treating the surrendered team with dignity.

Image

QUOTE: The French Republican army entered Holland. The Stadtholder fled to England , and thence in February 1795, after the proclamation of the Batavian Republic in alliance with France, he addressed a circular to all the Dutch Governors and Commandants to admit British troops into all the Dutch “Settlements, Plantations, Colonies and Factories in the East Indies” to prevent them from falling into the hands of the French.

Mr. Vanspall was at this time Governor of Cochin, began laying in provisions with a view to standing a siege, and he invited the Cochin Raja to help him. On July 23rd Major Petrie, under orders from Colonel Robert Bowles, commanding the troops in Malabar, marched from Calicut to the Dutch frontier with a small force of infantry to obtain a peaceable surrender of the Dutch settlement. But the Governor refused to give up the place, and Major Petrie had then to wait till a siege train could be brought up. The Supervisor (Mr. Stevens) proceeded in person to Cochin in the beginning of September to endeavour to arrange matters with Mr. Vanspall, and a conference ensued, at which it was agreed that the surrender should take place. But next day the Governor changed his mind and the negotiations were suspended.
END OF QUOTE

It is a very funny situation. The Dutch (Holland) government ordered the Dutch fort to give it up to the English side, to prevent it from falling into the hands of the French. However, the Dutch Governor in Cochin refused to give it up. Why?

The answer has to be sort in the feudal language codes of the land. The moment he gives up his platform, he will go down the verbal codes. The ‘he’, ‘him’, ‘his’ &c. words would more or less spontaneously come down from the ‘Adheham’ level to ‘Ayaal’ and then even to that of ‘Avan’. This terror will be understood only the governor knows the local language, which could a mix of Tamil and Malabari. The question is ‘Could he understand the local language?’

QUOTE: shortly after the treaty was signed, and after the Travancore frontiers had advanced as far as Cochin, the Travancore Raja of course turned on them and repudiated his obligations, telling the Dutch, factors at Cochin they were no longer a sovereign power, but merely a number of petty merchants, and if they required spices they should go to the bazaars and purchase them at the market rates. They had eventually to pay market prices for the pepper they wanted. END OF QUOTE.

This is generally a typical feudal language attitude. Once a powerful individual loses his power or status, then he will changed from Adheham (highest he / him) to Avan (lowest he / him). At this level, no one would keep their word of honour or commitment to him. He is just mere dirt in the local feudal languages. This is an information that the native-English does not seem have had.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 1:09 pm, edited 5 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

34. The French

Post posted by VED »

34 #

In many ways, one might say that it was the insidious endeavours of the sneaky French governments that led to the slow and steady creation of British-India in the subcontinent. There seems have been a continual attitude among the French governments to encourage their traders all around the world to attack all English trade centres.

This is what led to the attack on the English trade centre in Arcot near Madras. This is what led to the attack on the English trade centre in Calcutta by Siraj-ul-dawlah. This is what led to so many minor and major skirmishes between so many small-time kings and rulers in the subcontinent and the English trading Company. Even Hyder Ali and Sultan Tipu (both Moroccans), had the full support of the French and even other Europeans in their endeavour to try to crush the English Company.

However, each one of these endeavours failed. And with each failure, the Company was forced to take up the administration of more and more locations.

What created the terrible animosity for England among the Frenchmen was that the Englishmen and women lived in a planar language ambience, while the French lived in some kind of a feudal language social system. What was most confounding was that formally both the nations have similar statutory social design. Both had the common people as well as the lords and ladies and the monarchy. Yet, the French common man had a terrible time, while the English common man was not living in a crushed social ambience.

France and other Continental European nations conspired and seduced the idiot George Washington and others to revolt against their own king and kingdom. And yet, they could not form a Continental European nation in the USA location. What came out ultimately was still an English nation. The French soldiers, after seeing the English soldier at close quarters, had the same mental emotion, which the current-day Indian soldiers who see the English soldiers at close quarters, had. They could not bear their officers and their degraded status. They inspired a revolution in France. Their king, who had also asked for an attack on English trade centres, had his head cut off by his own countrymen.

QUOTE: On the 20th the factors heard with dismay of the activity of their quondam friend Labourdonnais on the Coromandel Coast. On the 24th the French at Mahe began to make warlike preparations, giving out they would soon be saying mass in Tellicherry as their fleet was expected in October. END OF QUOTE

Even though the French are of white-skin colour, they are actually like the natives of the South Asian Subcontinent, innately. This is due to their language having some kind of feudal content. However, long years of proximity to England would have added to their stature. It is like an individual from India living in England. Within a few years, he would start having English features. However, in the case of the French, they still remained embedded in their own language.

Image

QUOTE: Nor was the foresight thus displayed long in being justified, for, notwithstanding the indecisive naval action off Point Calimere, in which Labourdonnais was wounded, that indefatigable officer with his customary promptitude and decision brought matters speedily to a crisis by capturing Port St. George at Madras. END OF QUOTE.

Individual calibre has no meaning in a feudal language system. In fact, it is a negative attribute. Other would get disturbed. Labourdonnais also faced the same fate that befell Albuquerque.

See this QUOTE:
The French fleet had gone ; the factors knew not whither. They heard it was at Goa and awaiting Labourdonnais’ return from the islands with another squadron. They were still in daily dread of being besieged. It was with no little satisfaction therefore that, about July 1747, they received the welcome news that the dreaded Labourdonnais had been sent an unhappy prisoner to France.
END OF QUOTE.

The French were winning. At that very moment, he is derailed by his own countrymen.

However, there was a similar thing that was in the fate of Robert Clive also. That is a different issue. I will take it up here.

When Robert Clive went back home after setting up the foundation of a nation in the subcontinent, many of the people in England were deeply perturbed. For, Clive had lived on the top of the verbal codes in the subcontinent. It will automatically induce a royal attitude in him. This is a natural effect of the feudal languages of the subcontinent.

When the native-English in England see this physical and mental demeanour at close quarters, they will naturally get a creepy feeling. English effect had done a positive personality enhancement for the people of the subcontinent. At the same time, the effect of the feudal languages of the subcontinent had induced a negativity in the interior codes of the native-Englishmen who had lived and worked in the subcontinent.

QUOTE: The Prince Regent intervened in their (that of the French) favour, and arranged that if Mattalye fort were restored to them they would evacuate Nilesvaram and some other small places, and the Prince Regent in return for his services was to have his bond for Rs. 60,000, advanced to him in the war with the Tellicherry factors, returned to him and cancelled. Moreover the Prince Regent guaranteed on oath that the French would perform their part of the contract and surrender Nilesvaram and the other places.
END OF QUOTE

QUOTE: The French fired a salute of 15 guns at Mahe on being repossessed, on 22nd July 1756, of Mattalye ; but they deliberately broke their promises of evacuating Nilesvaram and other places and of returning the Prince Regent's bond to him. END OF QUOTE

What really always made the England side always win the last crucial battle was their reputation of being honest and committed to their word. There have been at least one incident which is oft-quoted to mentioned that the English side did not keep their word. However, that was a word extracted in a sort of blackmail.

QUOTE: they were led on by fifty of the French Hussars lately arrived from Pondicherry. END OF QUOTE.

That was about the French support to Hyder Ali. After all, France was also a great fighter for ‘Indian freedom’. For, if Hyder Ali and Sultan Tipu had fought for the freedom of ‘India’, then the French also had done their part!

QUOTE: 1. On the 1st of February war was declared by the French Republic against England and Holland, and for the third time in its history the French settlement at Mahe had to open its gates to a hostile English force under Colonel Hurtley on the 16th July 1793. The garrison, after surrendering, was allowed to march out with all the honours of war.

2. Chimbrah and Fort St. George were handed over next morning under a salute of 21 guns, and the British colours were flying in Mahe itself at 6 p.m. on the evening of the 20th. The garrison marched out with the honours of war, but all arms, stores, etc., were surrendered, and the forts, etc., were placed at the disposal of the Honourable Company
END OF QUOTE

This allowing the surrendered side to march out in dignity or sit down in a chair in dignity is something quite alien to the feudal language military codes of the subcontinent. No deal or agreement made as terms of surrender are honoured by the winning side. The moment the other side lays down their arms, the lowest of the soldiery of the winning side will batter up everyone on the other side, be it their leader, their officers or their women folk.

Image

I think this is more or less what happened with Mr. Prabhakaran, the Tamil leader in North Ceylon surrendered. In the case of current-day India also, as the Indian army slowly distances itself from the English-led British-Indian army’s disposition, the ancient semi-barbarian attitude is come back to the fore.

I am told that when the Indian navy captured the Somali Pirates, they were literally tied up like animals. This attitude cannot be blamed. For, the location is Asia and Africa, where the antique mood is slightly or formidably wild. It is more or less a wild animal-to-animal confrontation. The words and languages have carnivorous quality.

See this QUOTE: A large body (300) of the enemy, after giving up their arms and while proceeding to Cannanore, were barbarously massacred by the Nayars END OF QUOTE. These kinds of incidences stand testimony to the above contentions.


Image
Last edited by VED on Fri Feb 16, 2024 1:10 pm, edited 3 times in total.
VED
Posts: 4696
Joined: Wed Aug 23, 2023 7:32 am
Contact:

35. The ENGLISH

Post posted by VED »

35 #

QUOTE: But it very soon transpired that all that the Zamorin wanted was to get assistance against the Portuguese for the conquest of Cranganore and Cochin, and when the English ships left without assisting him, very scant courtesy was shown to the ten persons left behind, who were to have founded a factory at Calicut END OF QUOTE

The fact of the matter was that there was a general feeling among the various small-time rulers and those who mutinied against them, that a new set of mutually competing mercenaries had arrived from Continental Europe. However, when it came to connecting to the English, they were found to be of a very different mettle. First of all, they were not from Continental Europe. Second, their native language was planar. In every aspect they stood apart from the Continental Europeans, other than in their skin colour. However, on the English side, there were the Celtic language speakers also. Those who remained loyal to their Celtic tongue remained a chink in the English armour. Even William Logan was from this Celtic language group. Possibly Gaelic. However, it is not known as to how much he remained at home in this language.

QUOTE: From a very early period in its history the English Company had set its face against martial enterprises. END OF QUOTE

This is a very important information, which is totally ignored by formal historians. The English Company did not go develop a policy of belligerence.

QUOTE: So far indeed did the English Company carry this policy that they even forbade at times an appeal to arms by the factors for their own defence ; and the annoyances experienced in consequence of this were occasionally almost intolerable. But the strength of the Company lay in the admirable arrangements whereby they encouraged trade at their fortified settlements. END OF QUOTE

As a policy inside a semi-barbarian land which functioned on feudal languages, a soft approach was a very vulnerable one. For, in this language system, there is no premium value attached to politeness and good manners. For rude, cantankerous and ill-mannered behaviour was considered as of high social value. The pejorative forms of all words for You, He, She &c. were used to those who were seen as weak or polite. In fact, politeness itself was seen as weakness.

QUOTE: They established manufactures ; they attracted spinners and weavers and wealthy men to settle in their limits ; the settlers were liberally treated and their religious prejudices were tolerated ; the privacy of houses were respected by all classes and creeds; settlers were allowed to burn their dead and to observe their peculiar wedding ceremonies ; no compulsory efforts were made to spread Christianity, nor were the settlers set to uncongenial tasks ; shipping facilities were afforded ; armed vessels protected the shipping ; all manufactured goods were at first exempted from payment of duty ; the Company coined their own money ; and courts of justice were established ; security for life and property in short reigned within their limits END OF QUOTE

The above words more or less denote what was some of the major differences that the English Company had from the others who were seen as from the same genre. But then the greatest of difference was that the English language was planar.

Image

QUOTE: for the factors had perforce to study native character and to adapt themselves to it ; and in doing this they were unconsciously fitting themselves to become the future rulers of the empire. END OF QUOTE.

There is great foolishness in the above statement. And it is historically inaccurate. The English Company, to a great extent, did not compromise its standards to make it in sync with the local native character and systems. The native systems were connected to feudal languages, which view the whole social system in a hierarchical design. The native character was treachery, back-stabbing, rudeness, cheating, breaking of words etc. to those who were defined as lower in the verbal codes of the feudal languages.

The English Company took a most opposite standards in everything. In fact, as the Company became more established as a sovereign power in a major part of the subcontinent, it strove to make English the language of commerce, administration and education. The greatness of this attitude was that it naturally and spontaneously aims for the erasing of the rudeness in the native social cultures. These are things that formal historians miss out altogether.

QUOTE: Louis XIV had to publish an edict telling his courtiers it was not derogatory for a man of noble birth to trade to India. Men who had thus to be reminded of what "was or was not fitting to their position were not the men to push French interests successfully, and the English Company’s servants soon saw that the French men were poor men of business and not likely to prove successful rivals in trade. END OF QUOTE

There is a great information in the above statement. It first of all gives an evidence that the French language was feudal. This is a great hindrance to the higher classes to interact with the lower classes. For, it would make them vulnerable to the insidious degrading the lower classes would force upon them.

However, in the case of the English also, the nobility would have some slight issues. But then, there is only one single You, Your, Yours, He, His, Him, She, Her, Hers etc. in English. So at this level of functioning there would be not much of a traumatic problem.

But then, when dealing with the natives of the South Asian subcontinent, the French would become more conscious of these issues than would the English. However, the Celtic persons in the English Company would be conscious of this. However, since the English Company was in supreme command of the subcontinent, they would exist as the personnel of the ‘honourable’ Company. So the chance of being attacked by the lower indicant words would be negligible.

However, there is a wider perspective to be mentioned. When the people from the subcontinent arrive inside England, they would set up an attack on the native-English system by using these very evil codes. They would splinter up the social system and all relationships by these verbal codes. Actually just looking into the eyes of a person who has degraded him or her by verbal codes can create terrible mutations inside the codes of human body and personality designs. [Check my books: 1. Codes of reality; What is language? 2. Software codes of mantra, tantra, witchcraft, black magic, evil eye, evil tongue &c.].

Actually even a minor conversation with a feudal language speaker who does not concede the adequate forms of verbal ‘respect’ can be a degrading experience. England currently has no information on these things. Instead of taking very concrete steps to push out these extremely dangerous language-speaking populations from their land, they are made to reel under the accusations of being ‘racist’.

QUOTE: The English system of sending factors to various points on the coast to test the value of the trade at those places seems to have enabled the Company to decide where it would be best for their interests to plant factories for the defence of the trade END OF QUOTE

No Comment.

QUOTE: the presence of the English in Travancore was gradually leading to a revolution in that State. END OF QUOTE

The truth is that wherever the native-English system was experienced in feudal language social systems, great social changes and reformation would spring forth. However, if this change is set-off without an entry of the English language, it would be a most painful experience for the higher classes. For, the rude lower classes would become overbearing and snubbing towards them. In fact, the higher classes would find it difficult to come out of their houses, once the lower classes are allowed the freedom to move anywhere they wanted. It would be like the Indian soldier and his family and relatives being allowed entry into the exclusive areas of the Indian army officers. And the right and freedom to address them in the pejorative word forms. That is, words such as Thoo / Nee, Avan/ Aval/ Uss etc. all of which are the lowest of the word forms for the words You, He, She &c.

QUOTE: It would be out of place here to set forth the grounds of quarrel between the rival East India Companies, but in passing it requires to be noted that, English interests suffered severely in consequence of the disputes, whereby piracy was encouraged. The Mogul made the Surat factors pay heavy damages, and even went the length of ordering the factories to be destroyed. END OF QUOTE.

There is indeed a very saying in the Malayalam language that says thus: ‘If you cannot catch the person who actually robbed, then make the person who you could catch, the robber.’ [കട്ടവനെ കിട്ടിയില്ലെങ്കിൽ, കിട്ടിയവനെ കള്ളനാക്കുക.]

The northern parts of the subcontinent were in the hands of the mogul kings for quite some time. They, as in the case of all others, simply ‘ruled’ the land. It is doubtful if any people quality enhancement programme was done by them other than enslaving many of them for labouring on their grandiose architectural agenda, including the Taj Mahal.

Image

The other point worth mentioning here is that there were a few English companies doing trading activities inside the subcontinent. They were naturally on business rivalry. However, it is a testimony of the quality of the English land that all these mutual rivalries could be brought to a halt. See this QUOTE:

It took a year or two more, however, to adjust all their differences ; and it was not till September 29, 1708, that the Earl of Godolphin, Lord High Treasurer of England, who had been appointed arbiter in the disputes, made his famous award, and from that date the style of the association was altered to that of “The United Company of Merchants of England trading to the East Indies.”
END OF QUOTE

QUOTE: And, it is said, that one of the rival Kolattiri princes of the Udayamangalam branch, in combination with the neighbouring Nayar chieftain of Iruvalinad, the Kurangoth Nayar, entered the Company’s warehouse one day about 1704-05 and committed certain regularities, which were duly reported to the Northern Regent, and it was at the same time pointed out to him that such events would recur unless the place were fortified. END OF QUOTE.

This could be a major turning point in the history of English colonialism in Malabar. There was no policing mechanism, no security and no courts of justice in the semi-barbarian land.

QUOTE: Jealousies between the Kolattiri chiefs had probably more to do with it than the reasons assigned by Hamilton. END OF QUOTE.

It would be quite well to mention that Hamilton literally did not understand anything. All human logic was controlled by the various trigger switches inside the native feudal-languages. And yet, there is nothing to denote that he did even sense that there is anything amiss in the language codes.

QUOTE: It appears they (English Company) also had the privilege of protecting debtors who took refuge in their Calicut factory, to the disadvantage occasionally of interlopers like Hamilton. END OF QUOTE.

No Comment.

QUOTE: early Tellicherry records show that the Company took great exception to the loans which Mr. Adams had made out of their money to the Zamorin, the Punnattur Raja, the Prince Regent of the Kolattiri dominions and others END OF QUOTE.

The native kingdoms did actually parasite on the English trading company for quite some time.

QUOTE: In April 1721 the Anjengo factors were applied to for their usual annual present due to the Rani of Attingal, of the Travancore family. “Those who demanded it assured him (the Chief of the Factory) that they came to demand it by the Queen’s order, and offered their Receit of it in her Name.”

The chief appears to have had reason to expect that if the present were sent it would never reach Her Highness as the Ettuvittil Pillamar were just then in the ascendant, so he refused to pay it into any hands but those of the Rani. On this the Rani invited him to bring it to Attingal himself.

“And he to appear great there, carried two of his Council, and some others of the Factory with most Part off the Military belonging to the Garrison, and by Stratagem they were all cut off, except a few black Servants whose heels and language saved them from the Massacre, and they brought the sad news of the tragedy.”
END OF QUOTE

This was actually the handiwork of the Nayars and other higher castes in Travancore. They had to deal with a new terror that was been set loose in Travancore. The lower castes were seeing the English ways and manners of dealing with them, and were slowly escaping from their age-old shackles. Naturally the lower castes would be very, very rude and ill-mannered in all ways, including words, actions, posture, eye language &c.

It is a very funny situation in Travancore, that recently some persons have made a demand that this barbarian action of killing the Englishmen should be declared as the first fight for ‘Indian’ freedom. What a lot of nonsense! Travancore was not even part of British-India. And to support cunning barbarians!

Image

The second part of the issue is this: ‘he to appear great there’. It is obviously the words of the interloper Hamilton. The fact is that in the subcontinent, everyone takes someone as an attendant to introduce him or her with a higher indicant value. However, neither this interloper nor the English side really understood what is supposed to happen with the presence of supporters. However, someone must have advised them to use this technique without carefully explaining what the supporters are supposed to do.

QUOTE: Secondly, of the English Company’s resolution in 1723 to “subject the country to the king” and so facilitate their trade ; END OF QUOTE.

There is an information in the above sentence. The English Company did face a terrible issue in the subcontinent. In almost all locations, there was no great law and order. In Travancore, the king was powerless to control the various Madampis (landlords) and other powerful people who had money and social status. The English Company decided to support the king and to help him crush all kinds of lawlessness. This policy led to the creation of an enduring kingdom of Travancore, with King Marthanda Varma more or less setting up the foundations of modern Travancore.

If the English Company had not supported him, Travancore would have remained as one of the many small-time kingdoms in the locations, same as Kayamkulam, Attingal, Quilon, Ambalapuzha, Kottayam, Chengannur, Changanacherry &c.

The creation of one single kingdom help the English Company to do their trade with more ease as they had to negotiate with only one entity, instead of a lot many others. However, it must be remembered here that Travancore was not Malabar. It was a different kingdom in the far south, approachable conveniently by sea.

QUOTE: The Kottayam Raja shortly after this gave in his adhesion to the Chief’s project. But jealousies were rife and the others all held aloof. The French too had professed their willingness to strike in, but when the Chief visited Mahe on 31st March to arrange the matter, the French, much to the disgust of the country powers, backed out of it. The negotiations for a combination did not make much progress under such circumstances. END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE:
the Chief set himself to the still more difficult task of trying to form a combination of the petty country chieftains against the Canarese.
END OF QUOTE

It was not easy at all to unite the small-time kingdoms of the subcontinent. Each one of them were insecure about the others’ intentions. Moreover, each relationship of others were viewed with envy and terror.

As to the French, they had the history of going back on their word. That is mainly due to the fact that their language had feudal features. So, they could very easily get emotionally distracted when the indicant word-levels shifted.

See these words of King Marthanda Varma about his opinion of the French QUOTE from Travancore State Manual:

QUOTE: In the next year the Rajah of Travancore wrote to the King of Colastria ‘advising him not to put any confidence in the French, but to assist the English as much as he could’. END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE: 6 soldiers and 1 sepoy were killed, 13 soldiers and 12 sepoys were wounded END OF QUOTE.

Here an item which the modern Indian patriot would find as ‘racist’ would be there. It is ‘racism’ which the sepoys of the English Company did not feel. However the modern India who has improved much beyond the wildest dreams of this people of yore of this subcontinent will find the word ‘Sepoy’ totally unwelcome. For, the English or British soldiers are mentioned as soldiers, while the natives of the subcontinent soldiers are mentioned as Shipai.

Actually the problem is not in the word Shipai, but in what the Shipai represents. If the English soldiers of those time are mentioned as Shipais, and the subcontinent soldiers of those times are mentioned as Soldiers, the word Shipai would have more stature. And the word ‘soldier’ would have been seen as a ‘pejorative’ now.

QUOTE: 1st January 1738 the Chief received a peremptory order from him to proceed forthwith to the camp to talk of important matters, whereupon the diary records the following remarks : “The Board naturally remark the haughtiness of the precited Ragonatt and how base is his disposition. END OF QUOTE.

Ragonatt is the new Canarese Governor Mangalore. There is an information in the above statement which might escape the notice of the native-English. It is the word ‘haughtiness’. What is this ‘haughtiness’? Well, the new native-land Governor would see himself as a high official and the English Company as a team of employees of a merchant group of England. His addressing will most probably be with the ‘Nee’ word. That is the lowest You in the native languages here. In fact, this local tradition has been enduring in the nation, when the English administrative systems fell into disuse with the creation of a very people-degrading nation called India.

The officialdom and the police generally use the lowest indicant words for the common people, and the small-time traders. For them, the people are the Nee, Avan, Avan &c. In the low-quality language of Hindi, the common man is the Thoo and the Uss. The common man is trained to bear this degrading by the vernacular schools, where they are invariable addressed and referred to by these lower grade words. At the same time, the officials and the teachers are to be consistently addressed and referred to with the highest of the verbal codes.

The wider issue is that these kind of dangerous verbal codes are being exported to native-English nations as of now. The native-English populations have no information on what is entering into the vital locations.

QUOTE: 4th January the deputation returned and reported that the Canarese wished the Company to remain neutral in the war about to be commenced against “the Mallabars”. END OF QUOTE.

It was by now an established fact that the English Company was a sort of protective force for the small-time kingdoms, which had been incessantly in a state of warfare from times immemorial.

Image

QUOTE: In October 1738 the Prince Regent appears to have been so far pressed that he actually delivered Rs. 30,000 to the factors to prosecute the war, and the agreement come to with the factors at this juncture “to make war against the insolence of Canara” and “to drive out Canara” is still on record END OF QUOTE.

The small-time kingdom has not a bit of chance to withstand the might of larger armies, which literally came on a pillaging and plunder agenda.

QUOTE: To keep down the price of pepper “which rises daily” the merchants of the respective factories were not to be permitted to monopolise the product and the factors were to consult how to keep it down. END OF QUOTE.

Even though the English Company did give much freedom of trade to the native-traders, the native-traders were quite cunning. They could speak among themselves and plan things which could not be understood by the English Company officials.

QUOTE: “The intent of the above ola is to give the Honourable Company authority over the Achanmars as also, to interpose with the prince if he should oppress them by extravagant taxes, which has heretofore happened.”

But the temples had not been taken into account in the bond, and it became necessary to include them formally. This did not, however, work well, and the Brahmans appear to have been jealous of English interference in their affairs.
END OF QUOTE.

Even when the English Company acted in the best interest of everyone, the issue was that the population was not one group. It was a hierarchical layers of populations. Each layer had it own selfish interests to see that certain other layers do not gather any benefit.

QUOTE: On March 23rd, 1765, after a period of disturbance during which the management of the district was conducted by the Kolattiri, the Prince Regent finally ceded the protection of Randattara to the Honourable Company, and from that year the Honourable Company became the virtual sovereigns of that district and began to levy a regular land revenue from it. END OF QUOTE.

Even though shallow-minded jingoists can always say that this was how the nation was slowly taken up by the English Company, the truth was not fully that. The English Company had honourable intentions which cannot be understood from a native feudal-language perspective.

The basic issue is that all entrepreneurship in feudal-languages do have a factor that is not know in English. That is all businessmen aim at gathering a lot of subordinates who they can address as Nee or Thoo. This is a very powerful gathering of social leadership. It affects everything about everyone concerned. There is even an affect of words acting as aphrodisiacs, when such words can be hammered on the subordinates and they in turn are forced to mention deeply reverential words back.

The English Company did not have any such intentions of suppression or oppression or even gathering reverences other than what was necessary to function in a land which runs on the terrible codes of feudal languages.

However, in the above case there was another reason that the Company took up the administration of the location. See the Quote below:

QUOTE: Hyder’s impending invasion of Malabar at this latter time also weighed with the factors in accepting this charge. Hyder at first respected the Honourable Company’s rights in the district. END OF QUOTE

It was not very easy to unite the various small-time petty kingdoms, whose rulers were all very easily affected and perturbed by minutes variations in the verbal codes. A very minute sound difference in the native language words would set them on a very dangerous homicidal frenzy.

QUOTE: The French at Mahe enlisted 1,500 Mappillas, and the Mudaliyar (chief man) of the Valarpattanam Mappillas joined the English. END OF QUOTE.

In the earlier days, locations which are now seen as quite small were great distances. The same caste or religious groups would be seen to be supporting mutually antagonistic sides in different locations. Such was the state of even minute Malabar. Then imagine the complexity of the whole subcontinent.

QUOTE: In August and September 1748 matters came to a crisis by the Prince Regent “laying an impediment” on one of the Company’s merchants, on mulcting him heavily. On being remonstrated with for this and other similar behaviour, he strenuously asserted his right to take the half of every man’s property, and the whole of it if he committed a fault. END OF QUOTE.

Actually the attitude of the various small-time rulers was quite similar to the small-time officials of current-day India, such as the peons and the clerks in the government service. However, in recent times, even some of the higher officials also are similar to the peons and the clerks. This is due to the fact that as of now, all government officials learn the same indoctrinated stuff and as such there is not much difference intellectually between a peon and an ‘officer’ in the government service.

QUOTE: In November 1748 he had, it seems, portioned out his country to certain headmen in order that they might plunder his subjects, and the Commandant at Madakkara reported that soon the country would be ruined END OF QUOTE.

This is the typical callousness of the person in power in current-day India. However, this trait is what has been inherited from olden days, it is seen here.

QUOTE: He was present at an affecting interview with a very old and bed-ridden lady, described as the prince’s mother ; she expressed her satisfaction on being informed that everything had been amicably accommodated, and enjoined her son as her last parental counsel and advice never to give umbrage to the Chiefs of Tellicherry, who had protected the Palli branch of their family in its utmost distress. END OF QUOTE.

It is very, very curious that almost the very same command was give by Raja Marthanda Varma of Travancore kingdom as his last words from his deathbed to the heir to the throne.

See this QUOTE from Travancore State Manual:
Marthanda Varma’s words: “That, above all, the friendship existing between the English East India Company and Travancore should be maintained at any risk, and that full confidence should always be placed in the support and aid of that honourable association.” [/i]END OF QUOTE.

QUOTE: The Chief was warned from the Presidency not to allow the Company to be dragged in as principals in any of the country quarrels, but he blindly took the steps best calculated to bring this about END OF QUOTE.

There were at times, senior officials in the English Company who did really understand realities of the social system. It was best to keep a distance and a detachment from social systems which cannot be understood in English. This is the reality now also, as native-English nations have entered into belligerences inside low-quality nations, wherein such things are part of the local social psyche. And the English nations have ended up as the principals in the fights. What a foolish situation!

Image


Image

QUOTE: On 21st October Tirimalla, another outpost on the Tellicherry limits was taken by surprise, and (it was alleged) treachery. The garrison resisted, bravely headed by their corporal, but being taken unawares, they had not time to fix their bayonets and were all slain and their bodies placed on the chevaux de frise. Ponolla Malla was also hotly attacked. A panic ensued among the inhabitants, who all flocked into the limits commanded by the Tellicherry fort. END OF QUOTE.

It was very carefully understood that some kind of security of life and person was available in a location which was administered by the native-English. In all other locations, there is no guarantee as to how the leaders would react or behave at the very next moment.

QUOTE: Next day came the crisis, and it fortunately took a favourable turn, for Captain Cameron, in command at Mailan fort, succeeded in destroying the opposing battery on Putinha hill, END OF QUOTE.

Even though these kinds of English victories were increasingly natural and more numerous, it was not always due to any English ingenuity that the English side invariably won the critical battle. It was more to the dissipation that would set inside the opposite side due to issues connected to ‘respect’, both in the verbal form as well as in the physical posture form. These minute codes would go on terrorising many persons into a state of mental disarray.

QUOTE: And finally the Tellicherry linguist (Pedro Rodrigues) and his family were not to be employed in any transactions between the parties END OF QUOTE.

This dependence on a translator was a terrible thing that the English-side always faced all over the world. In fact, the translator could literally decide on which side the native-English lent support. They could manage and mismanage any situation as per their own internal animosities, repulsions and partialities.

However, there is the other side to this. When a native-Englishman gets to learn the barbarian languages of the subcontinent, he will be invariably affected to some extent by the varying ‘respect’ versus degrading codes inside the language.

QUOTE: The records for some time after this are full of the charges brought against, the Company’s linguist, Pedro Rodrigues. Mr. Dorril and the factors endeavoured to make a scapegoat of him, but although he fled to Mahe and the factors gave out that, his property was going to be seized, no serious steps were really taken against him, and on 16th September 1752 the Bombay President and Council sent orders forbidding the seizure of his effects, “this family having been so remarkably distinguished by the Honourable Company.” And the despatch continued : “We peremptorily order you not to do it.” END OF QUOTE.

In the above case, it does appear that the local Company officials at Tellicherry were in the error. However the above statement is illustrative of how the Company administration was controlled from Bombay. It had its good points.

QUOTE: At this interview it is noted that Messrs. Johnson and Taylor, from the progress they had made in “Mallabars,” were able to understand the Prince without the aid of an interpreter, so that the linguist, Pedro Rodrigues, had not to be called in. A very important step had consequently been taken towards freeing the Chief from underhand intrigues of the linguist. END OF QUOTE.

Even though the capacity to understand and speak the native feudal language is mentioned here as a great positive step, it had its own negativities. For one, the Company officials would slowly change into the people whose language they speak. It is always better to keep a corridor or wall between a feudal language and planar English.

QUOTE: This was followed up on 8th February 1758 by a formal examination, the first of its kind no doubt ever held in Malabar, conducted by the Chief in person, in which Messrs. Johnson, Taylor, and Samuel Crocs were tested as to their proficiency “in Mallabars." END OF QUOTE.

The hidden dangers in this action are not easy to explain. It is like installing a virus program into a nicely running computer. Feudal languages are virus programs when attached to Pristine-English. And vice versa.

QUOTE: For on 19th August 1757 the diary records that “Cotiote (Kottayam) demised of a bile in his arm” and of course the agreement with him became mere waste paper unless ratified by his successor. END OF QUOTE.

This was the state of the location. There was nothing to enforce an agreement. Even the concept of word of honour does not work, when the other side goes down in social stature. No word of honour or commitment is honoured by the higher stature group, when it is seen that it is towards an entity that has no ‘respect’ or honour in the social system. Only the native-English side viewed the various levels of populations as human beings with equal rights to dignity.

QUOTE: The Chief even found time to devote to such petty matters as the “cloathing of our irregulars.” The sepoys had “scarlet coats faced with green perpets” and a belt “covered with green perpets.” The Calli-Quiloners (Mappillas) had “blue coats faced with green perpets ” and thin bolts like those of the sepoys. The artillery lascars had blue coats faced and bound with red, and no belts. The coats were made to reach just below the knees. END OF QUOTE.

These were minor beginnings that slowly led to the current-day dressing standards of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi armies.

See this QUOTE from the Travancore State Manual:
The visit of His Excellency the Governor gave the Maharajah an opportunity to see the British forces in full parade. He was struck with their dress and drill and made arrangements for the improvement of his own forces after the British model. New accoutrements were ordered and the commanding officer was asked to train the sepoys after the model of the British troops. The dress of the mounted troopers was improved and fresh horses were got down; and the appellation of the “Nayar Brigade” was first given to the Travancore forces. The Tovala stables were removed to Trivandrum and improved. On the advice of the Court of Directors, the European officers of the Nayar Brigade were relieved from attendance at the Hindu religious ceremonies END OF QUOTE.

However, if one were to see current-day patriotic films depicting fake stories connected to the English rule in the subcontinent, it is possible that the old time native land soldiers might be seen in attires which might match that of the Roman soldiers as depicted in Hollywood films!

QUOTE: the Court of Directors’ orders were peremptory and forbade the factors from interfering, except as mediators, in the disputes among the country powers END OF QUOTE

It is too bad that there is no one to give such a sound advice to the current-day administrators of Native-English nations.

QUOTE: After this the Mappilla picked a quarrel with a Nayar and was subsequently shot by the Tiyar guard. His body was “spitted” along with those of the others, and then thrown into the sea, to prevent their caste men from worshipping them as saints for killing Christians. Such outrages became frequent, and on July 9th 1765 the Chief was obliged to issue a stringent order to disarm them within factory limits. END OF QUOTE.

The Mappilla outrages were against the Nayars and higher castes. However the English Company inadvertently got connected due to the fact that they were in charge and committed to enforce law and order.

There are a few curious issues here. The first and the foremost is that the lower castes such as the Cherumar and also castes little bit above them, the Makkathaya Thiyyas of South Malabar received the social freedom to convert to Islam due to the spread of the English rule in the locality.

This more or less improved the stature of these converted persons. These kinds of sudden uplifting of certain individuals will not go easy with the language codes.

Apart from all that, in the very Codes of reality, which more or less stands behind the scenes of both in the worldly life as well as in the human mind and body, there will be drastic changes. These all will spread terror in the higher castes and hatred in the lower castes who had converted to Islam.

The English Company administration more or less stood as naive individuals who really did not understand the provocations in the verbal codes.

QUOTE: The Resident at Tellicherry had in August 1782 submitted to Bombay proposals from Kottayam and Kaddattanud and the Iruvalinad Nambiars to pay annual tribute to the extent of Rs. 1,00,000, Rs. 50,000, and Rs. 25,000, respectively, in “consideration of the countenance and protection” of the Honourable Company END OF QUOTE.

In fact, they wanted protection not only from other enemies, but also from each other. The question of why the English Company became more powerful was due to two powerful reasons. One was that they were functioning in Planar language English. The second was that they were not connected to the various nefarious links in the feudal language social system.

Now, the same issue can be taken up for discussion about business enterprises in England and other native-English nations. How do they fare? Well, the answer is that they are functioning in the wonderful soft social and administrative ambience of native-English nations. Second, among themselves, they would use their native land feudal languages to regiment their own folks and to belittle and degrade the native-English.

When the English Company became powerful in the subcontinent, a lot of social negativities were erased. When the enterprises owned by the feudal language speakers spread inside England, a lot of outlandish negativities would be unloaded into the placid English social systems.

Image

QUOTE: But the Bombay Government were not yet prepared to undertake such responsibilities, and on the 30th September of the same year the Resident was informed that “we do not think it advisable to enter into engagements for taking them (Malabar powers) under our protection." The country powers had fully realised by this time that the traders could fight as well as trade, and were eager to have their protection as tributaries. The empire of India was being forced on the acceptance of a humble company of foreign traders, whose only object was to buy pepper, ginger, cardamoms and piece goods as cheaply as they could. END OF QUOTE.

Now here comes out a most formidable secret. It was the sly aim of the local native small-time kingdoms to force the English Company to take them under its protection. For, it was a foregone conclusion that if the English Company did not take them under its protection as tributaries, they would go back to their innate state of continual warfare, backstabbing, mutual molesting etc.

It is like the crooked nations like Japan, South Korea, Middle-East nations and much else wishing to be under the US military umbrella. They can simply make use of US capabilities to th